CN111657024B - Pear tree planting method - Google Patents

Pear tree planting method Download PDF

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CN111657024B
CN111657024B CN201910175403.2A CN201910175403A CN111657024B CN 111657024 B CN111657024 B CN 111657024B CN 201910175403 A CN201910175403 A CN 201910175403A CN 111657024 B CN111657024 B CN 111657024B
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branches
tree
seedlings
branch
grafting
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CN111657024A (en
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马春晖
马鑫
聂易田
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Qingdao Huiqin Agriculture Co ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0237Devices for protecting a specific part of a plant, e.g. roots, trunk or fruits
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

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  • Wood Science & Technology (AREA)
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  • Cultivation Of Plants (AREA)

Abstract

The invention designs a pear tree planting method, which comprises the following steps: the method comprises the following steps of pear tree special nursery stock breeding, field planting, tree structure cultivation, fruiting branch cultivation, tree body nutrient complementation, fertilizer and water, fruit bagging and pest and disease damage management; selecting high-quality birch seeds for hierarchical treatment, raising seedlings and transplanting, selecting T-shaped bud grafting or bud grafting with wood, normally managing the fertilizer and water of seedlings during the period, carrying out field planting, then culturing tree structures, selecting pear seedlings, bending the seedlings from a position which is 120 cm away from the ground and is 150cm away from the ground, changing the growth direction, taking the part of the seedlings before the bent position as a main trunk, culturing branches at the bent position and above parts in the horizontal direction as trunk branches of the trees, pulling the extension heads of the trunk branches of the trees in the south-north direction, respectively connecting the extension heads with adjacent plants in a grafting manner, then carrying out bearing branch culturing on the trunk branches, and carrying out fertilizer and water management, fruit bagging and pest control as same as the conventional management of the pear trees.

Description

Pear tree planting method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of pear tree cultivation, in particular to a pear tree planting method.
Background
The pear trees belong to deciduous pear trees, the cultivation of the tree-shaped structure is very important in the planting production of the pear trees, the excellent tree-shaped structure is the basis of high quality and high yield of fruits, and the tree-shaped structure determines the yield, the quality and the labor cost for management. At present, two tree-shaped cultivation modes of sparse layered or trellis cultivation are commonly adopted at home and abroad, the sparse layered tree bodies are high and the tree heights are between 3 and 5 meters, so that pear trees are pollinated, flower and fruit thinning, harvesting difficulty is high, labor cost is high, flower bud quality is poor, produced fruits are poor in quality and inconsistent in size, and meanwhile, due to the fact that tree structures are complex, branches are multiple in number, fruit branches are multiple in type, fruit branches are seriously aged, technical requirements for tree body trimming management are high, fruit growers cannot easily master trimming management technologies, and labor force in rural areas is in short supply at present, orchard management level is poor, fruit quality is poor, yield is low, and fruit quality is poor. The current shed frame type cultivation reduces the height of a tree body to a certain extent, and brings convenience to orchard operation, but due to the adoption of net frame cultivation, the branch is wide in opening angle and grows nearly horizontally, the tree body is easy to generate spindly branches due to the planting mode, the stability of the tree body is poor, the nutrient waste of the tree body is serious, the spindly branches are required to be cut every year, and the labor cost is increased. The existing grafting mode is only single-plant grafting, nutrients are supplied by single plants, and redundant nutrients of trees are utilized everywhere, so that the nutrients are wasted.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems, a pear tree planting method is provided, so that a new technology for cultivating a tree structure with low overall tree shape, simple and efficient management, high utilization of symbiotic nutrients by grafting trees and high fruit quality is provided, and the modern management level of pear tree production is improved.
The purpose of the invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
a pear tree planting method comprises the following steps: the method comprises the following steps of special pear seedling breeding, field planting, tree structure cultivation, fruiting branch cultivation, tree nutrient complementation, fertilizer and water, fruit bagging and pest and disease damage management.
