CN105248211B - Conjuncted " comb shape " the form culture method of Chinese pear horizontal rack list major branch - Google Patents

Conjuncted " comb shape " the form culture method of Chinese pear horizontal rack list major branch Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN105248211B
CN105248211B CN201410344352.9A CN201410344352A CN105248211B CN 105248211 B CN105248211 B CN 105248211B CN 201410344352 A CN201410344352 A CN 201410344352A CN 105248211 B CN105248211 B CN 105248211B
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
fruit
young sprout
branch
major branch
bud
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
CN201410344352.9A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
CN105248211A (en
Inventor
糜林
霍恒志
万春雁
李钢
陈丙义
陈雪平
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Sciences Jiangsu Hilly Area
Original Assignee
Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Sciences Jiangsu Hilly Area
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Sciences Jiangsu Hilly Area filed Critical Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Sciences Jiangsu Hilly Area
Priority to CN201410344352.9A priority Critical patent/CN105248211B/en
Publication of CN105248211A publication Critical patent/CN105248211A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN105248211B publication Critical patent/CN105248211B/en
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Landscapes

  • Cultivation Of Plants (AREA)

Abstract

Conjuncted " comb shape " the form culture method of Chinese pear horizontal rack list major branch.Belong to pear tree cultural method.It is characterized in that including following cultivation step:1) strain, the reasonable selection of line-spacing;2) field planting of annual grafting;3) culture of conjuncted grafting seedlings;4) horizontal rack is built;5) head and the tail of the fixation of major branch and adjacent tree young sprout intersect under canopy:Under foregoing canopy under the iron wire of 15 20 centimetres of fixed major branches, the young sprout of adjacent tree is set to intersect with young sprout head and the tail;6) the conjuncted grafting of adjacent tree:Between foregoing adjacent tree head and the tail intersecting young sprout and young sprout, the young sprout tip of latter strain tree is done into fringe wood, the young sprout of previous strain tree does base anvil and is abutted against, and the major branch of adjacent tree is connected with major branch horizontal linear shape;7) incubation of result side shoot;8) rationally bear fruit;9) renewal of result side shoot.Show compared with prior art:Technology is simple, easy to spread;Save labor, production labor cost savings more than 30%.

