CN104838935B - Early management method of planting sweet cherries in south warm region - Google Patents

Early management method of planting sweet cherries in south warm region Download PDF

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CN104838935B
CN104838935B CN201510116259.7A CN201510116259A CN104838935B CN 104838935 B CN104838935 B CN 104838935B CN 201510116259 A CN201510116259 A CN 201510116259A CN 104838935 B CN104838935 B CN 104838935B
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branch
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CN104838935A (en
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吴延军
吴江
郑家祥
陈再宏
李勃
陈鸿才
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Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Abstract

The invention relates to an early management method of planting sweet cherries in a south warm region. The varieties of the sweet cherries comprise Fanduan, summit, Rainey, Hongmi, santina, Russian I or Kosmytchekaja, the used stock is folium isatidis or Gisela, and the early management method comprises the three steps of ridging, field planting and shaping as well as pruning. The early management method disclosed by the invention provides a manner of cultivating a variety with few requirements at a low temperature, combining dwarf stock, utilizing the treatments of ridging and planting in the autumn, taking tree shape cultivation as the center for a young tree, focusing on cutting in the summer instead of in the winter, drawing branches, carving buds, balancing the condition of the tree, and controlling a crown to quickly achieve the fruiting area. According to the early management method, the agricultural structure in the south warm region is regulated, the income is increased for countryside, farmers and agriculture, the ecological environment is improved, and the early management method has important significance on promoting the regional economic development of the region.

Description

South warm area plantation Prunus avium Early postoperative management method
Technical field
The present invention relates to south warm area plantation Prunus avium Early postoperative management method.
Background technology
Fructus Pruni pseudocerasi is Rosaceae (Rosaceae) Prunus Fructus Pruni pseudocerasi Subgenus, and the Fructus Pruni pseudocerasi kind as cultivation of fruit tree has in the world Gean, sour cherry, cherry and Nanking cherry.The Fructus Pruni pseudocerasi that China cultivates as business is mainly Prunus avium (Prunus avium L.) and cherry (Cerasus pseudocerasus).Usually said Prunus avium refers to that Europe is sweet Fructus Pruni pseudocerasi, also referred to as large cherry, be commonly called as car li, and it is the Main way of current or even later Fructus Pruni pseudocerasi development.Sweet cherry fruit color and luster Beauty bright-coloured, sparkling and crystal-clear, red such as Achates, yellow such as lipoid, sweet flavor, fruit rich in sugar, protein, vitamin and calcium, ferrum, phosphorus, The multiple elements such as potassium, especially ferrum, iron-holder up to 5.9mg in every hectogram Fructus Pruni pseudocerasi, occupy in fruit the first, deeply blue or green by consumer Look at.
Compared with cherry, sweet cherry fruit is big, quality better, storage tolerance, is the master of current or even later Fructus Pruni pseudocerasi development Want direction.Sweet cherry fruit is short for growth phase, morning in period of maturation, with cherry with the good reputation having ' BAIGUO first '.With life The raising of level, Prunus avium has become high-grade fruit, and price also increases to 20~40 yuan/kilogram, precocious area reach 50~60 yuan/ Kilogram, and up to 70~100 yuan/kilogram of protecting field, the highest, plantation Prunus avium becomes the plant husbandry of superelevation profit, quilt It is described as ' gold plant husbandry ', ' rising industry '.38.0 ten thousand have the most been reached public to world's Prunus avium gross areas in 2013 and yield Just with 213.1 ten thousand tons.As an efficient plant husbandry, the production area of world's Prunus avium and yield the most linearly rise Gesture.The Prunus avium of China's cultivation predominantly country such as Europe and North America kind, in the northern area of China, performance is good.Due to bigger Market potential and higher planting benefit, China Prunus avium produce also by places of production such as traditional Shandong, Liaoning rapidly to Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Shaanxi, Gansu and cloud, expensive, river etc. cool and highly expand.Cold in " traditional " Bohai Gulf area and " emerging " While the flourish Prunus avium industry of cool highland, the middle and lower reach of Yangtze River such as southern warm area such as Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hunan, Shanghai The R&D institution in area and agribusiness also continuously attempt to the introducing and planting of Prunus avium, attempt south pushing away Prunus avium industry Enter.
