CN103444481B - The method of ground, arid biogeographic zone Gobi desert plantation red date - Google Patents

The method of ground, arid biogeographic zone Gobi desert plantation red date Download PDF

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CN103444481B
CN103444481B CN201310400806.5A CN201310400806A CN103444481B CN 103444481 B CN103444481 B CN 103444481B CN 201310400806 A CN201310400806 A CN 201310400806A CN 103444481 B CN103444481 B CN 103444481B
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jujube
water
grafting
stock
fertilizer
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CN103444481A (en
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王兰
王东健
冯宏祖
王合理
王耀武
张献辉
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Tarim University
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Tarim University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of method of planting red date in arid biogeographic zone Gobi desert, in arid biogeographic zone Gobi desert as planting site, utilize wild jujube, Keshen circle jujube do stock, grey jujube, fine horse jujube, Hami Chinese date, No. one, Jinchang, the annotinous branch of praising the kinds such as new jujube is selected to carry out grafting as scion, cultivate nursery stock, build up base, red date garden.Implement the present invention and make use of wide Gobi desert land resources fully; using water wisely; red dates industry can be developed on the ground in scale ground in Gobi desert, arid area; simultaneously controlling ecological environment effectively; wasteland is made to become local special fruit tree base; obtain material wealth, support arid area scientific development sustainably.

Description

The method of ground, arid biogeographic zone Gobi desert plantation red date
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of plant growing technology, specifically a kind of method of planting red date, particularly plant the method for red date in arid biogeographic zone Gobi desert.
Background technology
Jujube tree (Ziziphus ju jubamill) belong to Rhamnaceae jujube, in China, cultivation history is long, is the main cultivation economic tree in many places.Red date nutrient enriches, and not only can eat raw, and can make dry and processing, or good health-care food.Because economic worth is high, domestic and international selling market is wide, is successively introduced a fine variety to the ground such as Japan, Korea, the U.S., Philippine, India, Thailand, is a kind of dark seeds of welcoming by common people.
Southern Xinjiang is vast in territory, and sunlight-heat reaources enriches, and the sunshine time is long, and day and night temperature is large, and possess the advantageous natural conditions of Developing Local Special Fruit Trees industry, the red date excellent quality of producing, other tool regional characteristics, comparative advantages competitiveness is strong.Domestic and international expert unanimously thinks that having a high potential of red dates industry is developed in Xinjiang.
But Xinjiang most area drought, and be Gobi deserf, the many gravels in ground, Gobi desert, soil is barren, seepage is serious, is generally difficult to utilization, therefore becomes wasteland through the ages.
Therefore, a kind of in arid area, the method particularly utilizing water saving measures scale to build up red date jujube garden on the Gobi desert of arid area is just arisen at the historic moment.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of method of planting red date, particularly planting the method for red date in arid biogeographic zone Gobi desert, by setting up red date plantation in arid biogeographic zone Gobi desert, and then having developed local characteristic forest and fruit, promote arid area sustainable economic development, and change Desert ecoenvironment.
For achieving the above object, the technical solution used in the present invention is: in the Gobi desert of arid biogeographic zone pH value 6.5 ~ 8.5 as planting site, utilize wild jujube, Keshen circle jujube do stock, grey jujube, fine horse jujube, Hami Chinese date, No. one, Jinchang, the annotinous branch of praising the kinds such as new jujube is selected to carry out grafting as scion, cultivate nursery stock, build up base, red date garden.
Wholely: to the hard ground, Gobi desert of arid first with machinery trench digging, namely the spacing of ditch afforests line-spacing, for suitable dense planting high yield be convenient to mechanical work from now on, adopts line-spacing 3 ~ 4 meters trench digging.The specification of ditch is: suitable for reading wide 40 ~ 50 centimetres, dark 30 ~ 40 centimetres.Spread the fertilizer executed 5 ~ 10cm and became thoroughly decomposed after holding ditch successfully at bottom of trench, on fertilizer, then cover the thin sand and soil of 15 ~ 20cm, and flatten, wait for sowing, before covering, the ratchel of more than 5cm in thin sand and soil is picked.