Description

Conjuncted " comb shape " the form culture method of Chinese pear horizontal rack list major branch
Technical field
The invention belongs to pear tree cultural method, more particularly to a kind of conjuncted " comb shape " shaping of Chinese pear horizontal rack list major branch to plant Culture method.
Background technology
Pear tree is one of China's main fruit trees, and pear tree cultivated area, yield rank first in the world.In each planting fruit-trees in China In, pear tree area, yield are only second to apple, citrus, occupy the 3rd.Be on the south the Changjiang river the torrid zone, subtropical zone pears area, Main Cultivation sand Pear varieties;Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau Li Qu also Main Cultivation Chinese pears.Outstanding problem existing for China's pear tree cultivation is that managerial skills are poor, single Produce low, the operatic circle quality is low;Sapling up-growth is weak, too late into high yield period.Japan, South Korea pear tree are more cultivated with shed frame type based on, and The characteristics of management is fine, and this had both adapted to more typhoons, Chinese pear has been complied with again temperature is high, branch is given birth under environmental condition of high humidity Long amount is big, uses shed frame type cultivation to draw the characteristics of branch is to control Shoot growth in time.Shed frame type cultivates more important point Pear tree can be made to form plane result, substantially improve the illumination condition of plant, solved due to caused by more overcast and rainy, illumination deficiencies Low quality problem.
The pear tree cultivation of China's prior art is all traditionally that tree body is tall and big liftoff to be reached to evacuate based on layering shape shaping 2.5-3 rice, it is not easy to operation, extensive management;Experienced in production only focus on yield ignore quality to emphasis yield slightly take into account product Since the epoch of matter, the particularly nineties in last century, with international, domestic trade competition, everybody is just deep to realize Arrive, it is only high-quality under the premise of yield be only the effective way for realizing modern agriculture with high efficiency.Therefore, many research institutions one after another will The traditional arbor cultivation of pears is changed to domestically leading horizontal posture cultivation, and this planting type effectively can prevent typhoon from endangering, side Just tree body operation, and lured by frame face iron wire and draw branch, growing for branch is controlled, promotes the growth of tree vigo(u)r balance coordination, really Protect each position nutrient of plant, moisture and by optical condition uniformity.It is excellent with reference to the big hat of thin planting, thin flower bud, flower thinning, fruit thinning, bagging etc. Matter fruit production technology, the size and inherence, exterior quality uniformity of fruit are realized, give full play to the high-quality and efficient latent of new varieties Power, it is really achieved the purpose of standardized production.
Though the pear tree horizontal rack cultivation of prior art has downgraded tree crown than the cultivation of traditional arbor, operation is facilitated, is improved Fruit quality, but the pear tree for changing vertical growth habit is horizontal rack cultivation, if major branch tip can not take technology Measure is always maintained at its growth vigor, inner canopy will the branch of excessive growth stand in great numbers, directly influence yield and quality, still more every Two secondary scaffold branches are also equipped with major branch, i.e., more major branch shaping methods, successfully need to spend 8-10 from field planting to tree-like cultivate Time, for the peasant for lacking cultivation of fruit tree basic theory, it is difficult to grasp these technologies and implement it in place.
As can be seen here, how innovation one kind simplifies complex technology, allows the peasant of low culture quality easily to connect By and it is easy to spread, be both operation simplicity save labor, cost decline and shorten into garden operation period pear tree horizontal rack plant New method is trained, is the institute for the key technology that can pear tree horizontal rack cultivation scale further expand and improve scale planting benefit .
The content of the invention
The invention aims to overcome above-mentioned deficiency of the prior art, there is provided it is a kind of it is easy to spread, be both operation Simplicity, which saves labor, cost declines and shortens into conjuncted " comb shape " shaping of Chinese pear horizontal rack list major branch of garden operation period plants Culture method.
The object of the present invention is achieved like this:A kind of conjuncted " comb shape " form culture side of Chinese pear horizontal rack list major branch Method, it is characterized in that including following cultivation step:
1), strain, the reasonable selection of line-spacing:Selected as the case may be in 1.5 meters -2 meters of spacing in the rows, 3 meters -3.5 meters of line-spacing;It is long The weak kind of gesture, in the region of soil property difference, spacing in the rows control is at 1.5 meters, the prosperous kind of growing way, in the region of fertile soil, spacing in the rows Control is at 2 meters, and flatly building well row is to selecting the direction vertical with work road;The gradient less than 5 degree of gentle slope building well is capable to choosing Draining is selected easily along slope direction;The gradient is more than 5 degree of steep hillslope building well, goes to the selection direction parallel with contour;Line-spacing At 3 meters -3.5 meters, spacing in the rows is controlled at 1.5 meters -2 meters for control;
2), the field planting of annual grafting:The annual grafting of growth selection stalwartness no disease and pests harm, is colonized and is filled in soil Divide on the ridge face for improveing and using sufficient organic fertilizer, the field that draining is good, level of ground water is low can level ridges field planting;Impeded drainage, underground The method that the high field of water level must use lift ridge, makes effective soil layer be higher by more than 60 centimetres of level of ground water, can be colonized;
3), the culture of conjuncted grafting seedlings:After the field planting of annual grafting below 1.2 meters of height, branch enrich and There is cutting back at full bud, promote to sprout vigorous young sprout, one 4 meters of long bodies of rod are inserted against grafting, it is first that grafting is vertical It is strapped on the body of rod, seedling top choosing all one's life long strong young sprout, with the continuous elongation of young sprout, is pricked together every 30 centimetres of colligations Rope, makes young sprout quickly grow up straight, and remaining young sprout sprouted in seedling stem stays 3-5 leaf pinching, while in the young sprout in 5-8 months The elongation phase, strengthen rich water quality management, it is ensured that the total height to September part seedling averagely reaches more than 3.3 meters;