Pujiang County is positioned in the middle part of Zhejiang Province, is located in north latitude 29 ° 27 ', east longitude 119 ° 53 ', belongs to subtropical zone monsoon climate.Nian Ping All temperature 16.6 DEG C, average annual precipitations 1412.2 millimeters.1996.2 hours sunshine of year.About 238 days frost-free period.Annual temperature exists The time of less than 7.2 DEG C was at about 1100 hours.Typically 6, set-in of plum rains in July, May, rainfall was the biggest.As can be seen here, Pujiang Plantation Prunus avium can meet the chilling requirement requirement of part kind, but needs to overcome summer temp too high, big unfavorable of rainfall Climatic factor.Rainfall is big, and summer temp is too high, can cause Prunus avium excessive growth (only spending fruitless), flower early stage and florescence high temperature, Being deteriorated by flood, dehiscent fruit, fruit quality, pest and disease damage is multiple etc..If can cultivate successfully in Zhejiang, carry than north outdoor cropping Front listing, fruit maturation early, increase market supply phase of Prunus avium, save cost of transportation, price is high, has the highest warp Ji profit, more can develop city green agriculture and Sightseeing Orchard, adjusts the structure of rural undertaking, increases suburb farmers' income.And Early, fruit development period is short, from setting to maturation, substantially need not go and buy Chinese medicine, it is easier to reach " green " or " organic " for Prunus avium maturation Standard, can provide the freshest healthy fruit for Residents in Shanghai.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide south warm area plantation Prunus avium Early postoperative management method, the method integrated efficient mark The Technical system of standardization, to warm area, south agricultural sector structure adjustment, rural area, peasant, gets agricultural profit, improves ecology Environment, drives local area economic development significant.
In order to realize above-mentioned purpose, present invention employs following technical scheme:
South warm area plantation Prunus avium Early postoperative management method, described sweet cherry variety selects that Fan is short, Sa meter Tuo, thunder Buddhist nun, red honey, Sang Tina, Russia 1 or the biggest fruit, the stock of use is Folium Isatidis or Gisela, Prunus avium Early postoperative management side Method comprises the following steps:
One, ridging:
Field planting ridge height 0.4m, wide 1.5m, seeding row spacing is 2m × 4m, in the ranks digs the gutter of each 0.2m deep, wide;
Two, field planting:
Treelet uses fall planting or spring planting, every mu of application of organic fertilizers 2000kg before field planting, is stained with root with the K84 of 10 times and prevents before field planting Crown gall, pours water after ridging field planting heavy real, and covers black mulch film moisture-keeping;
Three, shaping and pruning:
1) shaping:
Warm area Prunus avium increment is big, uses spindle in field;The height of tree shaped controls at below 2.5m, is preced with width 2.5~3m;
Spindle Shu Tiju center is done, and treelet is based on sparse branching and carves bud, cultivates side shoot and fruitful branch, forms standard as early as possible Tree-like;Plant and setting fixed pole at body mobile jib overhead 60cm, lower first of clip before rudiment in spring after First Year is fallen leaves in the winter time Bud stays full bud away from clip 1.5cm, and strong for pumping prosperous branch is made trunk elongated shoot by it;2 buds under this bud are erased;To promote other bud Sprouting;Send out branch after the beginning of spring below, stay 4~5, form the ground floor of tree body;Second Year selects every about 10cm below mobile jib Take orientation stagger, full 3 buds, above the bud of middle choosing 1cm be in the budding period carry out carve bud, carve bud the degree of depth to reach wood Matter portion, inspires major branch;Carving bud width is the half of branch thick;Form the second layer of tree body;After determining to do, clip to wax, to paint Or animal oil;