1. Special seedling breeding method for pear trees
Selecting high-quality pear seeds for hierarchical treatment, sowing and raising seedlings by adopting a small arched shed in spring, transplanting the seedlings when the seedlings grow to 10-15cm, transplanting the seedlings into a plastic nutrition pot (the width is 15-20cm, and the height is 25-30 cm), selecting a flat seedling raising land, placing the seedlings in a ditch after ditching, filling the nutrition pot with soil when the nutrition pot is exposed to the ground for 5cm, keeping the stability of the seedlings in the nutrition pot, grafting the seedlings by using T-shaped bud grafting or wood bud grafting when the period is 8-9 months, and preferably, placing a connector 20cm away from the ground; and managing by using management modes such as stock shearing, bud picking, righting and the like until the spring of the second year, when the seedling grows to 6 months, carrying out root breaking treatment on the root system, shearing the main root by using a special tool, promoting new lateral roots to grow, and promoting the growth of the seedling root system. And normally managing the fertilizer and water of the seedlings in the period, applying the fertilizer once every month, preferably applying the water-soluble fertilizer, and enabling the growth height of the seedlings in autumn to reach 2-3.5 m.
2. Planting in field
(1) Soil improvement: ditching and applying organic matters into the planting land to improve the soil, wherein the depth is 60cm, and the width is 40 cm;
(2) planting row direction: the north and south directions;
(3) ridging and planting: ridging the leveled ground at the planting position, wherein the ridge width is 1.5m, and the ridge height is about 35 cm;
(4) plant row spacing: 1-2m is multiplied by 4-5 m;
(5) the planting method comprises the following steps: pruning the root system of the seedling, pruning the damaged root system, selecting the seedling with complete root system development and no plant diseases and insect pests for planting, achieving the purposes of unfolding the root system and proper depth, and watering in time after planting to keep survival.
3. Cultivation of tree structures
Selecting more than 2 meters of pear seedlings, planting the seedlings for 25 days, bending each seedling tree body from a position which is 120 plus one year away from the ground and 150cm away from the ground, wherein the part of the seedling tree body before bending is a trunk, a backbone branch or a second backbone branch is arranged above the bending position, the growth direction is changed, the part of the seedling tree body before bending is the trunk, branches in the horizontal direction of the bending position and above are used as the backbone branches of the tree body, culturing is carried out by taking the branches in the horizontal direction of the bending position and above as the backbone branches of the tree body, the extending heads of the backbone branches of the tree body are pulled along the north-south direction and are respectively connected with the adjacent plants in a grafting way, a joint adopts a butt grafting method, a grafting knife is used for respectively cutting a cutting plane at the butt grafting position for two trees, then binding and fixing the grafting connection position by using a grafting sleeve, reserving a bud short section on the extension head of the grafted extension head plant after grafting, improving the survival rate, and removing the grafting sleeve after the interface grows firmly in the second year; the trunk branches of the tree do not need to bear fruits, the included angle between the trunk branches or the second trunk branches and the trunk is 90 ℃, and the trunk branches are fixed through erecting a shed frame main body.
4. Fruit branch culture
In the first year: directly culturing fruiting branches on horizontally growing bone trunk branches, culturing by using new shoots growing from the bone trunk branches, selecting lateral branches as the fruiting branches, wherein the interval of each branch is 20-25cm, when the new shoots of the fruiting branches grow over 50cm, starting to pull the fruiting branches to correct the growth direction, pulling the new shoots outwards along the vertical direction on the horizontal plane of the bone trunk branches, fixing the fruiting branches on a bracket by using hemp ropes, extending along a straight line, and forming axillary buds in the same year from a variety with axillary bud fruiting;
in the second year: when pruning is carried out in winter, cutting 25cm from the tip of the first-year branch on the bone trunk branch, keeping the growth potential of the extension head, continuously extending outwards, and forming 1.5m long bearing branches after two years of growth, wherein the bearing capacity reaches 12-16 fruits;
in the third year: the 2 nd year bearing branches on the skeletal branches are cut short to continue to extend and grow outwards, and pinching tip control is adopted for branches (namely the sprouting branches) on the back where the base parts of the bearing branches sprout, so that the growth stability and the bearing efficiency of the bearing branches are kept;
in the fourth year: large fruiting branch groups, vigorous fruiting branches and the like which grow for 3 to 4 years and have low fruiting efficiency and large occupied space are updated by the method that the fruiting branches are cut off from the base part at one time, the space is filled by using the prepared branches, and the fruiting branches which occupy small space and grow stably are reserved;
in the fifth year and later: by updating the base parts of the aged bearing branches, the tree body structure is reasonable, the bearing branches are young and grow stably, the bearing efficiency is high, the fruit quality is excellent, and the method can be repeated for tree body management.