4), horizontal rack is built:Make vertical support with concrete column, iron wire work level is to connecting into concrete column upper end Frame, latticed horizontal rack is built into, for the area control of horizontal rack in 3333m2-6667m2, frame face is highly 1.8m; Regular rectangle orchard, corner post is set up at four angles, line-spacing center is corresponded in perimeter line a side column is set every 3 meters, The side column of corresponding sides tightens up connection with iron wire, forms the grid main line of level frame, side column is to bracing wire, i.e., the crosspoint that main line is formed On supported with fore-set, 3 meters × 3 meters of big grid is pulled into by main line, on sideline be spaced 0.3-0.5 rice encrypted with iron wire, shape Into the small grid of 0.3-0.5 rice;When slope land builds frame, also column cap and suspension column are tensed with iron wire at slope top 1/3 Reinforce;Corresponding row to both ends side column, connection is tightened up with iron wire for 15-20 centimetres under canopy, as fixation major branch;
5), the head and the tail of the fixation of major branch and adjacent tree young sprout intersect under canopy:The flat garden of physical features, cultivates successful seedlings, The tip of a branch is unified towards row under foregoing canopy under the iron wire of 15-20 centimetres of fixed major branch, seedling stem is taken advantage of a situation young sprout level after bending Bondage is intersected with young sprout head and the tail on iron wire, making the young sprout of adjacent tree;Acclive mountain region garden, cultivates successful seedlings, the tip Head is unified towards upward slope direction, and under the iron wire of fixed major branch, seedling stem is taken advantage of a situation young sprout bondage to iron after bending along upward slope direction On silk, the young sprout of adjacent tree is set to intersect with young sprout head and the tail;
6), the conjuncted grafting of adjacent tree:Between foregoing adjacent tree head and the tail intersecting young sprout and young sprout, by latter strain tree Young sprout tip does fringe wood, and the young sprout of previous strain tree does base anvil, and the iron wire position that fixed major branch is mutually sent in young sprout bending is leaned on Connect, the major branch of adjacent tree is connected with major branch horizontal linear shape;
7), the incubation of result side shoot:After major branch and the conjuncted grafting of major branch horizontal linear shape, the top for eliminating major branch is excellent Gesture, the bud allowed on major branch are fitly largely sprouted, the easy excessive growth of young sprout that bud is sprouted on the back bud of major branch and side, in May Stay 3-5 leaf pinching to control its growth, promote major branch both sides horizontal lateral bud and side under bud sprout, the young sprout of sprouting grows to late June When, lured and guided to horizontal sextant angle in 30 degree perpendicular to major branch using the iron wire on frame face, promoted bud differentiation, be bred as annual Long fruit branch;Kind based on annual growth fruit branch result, 30-40 centimetres of major branch homonymy interval one root knot fruit branch result of outfit, Prune overstocked fruitful branch off, pay attention to staying a bit of stake or basal bud to send out again with profit when pruning off;, can during fruitful branch density deficiency Sprouted using the fruit spur of major branch both sides into branch, after long fruit branch result, the side shoot for giving birth to a large amount of fruit spurs can be formed then, second Just with long fruit branch, fruit spur common results after year;Kind based on fruit spur result, major branch homonymy are also interval 30-40 Centimetre be equipped with a young sprout, then winter cut off young sprout tip 1/3-1/4, Second Year, on the branch of biennial part will Fruit spur is born, the 3rd year just can result;
8), rationally bear fruit:Axillary bud fruitful branch, the bud of most tip and most base portion remove, centre position flower per 2.5-3 Bud stays 1 fruit, and fruit interval will reach more than 10 centimetres, fruit tongue with horizontal side or slightly obliquely stay fruit, pay attention to when staying fruit By fruit beam blade is more, the 3rd or the 4th tagmeme, carpopodium be long from inflorescence base portion number and thick, fruit calyx low-lying area portion rounding, the slightly high shape of waist Fruit leaves;Fruit spur raw side shoot, and 1-2 bud of most tip does not stay fruit, towards the fruit spur of surface and underface not Fruit is stayed, fruit tongue is tiny, necking down bud, Shuangzi bud, and the bud of secondary extension is that bud inferior does not also stay fruit, selects fruit tongue thick Greatly, sprout is full, and fruit spur towards horizontal side or slightly obliquely is born fruit, and each fruit spur only stays a fruit;
9), the renewal of result side shoot:For continuous result 4-5, branch extra coarse crosses more than 3 centimetres, largely forms blind bud Result side shoot, the young sprout sprouted using its base portion is updated, can also be used major branch both sides fruit spur or kryptoblast sprout it is new The tip carries out side shoot renewal.
It is this that young sprout (major branch) tip of latter strain tree is done into fringe wood, the young sprout (major branch) of previous strain tree below frame Base anvil is done, bends close to the iron wire position of fixed major branch and is abutted against in young sprout (major branch), makes adjacent major branch and major branch head and the tail Connect, be connected, look far into the distance as a huge comb, referred to as single conjuncted " comb shape " shaping methods of major branch.
The present invention implements obtained conjuncted " comb shape " the form culture method of Chinese pear horizontal rack list major branch and prior art phase Than, it is shown that following beneficial effect:
Present invention improves over the simple and easy technical requirements of shaping methods and cultivation technique it is not high, peasant is easily mastered, because This is easy to spread;The operations such as the flower thinning in growth period, fruit thinning, bagging, laxative, harvesting are carried out liftoff 1.8 meters of major branch both sides, with To evacuate based on layering shape shaping, tree body is tall and big liftoff to be compared prior art up to 2.5-3 rice, it appears and it is very convenient, it is really achieved Save labor, reduce the effect of management cost, therefore production labor cost savings more than 30% compared with prior art;This hair The bright shaping methods improved weaken the apical dominance of major branch, and major branch both sides are directly equipped with side shoot result, not only early into the garden phase, With prior art from field planting to it is tree-like cultivate successfully need spend the 8-10 years compared with, horizontal rack cultivation ahead of time 4-5 Cheng Yuan, for the expansion of scale of operation and the raising of scale and benefit open new way per capita;And with two major branches of prior art There is pole significant difference with the average pol of the fruit of major branch base portion and compare in shaping major branch elder generation's petiolarea, experiment shows that the present invention's is conjuncted The major branch elder generation petiolarea of ' comb shape ' shaping and the average pol significant difference unobvious of the fruit of major branch base portion, in addition, prior art It is especially few that the major branch elder generation petiolarea unit area of two major branch shapings fruit amount.Experiment shows for many years, the conjuncted " comb of horizontal rack list major branch Shape " shaping, the Chinese pear cultivation technique of complexity is simplified, operating efficiency and early yield is greatly improved, while make fruit Quality reaches the effect of uniformity, and finds no the bad reaction of Growth status.