If directly plantation seedlings person, then fixed pole at mobile jib overhead 1 meter, stays full bud, under this bud at 2cm under clip 2 buds to be erased;Stay the 4th bud, then smear 3 buds, after staying 1 bud every about 10cm choose orientation stagger, full 3 buds, in middle choosing Above bud, 1cm is in the budding period and carries out carving bud, carves the degree of depth xylem to be reached of bud, inspires major branch, and carving bud width is that branch is thick The half of degree;The most directly form two layers of major branch;
If base portion is more than the Seedling of 1 major branch, it is most important that selected mobile jib, selects enriching shoot, vertical angle big and be distributed relatively Being left mobile jib for branch placed in the middle, other branch processes according to following principle: when branch is many, and competitive branch stays 1~2 bud short at base portion Cut;When competitive branch is few, competitive branch is evened up, when drawing, allow branch equalize occupancy level space as far as possible;Along shoot growth direction, Can at the above 60cm of branch under cut, strong for germinating prosperous branch is decided by lower first bud of clip away from more than clip 1.5cm, the first bud Dry elongated shoot;Bud within 10cm below lower first bud of clip to be erased;Orientation is chosen the most in its lower section wrong every about 10cm Open, full 3 buds, above the bud of middle choosing 1cm be in the budding period carry out carve bud, carve bud degree of depth xylem to be reached, promote Send out major branch;
2) prune:
Because south Growth status amount is significantly greater than the north, treelet carries out the summer pruning at the center that is shaped as, from April to 8 Want regular the moon irregularly to carry out;The main method of summer pruning includes angle of release, pinching, top clipping, the torsion tip, removes and sprout and draw branch;Draw Branch: carry out after the beginning of spring;Must draw along the bearing of trend of branch when drawing, angle 80~90 degree;
Carve bud: rudiment in spring carves bud in first 15 days, inspires branch and bouquet shape brachyplast, the bud at quarter of back bud, lateral bud and lower bud Position and mode are different;Back bud carves bud after bud, reduces nutrient, promotes into bud;If back bud carves bud easily shape before bud Become the branch of excessive growth, not only can not play and promote into colored effect, reduce nutrient on the contrary;Lateral bud and lower bud carve bud before having bud, inspire Branch;North carves bud before bud, and purpose becomes branch to promote bud;Other May then starts to November from field planting such as angle of release Part, center is done the upper mitogenetic young sprout toothpick growing into 20cm or small bamboo spike carries out supportting branch the first transaction of a day's business base angle;Sprig grows to 10cm pinching or turn round the tip, grows after 2~3 leaves priming leaf repeatedly.
The present invention proposes the kind utilizing cultivation chilling requirement few, in conjunction with downgrading type stock, utilizes ridging;Autumn Plant;Treelet is centered by cultivation is tree-like;The weight summer cuts, and the light winter cuts, and draws branch to carve bud, balances tree vigo(u)r, controls tree crown and is rapidly achieved result Area.To warm area, south agricultural sector structure adjustment, rural area, peasant, get agricultural profit, improve the ecological environment, drive place Regional Economic Development is significant.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1: Prunus avium is in the performance in Zhejiang Province;A: Fan is short, B: Sa meter Tuo, C: thunder Buddhist nun, D: red honey, E: the Prunus avium florescence, F: deformity young fruit.
Detailed description of the invention
1, Introduced Varieties:
We have the most successively introduced more than 30 kind, wherein from Bulgaria's introduced variety 3, Shandong Province's fruit tree research Institute's introduced variety 15, Academy of Agricultural Sciences of Qingdao City introduced variety 10, northwest agricultural university introduces 2 (table 1), at Pujiang etc. Phenological period and the plant growth characteristics describing Prunus avium growth is observed on ground in detail, and the lifes in 4 years introduced wherein 2009 are big Tree has carried out phenological period, yield, fruit quality observation record.