Stock is sowed: program request that employing film punches, the sowing of under-film drip irrigation pattern, time generally at late March to early April, seed mainly adopts the wild jujube kind benevolence after broken shell, adopt line-spacing 3 ~ 4 meters, cave apart from 1.0 ~ 1.5m, sowing depth 3 ~ 5cm, sowing kind of benevolence amount 0.3 ~ 0.5 kilogram every mu, carries out the item operations such as fenestra grave mound, flanging after broadcasting.
Stock field management: after planting carry out drip irrigation, from emerging, should be noted that and hold up soil to some nursery stock, carries out benefit soil pressure limit to part film.
When nursery stock grows 5 ~ 6 true leaves, can in conjunction with executing drip irrigation fertilizer, every mu of consumption 5 ~ 10 kilograms, vegetative period 2 ~ 3 times, early stage nitrogenous fertilizer, later stage N-P-K mixed fertilizer.Annual drip irrigation 12 ~ 15 times, every mu of irrigation quantity 15 ~ 20m at every turn 3.
When height of seedling grows to about 10cm, when carrying out thinning final singling, early stage, 2 strains were stayed in every cave, and as the average 15 ~ 20cm of height of seedling, final singling stays 1 strain as permanent strain again, pinches, make acceleration girth growth when nursery stock grows to 60 ~ 70cm.
Mid-September cuts off the water, its lignification short.Mid or late October fills with 1 water of surviving the winter again.
Garden is built in grafting: during the stock rudiment of spring in next year, and gave before mid-April in ground and fill with a water, after making grafting, the neat fast-growing of bud is told in scion.
During grafting, weed a garden, on ground, anvil is cut at 1 ~ 5cm place, uses scion of sealing with wax, and adopts scion grafting or bud grafting, is preferably scion grafting.
Nursery stock management after grafting: after grafting 10 ~ 15 days, scion is rudiment substantially all, waters, erase simultaneously to stock rudiment after at this moment can carrying out grafting, to promote grafting bud fast-growing.Like this, watered time water every 10 ~ 15 days, continuous 3 ~ 4 times later; Smear stock bud 2 ~ 3 times.Loosen the soil after watering in good time, pour water the whole year 10 ~ 12 times, loosen the soil 3 ~ 4 times, combine therebetween and water and execute drip irrigation fertilizer, every mu of consumption 10 ~ 15 kilograms, vegetative period 2 ~ 3 times, early stage nitrogenous fertilizer, later stage N-P-K mixed fertilizer.
Pinching really short: when nursery stock grows tall 60 ~ 70cm, pinch, bearing fruit with blooming to promote that nursery stock is sturdy.
During nursery stock fallen leaves in late autumn, note having watered winter irrigation water.
So far, the garden of building is completed on the ground in arid biogeographic zone Gobi desert.
Under intensive management, grafting can receive fresh jujube 100 ~ 150 kilograms then.Now namely Gobi desert builds up the red date garden of every mu of 300 ~ 400 strains.
Above-mentioned stock sowing is best to be carried out apart from 0.5 ~ 0.75m with line-spacing 1.5 ~ 2.0m, cave, in the management of 2 ~ 5 afterwards year, late autumn nursery stock fallen leaves time or take as the case may be to excavate 1 row every a line, the mode of digging 1 ~ 2 strain every a strain is carried out thinning and is removed, finally by 3 ~ 4 meters, spacing in the rows 1.0 ~ 1.5m retains permanent strain.
The nursery stock dug out then can be used as commercial seedling and sells.
Complete the management of the nursery stock behind the garden of building: after Second Year soil in spring thaws, general late March, every strain to spread manuer in holes a fertilizer, fill with once permeable then to jujube garden, in conjunction with pouring water, coupling applies urea.
Pre-preventing disease and pest: with sulphur, lime, water, in proportion 2:1.2 ~ 1.5:15 ~ 20, boil lime sulfur.Before jujube tree rudiment, be made into 3 ~ 5 Baume degrees and spray jujube tree limb and tree face, base; After jujube tree rudiment, be made into 0.3 Baume degrees and spray again once.To prevent and treat sterilization, to kill mite and desinsection.