5. Fertilizing water, bagging fruits and managing plant diseases and insect pests.
The fertilizer and water management, fruit bagging and pest control are the same as the conventional management of pear trees.
Furthermore, the extending heads of the bone trunk branches of the plants are connected with the bent parts of the bone trunk branches of the adjacent plants in a grafting mode along the south-north direction in a forward-backward direction.
Furthermore, the two bone trunk branch extending heads on the plant are respectively connected with the extending heads of the bone trunk branches of the adjacent plants in a grafting mode towards the two sides along the north-south direction.
Furthermore, in the bearing branch culturing step, in the first year, the new shoots are pulled outwards along the vertical direction on the horizontal plane of the bone trunk branches, and the angle of pulling the bearing branches and the vertical included angle of the trunk are 45 ℃.
Further, in the fruit branch culturing step, in the third year, the sprouting branches at the base parts of the fruit branches are utilized to culture renewal branches, and heavy cutoffs (namely, 10-15cm cutoffs are reserved) are carried out on the sprouting branches at the base parts to promote vigorous growth and young shoots to be used as preparation branches for culturing; furthermore, the bamboo structure is selected as the canopy frame main body.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
according to the method, adjacent pear trees in the same row in the orchard are connected in a grafting mode through the mode of continuous grafting between the backbone branches and the backbone branches on the adjacent trees, so that interactive communication of nutrients is achieved, the waste of nutrients is reduced, balanced tree growth can be maintained, the bearing age of the whole pear tree is prolonged, the utilization rate of the nutrients in soil is improved, meanwhile, the main trunk and the backbone branches are fixed within a specified height through the support, the height of the whole tree is reduced, meanwhile, as the tree structure is simple, the branch levels are reduced, the types of bearing branches are reduced, the bearing branches are replaced in time, the bearing branches are prevented from being seriously aged, and the root sources for generating the fruit quality are reduced; in addition, on the aspect of managing the pear orchard, the management of the orchard is convenient, a fruit grower can conveniently pollinate the pear tree and flower and fruit in time, the quality of flower buds is ensured, the quality and the quantity of pear tree fruits are ensured to the maximum extent, meanwhile, the overall height of the pear tree is reduced, the harvesting difficulty is reduced, the difficulty in bagging is high, the labor cost is reduced, the investment is low, the operation is easy, the effect is quick, and the effect is good; has high practicability and popularization.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural view of example 1 of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram showing the structure of example 1 of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged view of the grafting junction according to example 1 of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic structural view of example 2 of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram showing the structure of example 2 of the present invention;
FIG. 6 is an enlarged view of the grafting junction according to example 2 of the present invention;
1. the main stem, 2, the shed frame main body, 3, the bearing branch, 4, the skeleton branch, 5, the second skeleton branch, 6, the grafting sleeve, 6-1, the cutting plane and 7, the bud truncation.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to specific examples, but the embodiments of the present invention are not limited to the scope of the examples. These examples are intended to illustrate the invention only and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. In addition, various modifications may occur to those skilled in the art upon reading the present disclosure, and such equivalent variations are within the scope of the present invention as defined in the appended claims.
Example 1
With reference to fig. 1-3, a pear tree planting method comprises the following steps: the method comprises the following steps of special pear seedling breeding, field planting, tree structure cultivation, fruiting branch cultivation, tree nutrient complementation, fertilizer and water, fruit bagging and pest and disease damage management.