Table 1 is from the part sweet cherry variety of domestic introduction
2, Introduced Varieties is in the performance of Pujiang County:
1) Introduced Varieties next year is in the performance of Pujiang County:
Introduce a fine variety next year, drawn phenological period and the result situation of 15 kinds, rudiment at the beginning of Pujiang is 3 months in 2010, March Flower is contained at the end, ripe before and after major part kind mid-May.Wherein the percentage of fertile fruit of thunder Buddhist nun is the highest, is 64.3%;Next to that pioneer and Fan Short, respectively reach more than 48%.The percentage of fertile fruit of U.S. morning, red Nanyang, Ukraine's series of products and Russia 1 is relatively low. After major part fruit fully maturation, quality is good, and the pol of the biggest fruit has reached 18.5;And no-dehiscent fruit phenomenon occurs.2010 Its chilling requirement of Prunus avium of Pujiang plantation is to accumulate in Shandong, exists so within 2010, being only capable of can not representing Prunus avium as reference The truth of Pujiang.
2) Introduced Varieties was observed in the Pujiang County phenological period:
Within 2012, Introduced Varieties is many at rudiment in March, mid or late March to flower opened just now in April, and mid or late May is ripe, and 11 below the moon Start fallen leaves ten days, and progress into dormancy (table 2).Bloom and the period of maturation wants Zao than the Prunus avium of north.
Table 2, Pujiang County Prunus avium are introduced a fine variety the phenological period and are observed
Continued 2
Continued 2
3) Introduced Varieties is observed in Pujiang County breediness:
Yield and commodity fruit rate
From table 3 Prunus avium result behavioral observation, each variety yield substantially can be divided into 3 classes: 1) Fan is short, Sa meter Tuo, Thunder Buddhist nun's strain is produced can reach 20~40 jin/strain (Figure 1A~C);2) red honey, Sang Tina, Russia 1, the strain of the biggest fruit are produced and are reached 10 ~20 jin/strain, wherein the biggest fruit yield is unstable, best with 2014;3) red light, beautiful early yield relatively low (table 3).
Table 3: result behavioral observation introduced a fine variety by Prunus avium
The one-tenth flower ability and the normal flower rate that simultaneously observe Introduced Varieties in plantation have obvious difference, and wherein Fan is short, red Honey becomes flower ability best, and flower amount is big, and trees are in full blossom (Fig. 1 E);Lei Nihua amount is moderate;Red light becomes flower ability worst.Therefore in producing Taking different cultivation steps, Fan's honey short, red flower amount is big, need to reduce invalid flower and improve fruiting rate further;Red light flower amount Need at least to promote flower, improve into colored power.
Deformed fruit rate statistics finds, wherein malformed fruit rate soprano is that Fan is short, reaches 29.7%, red honey, red light, the best, Sa meter Tuo is to take second place.Remaining kind malformed fruit rate is less, and more than 95% is commodity fruits.Shuangzi fruit, three son fruits occur in garden Even four sons fruit (Fig. 1 F).Malformed fruit rate in present stage 30% can accept not yet, along with the Prunus avium marketization gradually Deeply, abnormal rate height will become restriction factor.Therefore Zhejiang plantation Prunus avium time after yield reaches requirement it is also contemplated that this The factor.
2.3.2 fruit quality
The sweet cherry fruit quality that Zhejiang produces is as shown in table 4, with same breed at grown place, north no significant difference.Can As long as seeing and reaching a standard in Zhejiang Prunus avium economic production quantity, fruit quality temporarily will not become the factor of developmental limitation.
Table 4: Pujiang County Prunus avium is introduced a fine variety fruit quality and observed
Continued 4
Continued 4
3 suitably at the recommendation of new cultivars of Pujiang development:
By this comprehensive observing of nearly 10 years, the regional development especially to Pujiang in Zhejiang area with similar habitat is sweet The successful probabilities of kind such as during Fructus Pruni pseudocerasi Fan is short, Sa meter Tuo, Lei Ni and red honey are bigger.They are at result photo such as Fig. 1 of Pujiang.