Pour water, apply fertilizer: after having filled with rudiment water in early stage and fertilising, be also noted that filling with good flower water in early stage (early June) and the young fruit contained expands water (August), and with water coincidence fertilising, pour water the whole year 10 ~ 12 times, apply fertilizer 3 ~ 4 times.Cut off the water to the last ten-days period in September, its lignification short, fills with sufficient water of surviving the winter before freezing.
Cultivate tree-like: while building garden Getting Bumper Crops By Close Planting in early stage, will note pruning and cultivate the tree-like of permanent strain, determine that 1 strain is permanent strain by spacing in the rows 1.0 ~ 1.5 meters, all the other are as interim strain.
The cultivation of permanent strain is as follows: coronule dredges the one in a layer shape, spindle, fan-shaped or natural open centre shape.
Coronule dredges layer shape: the high 50 ~ 60cm of backbone, the height of tree 200 ~ 230cm.Full tree has 6 ~ 8 major branches, divides 2 ~ 3 layers and is arranged in central backbone, 3 ~ 4, ground floor major branch, 2 ~ 3, second layer major branch, 1 ~ 2, third layer major branch; Each major branch raw side shoot: ground floor 1 major branch 2 side shoot, the 2nd, 3 layer 2 ~ 1.
Spindle: the high 40 ~ 50cm of backbone, the height of tree about 180 ~ 220cm, even raw 8 ~ 10 major branches straggly on central authorities leader is dry, without side shoot on major branch, and give birth to medium and small fruit bearing shoot.
Fan-shaped: the high 50 ~ 60cm of backbone, the major branch of cultivation, in the ranks growing, is set as fan-shaped entirely.
Natural open centre shape: the high 30 ~ 40cm of backbone, non-stop layer trunk, backbone has the major branch of 3 ~ 4 balances of power, and extend respectively to 3 ~ 4 directions, major branch spacing 20 ~ 30cm, major branch is cultivated large, medium and small fruit-bearing shoot cluster.
To the cultivation of interim strain, be carry out beta pruning every year, pinch, when not affecting permanent strain and growing, make its good quality and high output.
Flower and fruit management: pinching, girdling: to blooming, the jujube branch jujube of setting hangs, and timely pinching; The jujube tree later to life in 5 years also will carry out girdling in flowering stage, with short flower, short fruit.
And the florescence will be taked to put honeybee, spray the measure such as foliage fertilizer and trace element improve percentage of fertile fruit, remove sick and weak residual fruit in time.
Integrated pest prevention and control: before fallen leaves, band on trunk, the beginning of spring burns in time; Enter the winter carry out clearly garden work, the beginning of spring sprays lime sulfur, can reduce the hibernating base of various pests.
In time chemical control is carried out to the large ball a red-spotted lizard, San Jose scale, two spotted spider mite, jujube cecidomyiia, jujube fruit borer etc. of occurrence injury jujube tree.
The permanent strain of described cultivation, removing interim strain is: utilized for 3 ~ 5 years, the coronule that good quality and high output is cultivated in permanent strain can be dredged layer shape, many major branches spindle or happy shape as the case may be.Along with tree body increases, space diminishes, and can remove interim strain gradually every strain interlacing.
Implement the present invention and make use of wide Gobi desert land resources fully; using water wisely; red dates industry can be developed on the ground in scale ground in Gobi desert, arid area; simultaneously controlling ecological environment effectively; wasteland is made to become local special fruit tree base; obtain material wealth, support arid area scientific development sustainably.
Embodiment
The Hejing County of southern Xinjiang Kurle region.This area's annual precipitation 50 ~ 81 millimeters, evaporation discharge 1500 ~ 2300 millimeters.The said firm location is former is a slice Gobi desert, wasteland through the ages, the stone of more than diameter 2cm accounts for 20%, remaining thin sand and soil is with Sha Weizhu, soil is extremely barren, pH value is 6.5 ~ 8.5, does stock with wild jujube, Keshen circle jujube, and grey jujube, fine horse jujube, Hami Chinese date, No. one, Jinchang, the annotinous branch of praising the kinds such as new jujube carry out grafting as scion, cultivate nursery stock, build up base, red date garden.