1. Special seedling breeding method for pear trees
Selecting high-quality pear seeds for hierarchical treatment, sowing and seedling in spring by adopting a small arched shed, transplanting when seedlings grow to 10-15cm, transplanting and transplanting the seedlings into a plastic nutrition pot, wherein the width and the height of the nutrition pot are as follows: 25cm, selecting a flat seedling raising land, placing the seedlings in a ditch after ditching, filling soil around the seedling raising pot which is exposed 5cm above the ground, keeping the stability of the seedlings in the seedling raising pot, grafting the seedlings in 8-9 months, selecting T-shaped bud grafting or bud grafting with wood, and preferably placing a joint 20cm above the ground; and managing by using management modes such as stock shearing, bud picking, righting and the like until the spring of the second year, when the seedling grows to 6 months, carrying out root breaking treatment on the root system, shearing the main root by using a special tool, promoting new lateral roots to grow, and promoting the growth of the seedling root system. And normally managing the fertilizer and water of the seedlings in the period, applying the fertilizer once every month, preferably applying the water-soluble fertilizer, and enabling the growth height of the seedlings in autumn to reach 2-3.5 m.
2. Planting in field
(1) Soil improvement: ditching and applying organic matters into the planting land to improve the soil, wherein the depth is 60cm, and the width is 40 cm;
(2) planting row direction: the north and south directions;
(3) ridging and planting: ridging the leveled ground at the planting position, wherein the ridge width is 1.5m, and the ridge height is about 35 cm;
(4) plant row spacing: 1m × 4 m;
(5) the planting method comprises the following steps: pruning the root system of the seedling, pruning the damaged root system, selecting the seedling with complete root system development and no plant diseases and insect pests for planting, achieving the purposes of unfolding the root system and proper depth, and watering in time after planting to keep survival.
3. Cultivation of tree structures
Selecting more than 2 meters of pear seedlings, fixedly planting the seedlings for 25 days, bending each seedling body from a position which is 150cm away from the ground, wherein the part of each seedling body before bending is taken as a main trunk 1, a main stem 4 is taken above the bending position, the growth direction is changed, the part of each seedling body is towards an adjacent plant, the part of each seedling body before bending is taken as the main trunk 1, branches at the bending position and above part of the horizontal direction are taken as main trunk branches 4 for culturing, the extension heads of the main trunk branches 4 of each tree body are pulled along the north-south direction and are respectively connected with the adjacent plants in a grafting way, a leaning method is adopted at the connection position, a cutting plane 6-1 is respectively cut at the leaning position of each two trees by a grafting knife, then, binding and fixing are carried out by a finishing clip or an adhesive tape type grafting sleeve 6, a bud short section 7 is left from the extension head at the grafting position of each plant after grafting, the survival rate is improved, removing the grafting sleeve 6 after the interface grows firmly in the second year; the trunk branches 4 of the tree do not need to bear fruits, the included angle between the trunk branches 4 and the trunk 1 is 90 ℃, and the trunk branches 4 are fixed through erecting the shed frame main body 2.
The method comprises the steps of pulling the extending head of a trunk branch 4 of a tree body in the same direction along the north-south direction, pulling the extending head of the trunk branch 4 of one tree to the bent part of the trunk branch 4 of an adjacent tree, cutting a cutting plane 6-1 at the joint of the trunk branch 4 of the plant and the bent part of the trunk branch 4 of the adjacent plant by a grafting tool by adopting a leaning connection method, binding and fixing the grafting joint by using an adhesive tape type grafting sleeve 6, reserving a bud short cut 7 from the extending head of the grafting part of the extension head plant of the trunk branch 4 after grafting, improving the survival rate, and removing the grafting sleeve 6 after the joint grows firmly in the second year.