4, the south sweet cherry rootstock impact on sweet cherry variety:
The stock that Prunus avium is widely used has Folium Isatidis, Gisela, a ZY-1, horse Harry, examines top grade etc..Wherein:
1). Folium Isatidis dungarunga or shrub.It is that the excellent Prunus avium that Shandong Yantai City selects from cherry is tall Change stock.But the Prunus avium tree crown of grafting on Herba Hygrophilae Salicifoliae Fructus Pruni pseudocerasi is little compared with the tree crown that horse Harry does stock.With most Prunus avium product Plant grafting affinity stronger.Rhizoma Imperatae is more flourishing, and adaptability is relatively strong, and anti-crown gall, drought resistance are general, intolerant to waterlogging.Grafting Prunus avium product After Zhong, tree body is taller and bigger, and Root Distribution is shallow, meets strong wind and easily lodges.After grafting strain field planting 3 years start result, enter and need 6 the best fruiting period ~7 years.Mainly use tiller, mound layering.Suitable growth in sandy loam or gravelly loam, on heavy soil during growth, The easy gummosis of trees in richful production period grafting part, also has " bound feet " phenomenon.Making the suitable seeding row spacing of stock with Folium Isatidis is 2.5~3 × 4m, I.e. every mu 55~66 strains of planting.
2), GiselaNo.5 grafting Prunus avium tree body size on " GiselaNo.5 " stock is only " campstool moral " stock 45%, tree body is opened a business, and branch base angle is big, saves labour, equipment, chemical drugs, and is easy to management operation.Very early bearing, 2-3 The raw result that starts, usual 4-7 life 5-15Kg/ strain, anti-prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV) and prune dwarf virus (PDV). Soil suitability is wide, and on clayed ground, performance is good.Sprout tillers is few, admittedly functional, but still need to support, resistance to-30 DEG C low of winter Temperature.But under and bad cultivation condition few at very dead soil and natural precipitation, shoot growth amount is little, and fruit diminishes, easy senilism.Plant Training density is: every mu of 84~111 strains of planting, seeding row spacing is 2 × 3~4m.
After these stocks of project first preanalysis Prunus avium, Folium Isatidis and GiselaNo.5 is selected to carry out contrast test. The growth potential of experimental observation grafting some kinds on Folium Isatidis and GiselaNo.5 and result quantities, graft on Folium Isatidis Sweet cherry variety increment is far longer than the increment grafting on GiselaNo.5, and flower amount is few, and bud does not enriches, therefore result Rate is low.Grafting in the kind growth on GiselaNo.5 the most suitable, flower amount is big, and bud enriches, and fruiting rate is high.But Sang Tina with GiselaNo.5 is stock, then increment is too small, and growing way is weak, is insufficient for producing;With Folium Isatidis for stock then growth potential relatively Good, this may be relatively weak relevant with the growth potential of Sang Tina itself..
Zhejiang high temperature and rainy, rich water is sufficient, and trunk infusion growth easily excess, same kind can in the sprout in Zhejiang one season To grow to 2.6 meters, and the same kind sprout in Shandong grows to 1.5~1.8 meters, it is seen that the Prunus avium increment grown in Zhejiang is far away Exceed Shandong.As can be seen here, Prunus avium is big in Zhejiang tree height, it is difficult to Cheng Hua, and manages inconvenience, in Zhejiang area one Dwarf Effect on Dwarf to be selected is good, the stock that Flood resistance is strong, and selecting Gisela for most of kinds is that stock is preferable, fully profit Downgrade ability with it, reduce growth potential, be finally reached balance tree vigo(u)r, promote flower and promote the effect of fruit.Zhejiang area wind-force is big and often has There is typhoon phenomenon, plant experimentally region at us and bracing wire need to be coordinated to prevent the shortcoming that GiselaNo.5 property admittedly is not enough.But for Sang Tina Suggestion use Folium Isatidis be stock, this may growth potential own with Sang Tina the most relevant.
The committed step of Prunus avium Early postoperative management method of the present invention: ridging;Fall planting;Treelet is centered by cultivation is tree-like;Weight Summer cuts, and the light winter cuts, and draws branch to carve bud, balances tree vigo(u)r, controls tree crown and is rapidly achieved result area.