Embodiment
A kind of conjuncted " comb shape " form culture method of Chinese pear horizontal rack list major branch includes following cultivation step:
1), strain, the reasonable selection of line-spacing:1.5 meters -2 meters of spacing in the rows, 3 meters -3.5 meters of line-spacing.Flatly building well row to selection with Work road is vertically easy to the direction of field management;The gradient is less than 5 degree of gentle slope, and row is to selection draining easily along slope direction;Slope Abrupt slope of the degree more than 5 degree, go to the selection direction parallel with contour;Line-spacing is controlled at 3 meters -3.5 meters, and line-spacing is excessive, does not Soil is utilized to economical rationality, line-spacing is too small, and side shoot easily joins closing with side shoot, influences photosynthesis.Spacing in the rows general control At 1.5 meters -2 meters, it is difficult to reach what is with preceding one tree major branch base portion intersected apart from the increment of excessive annual young sprout (major branch) Degree, also just it is difficult to major branch and carries out the target of conjuncted grafting then with major branch;The weak kind of growing way soil property difference region, Spacing in the rows control is advisable at 1.5 meters, and the prosperous kind of growing way is relatively adapted in the region of fertile soil, spacing in the rows control at 2 meters.
2), the field planting of annual grafting:The annual grafting of growth selection stalwartness no disease and pests harm, is colonized and is filled in soil Divide on the ridge face for improveing and using sufficient organic fertilizer.The field that draining is good, level of ground water is low can level ridges field planting;Impeded drainage, underground The method that the high field of water level must use lift ridge, makes effective soil layer be higher by more than 60 centimetres of level of ground water, can be colonized.
3) culture of conjuncted grafting seedlings:After annual grafting field planting below 1.2 meters of height, branch enriches and had Cutting back at full bud, promote to sprout vigorous young sprout.One 4 meters long of solid bamboo pole is inserted against grafting, first grafting is hung down Directly it is strapped on bamboo pole, seedling top choosing all one's life long strong young sprout, with the continuous elongation of young sprout, every one of 30 centimetres of colligations Jag, young sprout is set quickly to grow up straight.Remaining young sprout sprouted in seedling stem stays 3-5 leaf pinching, while new in 5-8 months The shoot elongation phase, strengthen rich water quality management, it is ensured that the total height to September part seedling reaches more than 3.3 meters.
4) horizontal rack is built:With materials such as concrete column, iron wires, a latticed flat canopy is built.The face of one canopy Product is normally controlled in 3333m2-6667m2, and frame face is highly 1.8m.Regular rectangle garden, corner post, periphery are set up at four angles Line-spacing center is corresponded on line a side column is set every 3 meters.The side column of corresponding sides tightens up connection, shape with No. 8 galvanizing galvanized wires Into the grid main line of level frame.The crosspoint that side column is formed to bracing wire (main line) is supported with fore-set, prevents from swinging under galvanized wire.Pass through master The grid that line pulls out is 3 meters × 3 meters of big grid, and 0.3-0.5 rice is also spaced on sideline, is added with No. 14 galvanizing galvanized wires It is close, form the small grid of 0.3-0.5 rice square.When slope land builds frame, at slope top 1/3 also with iron wire by column cap and Suspension column, which tenses, to be reinforced.Corner post specification is:Long 3.3m × 0.14m × 0.14m;Side column specification is:Long 2.7m × 0.10m × 0.10m; Fore-set specification is:Long 2.0m × 0.06m × 0.06m.Corresponding row to both ends side column, under canopy 15-20 centimetres with No. 8 galvanizings Galvanized wire tightens up connection, as fixed major branch.
5) head and the tail of the fixation of major branch and adjacent tree young sprout intersect under canopy:The flat garden of physical features, cultivates successful seedlings, the tip Head it is unified towards row to any direction, under the iron wire of fixed major branch, seedling stem is taken advantage of a situation the horizontal bondage of young sprout to iron after bending On silk.The young sprout of adjacent tree is set to intersect with young sprout (major branch) head and the tail.Acclive mountain region garden, cultivates successful seedlings, the tip of a branch It is unified towards upward slope direction, under the iron wire of fixed major branch, seedling stem is taken advantage of a situation young sprout bondage to iron wire after bending along upward slope direction On.The young sprout of adjacent tree is set to intersect with young sprout (major branch) head and the tail.
6) the conjuncted grafting of adjacent tree:The young sprout tip of latter strain tree is done into fringe wood, the young sprout of previous strain tree does base anvil, The iron wire position that young sprout (major branch) bending is mutually sent to fixed major branch is abutted against, and major branch is connected with major branch in a straight line.
Grafting period:With progress at the beginning of the late March as usual grafting period before flowering to 4 months.
Engrafting method:Make the young sprout (major branch) of fringe wood and select bud on one and stay 1 centimetre of shearing being intended to graft position, and by young sprout Long 8-10 centimetres smooth bevel of trying one's best is whittled into below leading end portion, the young sprout (major branch) for doing base anvil is close to fixed master upon bending The surface of the position of branch iron wire is equally also whittled into long 8-10 centimetres smooth bevel of trying one's best, and two bevels alignments abut against one Rise, with plastic film tape by tight bondage at grafting, only stay in the bud of interface outside film.