4. Fruit branch culture
Planting in the field for the first year: directly culturing fruiting branches 3 on horizontally-growing bone trunk branches 4, culturing by using new shoots growing from the bone trunk branches 4, selecting lateral branches as the fruiting branches 3, wherein the interval of each branch is 20-25cm, starting to pull the fruiting branches 3 to correct the growth direction when the new shoots of the fruiting branches 3 grow to be more than 50cm, pulling the fruiting branches 3 outwards along the vertical direction on the horizontal plane of the bone trunk branches 4, wherein the angle of the pull of the fruiting branches 3 and the vertical included angle of a trunk 1 are 45 ℃, fixing the fruiting branches on a bracket by using hemp ropes, extending along a straight line, and forming axillary buds in the same year when the variety with the axillary buds can bear fruits in the next year;
in the second year: when pruning is carried out in winter, cutting 25cm from the tip of the first-year branch on the skeletal branch 4, keeping the growth potential of the extension head, continuously extending outwards, and forming long bearing branches 3 with the length of more than 1.5m after two years of growth, wherein the bearing capacity reaches 12-16 fruits;
in the third year: the 2 nd-year bearing branches on the skeletal branches 4 are cut short to continue to extend and grow outwards, and the branches on the back (namely the germinating branches) germinating at the bases of the bearing branches are subjected to pinching and tip control, so that the growth stability and bearing efficiency of the bearing branches are maintained; culturing renewal branches by utilizing the sprouting branches at the base parts of the fruiting branches, and culturing vigorous shoots serving as preparation branches by performing heavy truncation (namely, reserving a truncation of 10-15 cm) on the sprouting branches at the base parts;
in the fourth year: large fruiting branch groups, vigorous fruiting branches and the like which grow for 3 to 4 years and have low fruiting efficiency and large occupied space are updated by the method that the fruiting branches are cut off from the base part at one time, the space is filled by using the prepared branches, and the fruiting branches which occupy small space and grow stably are reserved;
in the fifth year and later: by updating the base parts of the aged bearing branches 3, the tree body structure is reasonable, the bearing branches are young and grow stably, the bearing efficiency is high, the fruit quality is excellent, and the method can be repeated for tree body management.
5. Fertilizing water, bagging fruits and managing plant diseases and insect pests.
The fertilizer and water management, fruit bagging and pest control are the same as the conventional management of pear trees.
Example 2
With reference to fig. 4-6, a pear tree planting method comprises the following steps: the method comprises the following steps of special pear seedling breeding, field planting, tree structure cultivation, fruiting branch cultivation, tree nutrient complementation, fertilizer and water, fruit bagging and pest and disease damage management.
1. Special seedling breeding method for pear trees
Selecting high-quality birch pear seeds for hierarchical treatment, sowing and raising seedlings in spring by adopting a small arched shed, transplanting the seedlings when the seedlings grow to 10-15cm, and transplanting the seedlings into a plastic nutrition pot, wherein the width of the nutrition pot is 20cm, and the height of the nutrition pot is as follows: 30 cm), selecting a flat seedling raising land, placing the seedlings in a ditch after ditching, filling soil around the seedling raising pot which is exposed 5cm above the ground to keep the seedlings in the seedling raising pot stable, grafting the seedlings in 8-9 months, selecting T-shaped bud grafting or bud grafting with wood, and preferably placing a joint 20cm above the ground; and managing by using management modes such as stock shearing, bud picking, righting and the like until the spring of the second year, when the seedling grows to 6 months, carrying out root breaking treatment on the root system, shearing the main root by using a special tool, promoting new lateral roots to grow, and promoting the growth of the seedling root system. And normally managing the fertilizer and water of the seedlings in the period, applying the fertilizer once every month, preferably applying the water-soluble fertilizer, and enabling the growth height of the seedlings in autumn to reach 2-3.5 m.
2. Planting in field
(1) Soil improvement: ditching and applying organic matters into the planting land to improve the soil, wherein the depth is 60cm, and the width is 40 cm;
(2) planting row direction: the north and south directions;
(3) ridging and planting: ridging the leveled ground at the planting position, wherein the ridge width is 1.5m, and the ridge height is about 35 cm;
(4) plant row spacing: 2m × 5 m;
(5) the planting method comprises the following steps: pruning the root system of the seedling, pruning the damaged root system, selecting the seedling with complete root system development and no plant diseases and insect pests for planting, achieving the purposes of unfolding the root system and proper depth, and watering in time after planting to keep survival.