One, ridging: field planting ridge height 0.4m, wide 1.5m, seeding row spacing is 2m × 4m, in the ranks digs the gutter of each 0.2m deep, wide. With row spacing 4 meters and not compared with ridging, wide 1.5 meters substantially to get well.Wide 4 meters similar to not ridging, it is impossible to reach to reduce ground The effect of lower water, impeded drainage.(this is one of place different from north)
Two, field planting: treelet uses fall planting or spring planting.Advise that southern warm area is preferably fall planting.Use for every mu before field planting Fertilizer 2000kg.(this is the most important for south, and south soil property is glued, and holds to be stained with the anti-crown gall of root with the K84 of 10 times before field planting It is easily generated crown gall).Pour water after ridging field planting heavy real, and cover black mulch film moisture-keeping.
Three, shaping and pruning:
Shaping:
Warm area Prunus avium increment is big, should use spindle in field.Spindle is tree-like can fully adjust branch The growth potential of bar, reduces the branch of excessive growth, and branch need to draw branch amount to significantly reduce.The height of tree shaped controls at below 2.5m, hat 2.5~ 3m.Natural open centre shape branch is excessively upright, and growth potential is the most prosperous, not only causes the later stage to draw a workload big, time-consuming takes a lot of work, and unfavorable In flower_bud formation.
Spindle Shu Tiju center is done.Treelet is based on sparse branching and carves bud, cultivates side shoot and fruitful branch, forms standard as early as possible Tree-like.Plant and setting fixed pole at body mobile jib overhead 60cm, lower first of clip before rudiment in spring after First Year is fallen leaves in the winter time Bud stays full bud away from clip about 1.5cm, and strong for pumping prosperous branch is made trunk elongated shoot by it.2 buds under this bud are erased;To promote it The sprouting of its bud.Branch is sent out below after the beginning of spring.Stay 4~5, form the ground floor of tree body.Second Year below mobile jib every about Orientation of choosing 10cm staggers, full 3 buds, above the bud of middle choosing 1cm be in the budding period carry out carve bud, carve bud the degree of depth want Reach xylem, inspire major branch.Carving bud width is the half of branch thick.Form the second layer of tree body.After determining to do, clip is wanted Waxing, paint or animal oil.
If directly plantation seedlings person, then in mobile jib overhead about 1 meter place's fixed pole, under clip, at 2cm, stay full bud, this bud Under 2 buds to erase;Stay the 4th bud, then smear 3 buds, after staying 1 bud every about 10cm choose orientation stagger, full 3 buds, in Above the bud of choosing, 1cm is in the budding period and carries out carving bud, carves the degree of depth xylem to be reached of bud, inspires major branch, and carving bud width is branch The half of bar rugosity.The most directly form two layers of major branch.
If base portion is more than the Seedling of 1 major branch, it is most important that selected mobile jib, selects enriching shoot, vertical angle big and be distributed relatively Being left mobile jib for branch placed in the middle, the processing mode of mobile jib is ibid.Other branch processes according to following principle: when branch is many, competition Branch stays 1~2 bud cutting back at base portion;When competitive branch is few, competitive branch is evened up, when drawing, allow branch equilibrium occupancy level empty as far as possible Between, can be along shoot growth direction.Can at the above 60cm of branch under cut, lower first bud of clip away from more than clip 1.5cm, Strong for germinating prosperous branch is done trunk elongated shoot by first bud;Bud within 10cm below lower first bud of clip to be erased;Again at it Below every about 10cm choose orientation stagger, full 3 buds, above the bud of middle choosing 1cm be in the budding period carry out carve bud, carve The degree of depth xylem to be reached of bud, inspires major branch.
Prune:
Because south Growth status amount is significantly greater than the north, treelet carries out the summer pruning at the center that is shaped as, treelet summer Prune mainly for controlling the prosperous length of branch, increase branch sum of series branch amount, promote that branch class converts, accelerate to expand tree crown.Because of south Fang Shengzhi amount is big, and therefore summer pruning workload is big, wants regular and irregularly carry out from April to August.The main side of summer pruning Method have angle of release, pinching, top clipping, the torsion tip, except sprouting, draw branch etc..Wherein drawing branch is the pass that south warm area plantation Prunus avium is pruned Key technology measure.Branch is drawn to can be carried out after the beginning of spring.Must draw along the bearing of trend of branch when drawing, angle 80~90 Degree.Branch is drawn to play balance tree vigo(u)r, adjust shoot growth direction and space.