First having carried out planning of science activities to planting site, is an operation area according to 500 mu, carries out repairing the roads, digs a well, builds forest belt.Trunk of repairing the roads is had a lot of social connections 6m, and branch is had a lot of social connections 4m.Build forest belt after accomplishing fluently well, auxiliary forest belt perpendicular to regular strong wind direction, distance between shelter strips 100m, by-forest belt perpendicular to auxiliary forest belt, distance between shelter strips 300m; Every bar shelter strip breadth is 6m, and plant 3 row trees, seeds are Xinjiang poplar, and trees seeding row spacing is 1,5m × 2m.Each field plantation jujube tree area is 40 ~ 50 mu like this, is picked by the comparatively ratchel of bar Tanaka more than 5cm before implementing.
embodiment 1: carry out machinery trench digging in bar field according to line-spacing 4m, the suitable for reading wide 50cm of ditch, dark 35cm, then spread the sheep excrement executed 10cm and became thoroughly decomposed at bottom of trench, on fertilizer, then cover the thick thin sand and soil through picking stone of 20cm.
Sowing behind whole good ground, using the sower through adjusting, is draw punching on irrigate band, spreading flanging, film to sow once to complete.Broadcast rear dripping irrigation.Start to emerge after 1 week, notice that dialling seedling holds up soil and mulch film side-pressing.Instant capacity drip irrigation fertilizer can be applied with water, annual drip irrigation 12 times, each 25 ~ 30m after nursery stock all sprouts 3, apply fertilizer 4 times with water coincidence, each 5 ~ 10 kilograms.Treat forest belt and strengthen water and fertilizer management equally, make its fast-growing, play protective action early.Late September stopping is poured water, its lignification short.Drip irrigation 1 time is permeable by the end of October passes the winter, and reaches 35 ~ 40m 3.
Spring in next year carries out grafting, carries out permeable drip irrigation before grafting, and Fertigation.Red date kind scion mainly grey jujube and the fine horse jujube that grafting uses.Grafting time is in mid-April, and method is scion grafting mainly.Connect scion in latter 10 days and start rudiment, within 15 ~ 20 days, all sprout.Concentrate to stock bud picking 2 ~ 3 times in 2 months after grafting, later with sending out with smearing.Note strengthening water and fertilizer management.With regard to loosening soil, weeding after pouring water, dark 3 ~ 5cm.Gobi desert Jian Zao garden, soil property is barren, can tie jujube then, but generally can not form economic flow rate.Management to stopping by the end of September pouring water, urgees its lignification equally.Drip irrigation 1 time is permeable by the end of October passes the winter.
The 2nd year after grafting, Yao Geizao in beginning of spring garden trees trench digging applied fertilizer, 2 ~ 3 tons every mu, will spray the lime sulfur of 3 ~ 5 Baume degrees before germination simultaneously, and after germinateing, spraying concentration is 0.3 Baume degrees, to prevent damage by disease and insect.All the other water and fertilizer managements with grafting then.And start hoc anno to determine permanent strain according to 1.5m mono-strain, carry out tree-like cultivation.The tree-like of main cultivation is that coronule dredges layer shape.Carry out cutting top to determine dry when trees grow to 80cm, the Secondary Branch that direction is good, growth key is strong that is evenly distributed of selecting and remain 3 ~ 4 is descended within the scope of 20 ~ 30cm on top, 1 ~ 2 jujube stock cutting back is stayed at its base portion, under impelling clip, jujube stock top main bud sprouts, cultivation becomes ground floor major branch, and the Secondary Branch below shaping strip all removes from base portion.
The 3rd year after grafting, the terminal bud of pumping is cultivated 2 ~ 3, second layer major branch, two-layer major branch spacing 70 ~ 80cm; 1 or 2, third layer major branch is cultivated with method.And while cultivating second layer major branch, cultivate the side shoot of ground floor major branch, method is: pinch to major branch at the 3rd jujube stock place's cutting back doing the Secondary Branch selecting direction consistent in 50cm ~ 60cm place apart from center, short its branch out and cultivate first side shoot.Second Year cultivates second batch side shoot.Side shoot cultural method on all the other major branches is identical.So just cultivate full tree trunk obvious, well arranged, have 6 ~ 8 major branches, in uniform light, can good quality and high output tree-like.For making jujube tree good quality and high output, also carry out fruitful blooming period management.