3. Cultivation of tree structures
Selecting more than 2 meters of pear seedlings, fixedly planting the seedlings for 25 days, bending each seedling body from a position which is 150cm away from the ground, wherein the part of each seedling body before bending is taken as a main trunk 1, a main stem 4 is taken above the bending position, the growth direction is changed, the part of each seedling body is towards an adjacent plant, the part of each seedling body before bending is taken as the main trunk 1, branches at the bending position and above part of the horizontal direction are taken as main trunk branches 4 for culturing, the extension heads of the main trunk branches 4 of each tree body are pulled along the north-south direction and are respectively connected with the adjacent plants in a grafting way, a leaning method is adopted at the connection position, a cutting plane 6-1 is respectively cut at the leaning position of each two trees by a grafting knife, then the grafting connection position is bound and fixed by an adhesive tape type grafting sleeve 6, a bud short section 7 is left from the extension head at the grafting position of each plant after grafting, the survival rate is improved, removing the grafting sleeve 6 after the interface grows firmly in the second year; the trunk branches 4 of the tree do not need to bear fruits, the included angle between the trunk branches 4 and the trunk 1 is 90 ℃, and the trunk branches 4 are fixed through erecting the shed frame main body 2.
The extending heads of two adjacent tree trunk branches 4 are pulled along the south and north directions in opposite directions, the extending heads of the two adjacent tree trunk branches 4 are connected by a leaning connection method, a grafting knife is used for respectively cutting a cutting plane 6-1 for each of the two adjacent tree trunk branches 4, then binding and fixing the grafting connection position by using an adhesive tape type grafting sleeve 6, after grafting, reserving a bud short section 7 from the bone trunk branch extension head at the grafting position, improving the survival rate, removing the grafting sleeve 6 after the joint grows firmly in the second year, after grafting the bone trunk branches 4 extension heads of two adjacent trees, the second bone stock branch 5 is cultivated at the top end of each trunk 1 through pruning, when the second bone stock branch 5 grows to a certain length, then, the branch 4 of the bone stock cultured with the adjacent tree body on the other side is pulled oppositely to graft, and the grafting is carried out by adopting the same method, thereby the trees on the same row are connected by the grafting way of the branch of the bone stock and the branch of the bone stock.
4. Fruit branch culture
In the first year: directly culturing fruiting branches on horizontally-growing bone stem branches 4, culturing by using new shoots growing on the bone stem branches 4, selecting lateral branches as fruiting branches 3, wherein the interval of each branch is 20-25cm, starting to pull the fruiting branches 3 to correct the growth direction when the new shoots of the fruiting branches 3 grow over 50cm, pulling the fruiting branches 3 outwards along the vertical direction on the horizontal plane of the bone stem branches 4, wherein the angle of the branch pulling of the fruiting branches 3 and the vertical included angle of a main trunk 1 are 45 ℃, fixing the fruiting branches 3 on a bracket by using hemp ropes, extending along a straight line, and forming axillary buds in the same year when the variety with the axillary buds can bear fruits in the next year;
in the second year: when pruning is carried out in winter, cutting 25cm from the tip of the first-year branch of the skeletal branch 4, keeping the growth potential of the extension head, continuously extending outwards, and forming 1.5m long bearing branches after two years of growth, wherein the bearing capacity reaches 12-16 fruits;
in the third year: the 2 nd-year bearing branches on the skeletal branches 4 are cut short to continue to extend and grow outwards, and the branches on the back (namely the germinating branches) germinating at the bases of the bearing branches are subjected to pinching and tip control, so that the growth stability and the bearing efficiency of the bearing branches 3 are kept; culturing renewal branches by utilizing the sprouting branches at the base parts of the fruiting branches, and culturing vigorous shoots serving as preparation branches by performing heavy truncation (namely, reserving a truncation of 10-15 cm) on the sprouting branches at the base parts;
planting in the field for the fourth year: the 3 groups of 3-4-year-old large bearing branches with low fruit efficiency and large occupied space, the 3 groups of vigorous fruiting branches and the like are updated, the method is to cut off from the base part at one time, the prepared branches are utilized to fill up the space, and the bearing branches with small occupied space and stable growth are reserved;
planting in the field for the fifth year and later: by updating the base parts of the aged bearing branches, the tree body structure is reasonable, the bearing branches are young and grow stably, the bearing efficiency is high, the fruit quality is excellent, and the method can be repeated for tree body management.