Managed after connecing:Or so June, binding strip was timely when starting toward bark depression as interface heals, major branch is grown slightly Uncording, three positions are bundled with jag again before, during and after interface immediately after uncording, and 1-2 jag of inspection every month It is elastic, prevent jag to be absorbed in bark.The young sprout speed of growth that the bud of graft union fringe wood leading end portion is sprouted is fast, is allowed to grow, and meets Easily interface is peeled off to high wind, therefore, when growing to more than more than 40 centimetres, stays 15-20 centimetres of length to cut, if short cut rear axillary bud It is short in the same way to cut when the young sprout of sprouting grows up to bough again.
7) incubation of result side shoot:Almost after horizontal conjuncted grafting, the top for eliminating major branch is excellent for major branch and major branch Gesture, the bud on major branch fitly will largely be sprouted, the easy excessive growth of young sprout that bud is sprouted on the back bud of major branch and side, therefore, 3-5 leaf pinching is completely stayed in May, controls its growth;Promote major branch both sides horizontal lateral bud and side under bud sprout, the young sprout of sprouting When growing to late June, lured and guided to horizontal sextant angle in 30 degree perpendicular to major branch using the iron wire on frame face, promote bud differentiation, So annual long fruit branch is just cultivated successfully.Kind based on long fruit branch result, 30-40 centimetres of major branch homonymy interval are matched somebody with somebody A standby root long fruit branch result, fruitful branch is overstocked to be pruned off, pay attention to staying when pruning off a bit of stake or basal bud with profit again Hair;During fruitful branch density deficiency, sprouted using the fruit spur of major branch both sides into branch.After long fruit branch result, it can be formed then The side shoot of raw a large amount of fruit spurs, Second Year is later just with long fruit branch, fruit spur common results.Product based on fruit spur result Kind, major branch homonymy is also a piece young sprout of the 30-40 centimetres of outfit in interval, then winter cut off young sprout tip 1/3-1/4, Second Year, On the branch of biennial part will raw fruit spur, the 3rd year just can result.4-5 can be used after a piece side shoot culture.
8) reasonably bear fruit:Axillary bud long fruit branch, the bud of most tip and most base portion can't remove fruit, and centre position is every 2.5-3 bud stays 1 fruit, and fruit interval will reach more than 10 centimetres, fruit tongue with horizontal side or slightly obliquely stay fruit compared with It is good, pay attention to when staying fruit fruit beam blade it is more, from inflorescence base portion number the 3rd or the 4th tagmeme, carpopodium it is long and slightly, calyx low-lying area portion rounding, summary Fruit with the high shape of waist leaves.Fruit spur raw side shoot, 1-2 bud of most tip not fruit, towards surface and underface Fruit spur do not stay fruit, fruit tongue is tiny, necking down bud, Shuangzi bud, the bud of secondary extension be bud inferior also not fruit. Select that fruit tongue is thick, and sprout is full, fruit spur towards horizontal side or slightly obliquely is born fruit, and each fruit spur only stays a fruit.
9) renewal of result side shoot:After the continuous result 4-5 of a piece side shoot, blind bud is largely formed, branch extra coarse cross 3 centimetres with On, production capacity declines to a great extent, and should now consider that side shoot updates in time.Specific more new method, sprouts using side shoot base portion Young sprout, which is updated, can also be used the young sprout progress side shoot renewal that major branch both sides fruit spur or kryptoblast are sprouted.
Test example:The Hilly area of Jiangsu Province Zhenjiang institute of agricultural sciences, in 2009 in the newly-built 10 mu of Chinese pear shapings in Huayang innovation garden Model test Demonstration Base, experiment kind is ' abundance of water ', and it is whole to devise three major branch horizontal rack shapings, two major branch horizontal racks altogether 3 processing of conjuncted " comb shape " the horizontal rack shaping of shape, single major branch.To the early yield, operating efficiency, major branch of different Training systems Different parts the index of correlation such as fruit amount and fruit quality be compared.Test data see the table below.
Influence unit of the water-rich areas difference Training system of table 1 to early yield:Kg/acre
Processing Field planting is then Second Year 3rd year 4th year
Three major branch shapings —— —— 168 660
Two major branch shapings —— —— 150 450
Conjuncted ' comb shape ' —— —— 593 1120
From table 1, three kinds of shaping methods, the 3rd average annual achievable operation, conjuncted with single major branch of the present invention after field planting ' comb shape ' yield highest, be respectively three major branches, 3.53 times of two major branch shapings and 3.95 times.Single conjuncted ' comb of major branch by the 4th year Shape ' per mu yield of shaping is higher by 460-670 kilograms than the per mu yield of three major branches, two major branch shapings, increase yield significantly.
Influence of the water-rich areas difference Training system of table 2. to operating efficiency
From table 2, three kinds of Training systems, what harvest fruit number was most in 1 hour is the conjuncted ' comb of single major branch of the present invention Shape ' shaping, the unit tree crown area trimming operation used time is minimum and single conjuncted ' comb shape ' shaping of major branch.
The water-rich areas difference Training system of table 3. on major branch different parts fruit amount and fruit quality influence
From table 3, in two kinds of Training systems, the major branch elder generation petiolarea of two major branch shapings of prior art and major branch base area The average pol of fruit pole significant difference be present, and the major branch elder generation petiolarea of conjuncted ' comb shape ' shaping of the present invention and major branch base area The average pol difference unobvious of fruit.In addition, fruit amount especially few for the major branch elder generation petiolarea unit area of two major branch shapings, and this hair The major branch elder generation petiolarea of bright conjuncted ' comb shape ' shaping fruit amount reduce unobvious.
Experiment shows for many years, conjuncted " comb shape " shaping of horizontal rack list major branch of the invention, and the Chinese pear of complexity is cultivated into skill Art is simplified, and operating efficiency and early yield is greatly improved, while fruit quality is reached the effect of uniformity.Do not send out The bad reaction of existing Growth status.
The invention is not restricted to these disclosed embodiments, the scope of the invention that will be covered in described in patent book, with And the various modifications of right and equivalence changes.