Jujube tree reaches certain rugosity in 4 ~ 5 years through pipe, can carry out band girdle at full-bloom stage, general 0.5 ~ 1.0 centimetre of width.Implement young sprout (jujube head) pinching.On the basis of young sprout (jujube head) keeping some, suitably remove a part of young sprout (jujube head) for overcoming pole arid biogeographic zone air oxygen detrition, affect the problems such as red date florescence pollination, carry out spray in bloom stage leaf surface trace fertilizer, trace element and carry out jujube garden putting the measures such as honeybee.
Through inspection, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen (mg/kg) 25.4 in fruit, available phosphorus (mg/kg) 7.2, available potassium (mg/kg) 13.2, effective iron (mg/kg) 3.00, effective boron (mg/kg) 0.02, effective manganese (mg/kg) 1.06, effective zinc (mg/kg) does not detect (<0.05), pH value: 9.1.
embodiment 2:
Wholely: to the hard ground, Gobi desert of arid first with machinery trench digging, namely the spacing of ditch afforests line-spacing, for suitable dense planting high yield be convenient to mechanical work from now on, adopts line-spacing 3 ~ 4 meters trench digging.The specification of ditch is: suitable for reading wide 40 ~ 50 centimetres, dark 30 ~ 40 centimetres.Spread the fertilizer executed 5 ~ 10cm and became thoroughly decomposed after holding ditch successfully at bottom of trench, on fertilizer, then cover the thin sand and soil of 15 ~ 20cm, and flatten, wait for sowing, before covering, the ratchel of more than 5cm in thin sand and soil is picked.
Stock is sowed: program request that employing film punches, the sowing of under-film drip irrigation pattern, at late March to early April, seed mainly adopts the wild jujube kind benevolence after broken shell, cave is apart from 1.0 ~ 1.5m, sowing depth 3 ~ 5cm, sowing kind of benevolence amount 0.3 ~ 0.5 kilogram every mu, carries out the item operations such as fenestra grave mound, flanging after broadcasting.
Stock field management: after planting carry out drip irrigation, from emerging, should be noted that and hold up soil to some nursery stock, carries out benefit soil pressure limit to part film.
When nursery stock grows 5 ~ 6 true leaves, in conjunction with executing drip irrigation fertilizer, every mu of consumption 5 ~ 10 kilograms, vegetative period 2 ~ 3 times, early stage nitrogenous fertilizer, later stage N-P-K mixed fertilizer.Annual drip irrigation 12 ~ 15 times, every mu of irrigation quantity 15 ~ 20m at every turn 3.
When height of seedling grows to about 10cm, when carrying out thinning final singling, early stage, 2 strains were stayed in every cave, and as the average 15 ~ 20cm of height of seedling, 1 strain is stayed in final singling again, pinches, make acceleration girth growth when nursery stock grows to 60 ~ 70cm.
Mid-September cuts off the water, its lignification short.Mid or late October fills with 1 water of surviving the winter again.
Garden is built in grafting: during the stock rudiment of spring in next year, and gave before mid-April in ground and fill with a water, after making grafting, the neat fast-growing of bud is told in scion.
During grafting, weed a garden, on ground, anvil is cut at 1 ~ 5cm place, uses scion of sealing with wax, and adopts scion grafting or bud grafting, is preferably scion grafting.
Nursery stock management after grafting: after grafting 10 ~ 15 days, scion is rudiment substantially all, waters, erase simultaneously to stock rudiment after at this moment can carrying out grafting, to promote grafting bud fast-growing.Like this, watered time water every 10 ~ 15 days, continuous 3 ~ 4 times later; Smear stock bud 2 ~ 3 times.Loosen the soil after watering in good time, pour water the whole year 10 ~ 12 times, loosen the soil 3 ~ 4 times, combine therebetween and water and execute drip irrigation fertilizer, every mu of consumption 10 ~ 15 kilograms, vegetative period 2 ~ 3 times, early stage nitrogenous fertilizer, later stage N-P-K mixed fertilizer.