5. Fertilizing water, bagging fruits and managing plant diseases and insect pests.
The fertilizer and water management, fruit bagging and pest control are the same as the conventional management of pear trees.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
according to the method, adjacent pear trees in the same row in the orchard are connected in a grafting mode through the mode of continuous grafting between the backbone branches and the backbone branches on the adjacent trees, so that interactive communication of nutrients is achieved, the waste of nutrients is reduced, balanced tree growth can be maintained, the bearing age of the whole pear tree is prolonged, the utilization rate of the nutrients in soil is improved, meanwhile, the main trunk and the backbone branches are fixed within a specified height through the support, the height of the whole tree is reduced, meanwhile, as the tree structure is simple, the branch levels are reduced, the types of bearing branches are reduced, the bearing branches are replaced in time, the bearing branches are prevented from being seriously aged, and the root sources for generating the fruit quality are reduced; in addition, on the aspect of managing the pear orchard, the management of the orchard is convenient, a fruit grower can conveniently pollinate the pear tree and flower and fruit in time, the quality of flower buds is ensured, the quality and the quantity of pear tree fruits are ensured to the maximum extent, meanwhile, the overall height of the pear tree is reduced, the harvesting difficulty is reduced, the difficulty in bagging is high, the labor cost is reduced, the investment is low, the operation is easy, the effect is quick, and the effect is good; has high practicability and popularization.

Claims (6)

1. The pear tree planting method is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps of pear tree special nursery stock breeding, field planting, tree structure cultivation, fruiting branch cultivation, tree body nutrient complementation, fertilizer and water, fruit bagging and pest and disease damage management;
(1) special seedling breeding method for pear trees
Selecting high-quality pear seeds for hierarchical treatment, sowing and raising seedlings by adopting a small arched shed in spring, transplanting the seedlings when the seedlings grow to 10-15cm, transplanting the seedlings into a plastic nutrition pot with the width of 15-20cm and the height of 25-30cm, selecting flat seedling raising plots, placing the seedlings into a ditch after ditching, enabling the nutrition pot to be exposed to the ground for 5cm, filling soil around the nutrition pot to keep the stability of the seedlings in the nutrition pot, grafting the seedlings in 8-9 months, selecting T-shaped bud grafting or bud grafting with wood, and enabling a connector to be 20cm away from the ground; managing by management modes such as stock shearing, bud picking, righting and the like until the spring of the second year, when the seedling grows to 6 months, carrying out root breaking treatment on the root system, shearing the main root by using a special tool, promoting new lateral roots to grow, and promoting the development of the root system of the seedling; normally managing the fertilizer and water of the seedlings in the period, applying the fertilizer once every month, and using the water-soluble fertilizer until the growth height of the seedlings in autumn reaches 2-3.5 m;
(2) planting in field
Firstly, soil improvement: ditching and applying organic matters into the planting land to improve the soil, wherein the depth is 60cm, and the width is 40 cm;
secondly, planting row direction: the north and south directions;
ridging and planting: ridging the leveled ground at the planting position, wherein the ridge width is 1.5m, and the ridge height is about 35 cm;
fourthly, plant row spacing: 1-2m is multiplied by 4-5 m;
the planting method comprises the following steps: pruning the root system of the seedling, cutting the damaged root system, selecting the seedling with complete root system development and no plant diseases and insect pests for planting, and watering in time after planting to keep survival;
(3) cultivation of tree structures