Claims (1)

  1. A kind of 1. conjuncted " comb shape " form culture method of Chinese pear horizontal rack list major branch, it is characterized in that including following cultivation step:
    1), strain, the reasonable selection of line-spacing:Selected as the case may be in 1.5 meters -2 meters of spacing in the rows, 3 meters -3.5 meters of line-spacing;Growing way is weak Kind, in the region of soil property difference, spacing in the rows control is at 1.5 meters, the prosperous kind of growing way, in the region of fertile soil, spacing in the rows control At 2 meters, flatly building well row is to selecting the direction vertical with work road;To selection arrange with being less than 5 degree of gentle slope by building well, row for the gradient Water is easily along slope direction;The gradient is more than 5 degree of steep hillslope building well, goes to the selection direction parallel with contour;
    2), the field planting of annual grafting:The annual grafting of growth selection stalwartness no disease and pests harm, is colonized and fully changes in soil On ridge face that is good and using sufficient organic fertilizer, the field level ridges that draining is good, level of ground water is low is colonized;Impeded drainage, level of ground water are high Field must use lift ridge method, effective soil layer is higher by more than 60 centimetres of level of ground water, can be colonized;
    3), the culture of conjuncted grafting seedlings:After annual grafting field planting below 1.2 meters of height, branch enriches and had full Cutting back at full bud, promote to sprout vigorous young sprout, one 4 meters of long bodies of rod are inserted against grafting, first by the vertical bondage of grafting On the body of rod, seedling top choosing all one's life long strong young sprout, with the continuous elongation of young sprout, every 30 centimetres of colligations, one of jag, Young sprout is set quickly to grow up straight, remaining young sprout sprouted in seedling stem stays 3-5 leaf pinching, while the young sprout in 5-8 months is stretched For a long time, rich water quality management is strengthened, it is ensured that the total height to September part seedling averagely reaches more than 3.3 meters;
    4), horizontal rack is built:Make vertical support with concrete column, iron wire work level is to connecting into canopy in concrete column upper end Frame, latticed horizontal rack is built into, the area control of horizontal rack is in 3333m2-6667m2, frame face is highly 1.8m;Rule Whole rectangle orchard, corner post is set up at four angles, line-spacing center is corresponded in perimeter line a side column is set every 3 meters, it is right Answer the side column on side to tighten up connection with iron wire, form the grid main line of level frame, side column is to bracing wire, i.e., on the crosspoint that main line is formed Supported with fore-set, 3 meters × 3 meters of big grid is pulled into by main line, 0.3-0.5 rice is spaced on sideline and is encrypted with iron wire, is formed The small grid of 0.3-0.5 rice;When slope land builds frame, also column cap and suspension column are tensed with iron wire at slope top 1/3 and added Gu;Corresponding row to both ends side column, connection is tightened up with iron wire for 15-20 centimetres under canopy, as fixation major branch;
    5), the head and the tail of the fixation of major branch and adjacent tree young sprout intersect under canopy:The flat garden of physical features, cultivates successful seedlings, the tip of a branch It is unified towards row to, under foregoing canopy under the iron wire of 15-20 centimetres of fixed major branch, seedling stem is taken advantage of a situation bend after by the horizontal bondage of young sprout Onto iron wire, the young sprout of adjacent tree is set to intersect with young sprout head and the tail;Acclive mountain region garden, cultivate successful seedlings, tip of a branch system One towards upward slope direction, and under the iron wire of fixed major branch, seedling stem is taken advantage of a situation in young sprout bondage to iron wire after bending along upward slope direction, The young sprout of adjacent tree is set to intersect with young sprout head and the tail;
    6), the conjuncted grafting of adjacent tree:Between foregoing adjacent tree head and the tail intersecting young sprout and young sprout, by the young sprout of latter strain tree Tip does fringe wood, and the young sprout of previous strain tree does base anvil, and the iron wire position that fixed major branch is mutually sent in young sprout bending is abutted against, and is made The major branch of adjacent tree is connected with major branch horizontal linear shape;
    7), the incubation of result side shoot:Major branch is with after the conjuncted grafting of major branch horizontal linear shape, eliminating the apical dominance of major branch, allowing Bud on major branch is fitly largely sprouted, and the easy excessive growth of young sprout that bud is sprouted on the back bud of major branch and side, 3-5 is stayed in May Leaf pinching controls its growth, promote major branch both sides horizontal lateral bud and side under bud sprout, when the young sprout of sprouting grows to late June, profit Lured and guided to horizontal sextant angle in 30 degree perpendicular to major branch with the iron wire on frame face, promote bud differentiation, be bred as annual long fruit Branch;Kind based on annual growth fruit branch result, 30-40 centimetres of major branch homonymy interval one root long fruit branch result of outfit, is pruned off Fall overstocked fruitful branch, pay attention to staying a bit of stake or basal bud to send out again with profit when pruning off;It is available during fruitful branch density deficiency The fruit spurs of major branch both sides is sprouted into branch, after long fruit branch result, can form the side shoot for giving birth to a large amount of fruit spurs then, Second Year with Afterwards just with long fruit branch, fruit spur common results;Kind based on fruit spur result, major branch homonymy are also 30-40 centimetres of interval Be equipped with a young sprout, then winter cut off young sprout tip 1/3-1/4, Second Year, on the branch of biennial part will bear Fruit spur, the 3rd year just can result;
    8), reasonably bear fruit:Axillary bud fruitful branch, the bud of most tip and most base portion remove, and centre position is per 2.5-3 bud Stay 1 fruit, fruit interval will reach more than 10 centimetres, fruit tongue with horizontal side or slightly obliquely stay fruit, pay attention to when staying fruit by Fruit beam blade is more, the 3rd or the 4th tagmeme, carpopodium be long from inflorescence base portion number and the fruit of thick, fruit calyx low-lying area portion rounding, the slightly high shape of waist Leave in fact;Fruit spur raw side shoot, and 1-2 bud of most tip does not stay fruit, do not stayed towards the fruit spur of surface and underface Fruit, fruit tongue is tiny, necking down bud, Shuangzi bud, and the bud of secondary extension is that bud inferior does not also stay fruit, selects fruit tongue thick, Sprout is full, and fruit spur towards horizontal side or slightly obliquely is born fruit, and each fruit spur only stays a fruit;
    9), the renewal of result side shoot:For continuous result 4-5, branch extra coarse crosses more than 3 centimetres, largely forms the knot of blind bud Fruit side shoot, the young sprout sprouted using its base portion are updated, and the young sprout that major branch both sides fruit spur or kryptoblast are sprouted can also be used and enter Row side shoot updates.
CN201410344352.9A 2014-07-17 2014-07-17 Conjuncted " comb shape " the form culture method of Chinese pear horizontal rack list major branch Expired - Fee Related CN105248211B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201410344352.9A CN105248211B (en) 2014-07-17 2014-07-17 Conjuncted " comb shape " the form culture method of Chinese pear horizontal rack list major branch