The pruning technique of another one key is to carve bud.Rudiment in spring carves bud in first about 15 days, inspires branch and bouquet shape Brachyplast, bud at the quarter position of back bud, lateral bud and lower bud and mode are different.Back bud carves bud after bud, reduces nutrient, promotes into colored Bud.If back bud is carved bud before bud and easily formed the branch of excessive growth, not only can not play and promote into colored effect, reduce foster on the contrary Point.Lateral bud and lower bud carve bud before having bud, inspire branch.North carves bud before bud, and purpose becomes branch to promote bud.Other is such as angle of release Start to November May then from field planting, center is done the upper mitogenetic young sprout toothpick or little growing into about 20cm Bamboo let carries out supportting branch the first transaction of a day's business base angle.Sprig grows to about 10cm pinching or turns round the tip, grows after 2~3 leaves priming leaf repeatedly.
Four, fertilising and water management (conventional steps):
The first three years plantation is main to be grown to, and therefore attaches most importance to base manure in autumn in fertilising, and autumn, base manure was early executed preferably, exists more October is carried out.Fertilizer, based on fertilizer, can mix a small amount of nitrogen fertilizer.After base manure, as run into arid, foot to be watered and water Thoroughly, after watering, to do soil moisture conservation well, strengthen the ability that tree body is survived the winter.Growing season can supplement fertilizer the most on a small quantity.South rainfall Abundance, except extreme weather, treelet need not additionally pour water.
Five, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control (conventional steps):
Late November to rest period at the beginning of 2 months, to carry out early after tree body drop leaf trunk whitewashing (formula proportion of white-out agent: Quick lime 10 kilograms, Cosan 1 kilogram, Sal 1 kilogram, vegetable oil 0.1 kilogram, 20 kilograms of water) and clear garden work (removing disease Really, sick leaf, sick branch take out of buried in the garden outside or burn), spray lime sulfur.
Spraying 5 Baume degrees lime sulfurs before early Febuary rudiment, coccid occurs serious orchard should spray 40% methidathion breast Oil 1500 times.Canker, dry rot scab are scraped and are controlled coating by mid-February to the early March budding period, as found the danger such as Anoplophorae seu Aprionae Evil finds note dry hole, with the hole of the blocking branch-trunk insect such as poison label, kills off the insect pests.To June it should be noted that strengthen preventing and treating Herba Marsileae Quadrifoliae hair after germination The generation of the big gourdshaped weevil first of chafer, east chafer and young garden (spray that the Gold Testudinis of 1500 times is clean or phoxim baythion, and with black Light modulation or sweet-and-sour liquid trapping).From mid-April to August note the leaf diseases such as shothole disease, leaf spot (Mancozeb of 800 times or The thiophanate methyl of 1500 times is used alternatingly), prevent and treat red neck Anoplophorae seu Aprionae with the worm channel on the blocking branchs such as poison label.The whole life of bleeding disease Will prevent and treat for a long time, after striking off glue, be coated with 5+500 times of carbendazim of Baume degrees lime sulfur or the spirit of foliage-spray peach tree gummosis, Find at any time in trophophase to prevent and treat at any time.Mid-June to August, young sprout vigorous period strengthened preventing and treating leaf diseases.Note seeing Examine the generation of the pest and disease damages such as telson moth, boat-shaped caterpillar, oriental fruit months, shothole disease, brown rot, carry out manually according to Harm Preventing and treating or medical treatment.
It is that this phase is most important, the work of most critical that the vegetative storage phase in November protects blade, so it is noted that preventing and treating early Phase defoliation.