Selecting more than 2 meters of pear seedlings, field planting the pear seedlings for 25 days, bending each seedling tree body from a position of 120 plus one year from the ground and 150cm away from the ground, wherein the part of the seedling tree body before bending is a main trunk (1), a backbone branch (4) and a second backbone branch (5) are arranged above the bending position, changing the growth direction, facing to an adjacent plant, the part of the seedling tree body before bending is the main trunk (1), branches in the horizontal direction of the bending position and the above parts are used as the backbone branches (4) for culturing, pulling the extending heads of the backbone branches (4) and the second backbone branches (5) along the south and north directions, respectively connecting with the adjacent plant by means of grafting, adopting a method of butt joint at the connecting position, cutting a cut plane (6-1) at the abutting position by using a grafting knife, and then binding and fixing by using a finish clamp or a rubber belt type grafting sleeve (6), after grafting, a bud short section (7) is reserved from the extension head of the grafting position of the extension head plant, the survival rate is improved, and the grafting sleeve (6) is removed after the interface grows firmly in the second year; the trunk branches (4) of the tree do not need to bear fruits, the included angles between the trunk branches (4) and the second trunk branches (5) and the main trunk (1) are 90 ℃, and the trunk branches (4) are fixed by erecting a shed frame main body (2);
(4) fruit branch culture
In the first year: directly culturing fruiting branches (3) on horizontally-growing bone trunk branches (4), culturing by using new shoots growing on the bone trunk branches (4), selecting lateral branches as the fruiting branches (3), wherein the interval of each branch is 20-25cm, when the new shoots of the fruiting branches grow to be more than 50cm, starting to pull the fruiting branches (3) to correct the growth direction, pulling the new shoots outwards along the vertical direction on the horizontal plane of the bone trunk branches (4), fixing the fruiting branches on a bracket by using hemp ropes, extending along a straight line, and forming axillary buds in the same year when the species with axillary buds can bear fruits in the next year;
in the second year: when pruning is carried out in winter, cutting 25cm from the tip of the first-year branch on the skeletal branch (4), keeping the growth potential of the extension head, continuously extending outwards, and forming 1.5m long bearing branches (3) after growing for two years, wherein the bearing capacity reaches 12-16 fruits;
in the third year: the 2 nd-year bearing branches on the skeletal trunk branches (4) are shortened, the bearing branches continue to extend outwards, and the branches on the back, i.e. the germinating branches, which germinate at the bases of the bearing branches are subjected to pinching and tip control, so that the growth stability and bearing efficiency of the bearing branches are maintained;
in the fourth year: large fruiting branch groups, vigorous fruiting branches and the like which grow for 3 to 4 years and have low fruiting efficiency and large occupied space are updated by the method that the fruiting branches (3) which occupy small space and grow stably are reserved, and the space is filled by using the prepared branches after being cut off from the base part at one time;
in the fifth year and later: by updating the base parts of the aged bearing branches, the tree body structure is reasonable, the bearing branches are young and grow stably, the bearing efficiency is high, the fruit quality is excellent, and the method can be repeated for tree body management;
(5) fertilizer water, fruit bagging, and pest management
The fertilizer and water management, fruit bagging and pest control are the same as the conventional management of pear trees.
2. A pear tree planting method according to claim 1, wherein the extended head of the stem branch (4) of the plant is connected with the bent part of the stem branch (4) of the adjacent plant in a grafting manner along the north-south direction and the left-right direction.
3. A pear tree planting method according to claim 1, wherein the two extended ends of the main skeleton branch (4) of the plant are connected with the two extended ends of the main skeleton branch (4) of the adjacent plant in a grafting manner towards the north and south directions.
4. A pear tree planting method according to claim 1, wherein in the first year of the cultivation step of the bearing branches (3), the new shoots are pulled outwards along the vertical direction on the horizontal plane of the backbone branches (4), and the angle of pulling the bearing branches (3) and the vertical angle of the main trunk (1) are 45 ℃.
5. The pear tree planting method according to claim 1, wherein in the fruit branch (3) cultivation step, in the third year, the sprout at the base of the fruit branch (3) is used for cultivating the renewal branch, and the heavy cut of the sprout at the base, namely, the cut of 10-15cm is reserved, so that the vigorous new shoots are promoted to be cultivated as the preliminary branches.
6. A pear tree planting method according to claim 1, wherein the trellis body (2) is of a bamboo-wood structure.
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