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201410344352.9A CN105248211B (en) 2014-07-17 2014-07-17 Conjuncted " comb shape " the form culture method of Chinese pear horizontal rack list major branch

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN105248211A CN105248211A (en) 2016-01-20
CN105248211B true CN105248211B (en) 2017-11-10

Family

ID=55088431

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201410344352.9A Expired - Fee Related CN105248211B (en) 2014-07-17 2014-07-17 Conjuncted " comb shape " the form culture method of Chinese pear horizontal rack list major branch

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN105248211B (en)

Families Citing this family (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105850472B (en) * 2016-05-04 2019-01-29 福建省农业科学院果树研究所 A kind of single major branch shape pears pergola system field planting of single-trunk and shaping methods
CN107278786B (en) * 2017-08-23 2020-06-09 中国农业科学院郑州果树研究所 Comb-shaped hedge wall-shaped tree form of pear tree and shaping method thereof
CN108064574A (en) * 2017-12-13 2018-05-25 上海交通大学 A kind of sweet cherry castatopsis fissa grafting symbiotic cultivation technology and its application
CN111657024B (en) * 2019-03-08 2021-11-30 青岛汇勤农业有限公司 Pear tree planting method
CN110073881A (en) * 2019-05-28 2019-08-02 菏泽学院 A kind of pears single armed dragon form V-type frame planting culture method
CN110073888A (en) * 2019-06-06 2019-08-02 福建省农业科学院果树研究所 A kind of breeding method of morus laevigata shed frame type tree crown
CN111149607A (en) * 2020-03-05 2020-05-15 江苏丘陵地区镇江农业科学研究所 Single-arm direct-walking horizontal trellis cultivation method for pear trees
CN111657040A (en) * 2020-06-24 2020-09-15 河北省农林科学院石家庄果树研究所 High-light-efficiency apple tree form suitable for mechanization and cultivation method