Claims (1)

1. south warm area plantation Prunus avium Early postoperative management method, it is characterised in that: described sweet cherry variety select Fan short, Sa meter Tuo, thunder Buddhist nun, red honey, Sang Tina, Russia 1 or the biggest fruit, the stock of use is Folium Isatidis or Gisela, and Prunus avium is early Period management method comprises the following steps:
One, ridging:
Field planting ridge height 0.4m, wide 1.5m, seeding row spacing is 2m × 4m, in the ranks digs the gutter of each 0.2m deep, wide;
Two, field planting:
Treelet uses fall planting or spring planting, every mu of application of organic fertilizers 2000kg before field planting, is stained with anti-of root with the K84 of 10 times before field planting Cancer, pours water after ridging field planting heavy real, and covers black mulch film moisture-keeping;
Three, shaping and pruning:
1) shaping:
Warm area Prunus avium increment is big, uses spindle in field;The height of tree shaped controls at below 2.5m, hat 2.5 ~3m;
Spindle Shu Tiju center is done, and treelet is based on sparse branching and carves bud, cultivates side shoot and fruitful branch, forms standard tree as early as possible Shape;Plant after First Year is fallen leaves in the winter time fixed dry, away from clip under clip at tree body trunk overhead 60cm before rudiment in spring It is first bud that 1.5cm selects full bud to give over to, and strong for pumping prosperous branch is made trunk elongated shoot by it;2 buds under this bud are erased;To promote The sprouting of other bud;Send out branch after the beginning of spring below, stay 4 ~ 5, form the ground floor of tree body;Second Year below trunk every about Orientation of choosing 10cm staggers, full 3 buds, above the bud of middle choosing 1cm be in the budding period carry out carve bud, carve bud the degree of depth want Reach xylem, inspire major branch;Carving bud width is the half of branch thick;Form the second layer of tree body;After determining to do, clip is wanted Waxing, paint or animal oil;
If directly plantation seedlings person, then fixed dry at trunk overhead 1 meter, stay full bud under clip at 2cm, 2 buds under this bud Erase;Stay the 4th bud, then smear 3 buds, after staying 1 bud every about 10cm choose orientation stagger, full 3 buds, on the bud of middle choosing Side 1cm is in the budding period to carry out carving bud, carves the degree of depth xylem to be reached of bud, inspires major branch, and carving bud width is branch thick Half;The most directly form two layers of major branch;
If base portion is more than the Seedling of 1 major branch, it is most important that selected trunk, selects enriching shoot, vertical angle big and distribution more occupies In branch be left trunk, other branch processes according to following principle: when branch is many, and competitive branch stays 1 ~ 2 bud cutting back at base portion;Competing Strive branch few time, competitive branch is evened up, when drawing, allows branch equalize occupancy level space as far as possible;Along shoot growth direction, at branch Cutting under at above 60cm, lower first bud of clip is away from more than clip 1.5cm, and strong for germinating prosperous branch is done trunk and extends by the first bud Branch;Bud within 10cm below lower first bud of clip to be erased;The most in its lower section every about 10cm choose orientation stagger, full 3 buds, above the bud of middle choosing at 1cm, in the budding period carry out carve bud, carve bud degree of depth xylem to be reached, inspire major branch;
2) prune:
Because south Growth status amount is significantly greater than the north, treelet carries out the summer pruning at the center that is shaped as, and wants from April to August Regular irregularly carry out;The main method of summer pruning includes angle of release, pinching, top clipping, the torsion tip, removes and sprout and draw branch;Draw branch: from Carry out after the beginning of spring;Must draw along the bearing of trend of branch when drawing, angle 80 ~ 90 degree;
Carve bud: rudiment in spring carves bud in first 15 days, inspires branch and bouquet shape brachyplast, bud at the quarter position of back bud, lateral bud and lower bud And mode is different;Back bud carves bud after bud, reduces nutrient, promotes into bud;If back bud is carved bud before bud and is easily formed apprentice Long shoot, not only can not play and promote into colored effect, reduce nutrient on the contrary;Lateral bud and lower bud carve bud before bud, inspire branch;North Bud is carved before being planted in bud by side, and purpose becomes branch to promote bud;Other May then starts to November from field planting such as angle of release, right The mitogenetic young sprout toothpick growing into 20cm is done at center or small bamboo spike carries out supportting branch the first transaction of a day's business base angle;Sprig grows to 10 cm and plucks The heart or turn round the tip, grows after 2 ~ 3 leaves priming leaf repeatedly.
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