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1602666A (en) * 2004-10-29 2005-04-06 蔡英明 Fruit tree 'lean to one side' cultivation and management method
CN101836563A (en) * 2010-03-16 2010-09-22 江苏丘陵地区镇江农业科学研究所 Method for reshaping pear trees
CN102461441A (en) * 2010-11-07 2012-05-23 王瑞金 Shed erecting-free scaffold self-shaping technology for pears
CN103081770A (en) * 2013-01-07 2013-05-08 湖北省农业科学院果树茶叶研究所 Novel shed frame pear tree shape and reshaping method thereof
CN103430806A (en) * 2013-09-04 2013-12-11 镇江万山红遍农业园 Reshaping and cultivating method of pear tree with single trunk and two main branches

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1602666A (en) * 2004-10-29 2005-04-06 蔡英明 Fruit tree 'lean to one side' cultivation and management method
CN101836563A (en) * 2010-03-16 2010-09-22 江苏丘陵地区镇江农业科学研究所 Method for reshaping pear trees
CN102461441A (en) * 2010-11-07 2012-05-23 王瑞金 Shed erecting-free scaffold self-shaping technology for pears
CN103081770A (en) * 2013-01-07 2013-05-08 湖北省农业科学院果树茶叶研究所 Novel shed frame pear tree shape and reshaping method thereof
CN103430806A (en) * 2013-09-04 2013-12-11 镇江万山红遍农业园 Reshaping and cultivating method of pear tree with single trunk and two main branches

Non-Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
世界西洋梨 生产现状及栽培技术特点;张建光等;《梨科研与生产进展(五)》;20111101;第379~389页 *
幸水梨水平架式栽培的结果特性及其侧枝使用年限研究;糜林等;《江西农业学报》;20080215;第20卷(第2期);第48,51页 *
搭水平棚架 种日本沙梨;糜林等;《江苏农业科技报》;20021225;第002版 *
新梢处理技术在爱甘水梨优质丰产栽培中的应用;糜林等;《江苏农业科学》;20091215(第6期);第216~217页 *
梨水平棚架栽培整形修剪技术简述;魏树伟等;《落叶果树》;20100501(第3期);第15~17页 *

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN105248211A (en) 2016-01-20

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN105248211B (en) Conjuncted " comb shape " the form culture method of Chinese pear horizontal rack list major branch
CN103636454B (en) Double-cropping cultivation method of grapes
CN104160915B (en) A kind of Fructus Vitis viniferae high density Labor-saving tree-like form culture method
CN104322344B (en) A kind of facility grape two crops a year cultural method setting basin combination
CN103461055B (en) High-light-effect tree shape shaping trimming method for close planting peach trees
CN104160911B (en) Crystal grape hillside fields TU shape pruning technique
CN107278786B (en) Comb-shaped hedge wall-shaped tree form of pear tree and shaping method thereof
CN105684820A (en) Method for building and managing famous tea mechanical plucking tea garden
CN104838935B (en) Early management method of planting sweet cherries in south warm region
CN104920150B (en) Dense planting jujube garden tree structure wavelet method
CN104160906A (en) Peach tree shaping and trimming method
CN104255366B (en) The tree-like form culture method of peach in-line Labor-saving
CN103299875B (en) V-shaped grape trellis and grape cultivation method
CN104429641A (en) Intensive high-efficiency dwarf stock cultivation method for apple trees
CN104920090B (en) Double-layer horizontal arm shaped fruit tree form and tree form shaping method
CN105557448A (en) Dual-parallelism grape canopy frame and grape cultivation method suitable for soil-burying cold-proof area
CN103988649A (en) Rapid propagation seedling growing method for large leaf tea tree
CN103392554A (en) Balanced shaping and pruning method for grapevine
CN107517775A (en) The cultivating stand and its cultural method of a kind of double-deck unidirectional plantation dragon fruit of duplicate rows
CN104509377A (en) Artificial cultivation method of wild kiwi fruit trees
CN103733945A (en) Peach tree shaping method
CN106912344A (en) The pruning of pear tree and management method
CN107873306A (en) A kind of new three major branches specular removal cultural method of peach
CN1602666A (en) Fruit tree 'lean to one side' cultivation and management method
CN104663350A (en) Shaping method of peach tree

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
C06 Publication
PB01 Publication
C10 Entry into substantive examination
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
GR01 Patent grant
GR01 Patent grant
CF01 Termination of patent right due to non-payment of annual fee

Granted publication date: 20171110