Pinching really short: when nursery stock grows tall 60 ~ 70cm, pinch, bearing fruit with blooming to promote that nursery stock is sturdy.
During nursery stock fallen leaves in late autumn, note having watered winter irrigation water.
So far, the garden of building is completed on the ground in arid biogeographic zone Gobi desert.Under intensive management, grafting can receive fresh jujube 100 ~ 150 kilograms then.
Complete the management of the nursery stock behind the garden of building: after Second Year soil in spring thaws, general late March, every strain to spread manuer in holes a fertilizer, fill with once permeable then to jujube garden, in conjunction with pouring water, coupling applies urea.
Pre-preventing disease and pest: with sulphur, lime, water, in proportion 2:1.2 ~ 1.5:15 ~ 20, boil lime sulfur.Before jujube tree rudiment, be made into 3 ~ 5 Baume degrees and spray jujube tree limb and tree face, base; After jujube tree rudiment, be made into 0.3 Baume degrees and spray again once.To prevent and treat sterilization, to kill mite and desinsection.
Pour water, apply fertilizer: after having filled with rudiment water in early stage and fertilising, be also noted that filling with good flower water in early stage (early June) and the young fruit contained expands water (August), and with water coincidence fertilising, pour water the whole year 10 ~ 12 times, apply fertilizer 3 ~ 4 times.Cut off the water to the last ten-days period in September, its lignification short, fills with sufficient water of surviving the winter before freezing.
Cultivate tree-like: while building garden Getting Bumper Crops By Close Planting in early stage, pruning will be noted and cultivate tree-like: coronule dredges the one in a layer shape, spindle, fan-shaped or natural open centre shape.
Coronule dredges layer shape: the high 50 ~ 60cm of backbone, the height of tree 200 ~ 230cm.Full tree has 6 ~ 8 major branches, divides 2 ~ 3 layers and is arranged in central backbone, 3 ~ 4, ground floor major branch, 2 ~ 3, second layer major branch, 1 ~ 2, third layer major branch; Each major branch raw side shoot: ground floor 1 major branch 2 side shoot, the 2nd, 3 layer 2 ~ 1.
Spindle: the high 40 ~ 50cm of backbone, the height of tree about 180 ~ 220cm, even raw 8 ~ 10 major branches straggly on central authorities leader is dry, without side shoot on major branch, and give birth to medium and small fruit bearing shoot.
Fan-shaped: the high 50 ~ 60cm of backbone, the major branch of cultivation, in the ranks growing, is set as fan-shaped entirely.
Natural open centre shape: the high 30 ~ 40cm of backbone, non-stop layer trunk, backbone has the major branch of 3 ~ 4 balances of power, and extend respectively to 3 ~ 4 directions, major branch spacing 20 ~ 30cm, major branch is cultivated large, medium and small fruit-bearing shoot cluster.
E, flower and fruit management: pinching, girdling: to blooming, the jujube branch jujube of setting hangs, and timely pinching; The jujube tree later to life in 5 years also will carry out girdling in flowering stage, with short flower, short fruit.
And the florescence will be taked to put honeybee, spray the measure such as foliage fertilizer and trace element improve percentage of fertile fruit, remove sick and weak residual fruit in time.
F, integrated pest prevention and control: before fallen leaves, band on trunk, the beginning of spring burns in time; Enter the winter carry out clearly garden work, the beginning of spring sprays lime sulfur, can reduce the hibernating base of various pests.
In time chemical control is carried out to the large ball a red-spotted lizard, San Jose scale, two spotted spider mite, jujube cecidomyiia, jujube fruit borer etc. of occurrence injury jujube tree.
Utilized for 3 ~ 5 years, the coronule cultivating into good quality and high output as the case may be dredges layer shape, many major branches spindle or happy shape.
embodiment 3:
Wholely: to the hard ground, Gobi desert of arid first with machinery trench digging, namely the spacing of ditch afforests line-spacing, for suitable dense planting high yield be convenient to mechanical work from now on, adopts line-spacing 3 ~ 4 meters trench digging.The specification of ditch is: suitable for reading wide 40 ~ 50 centimetres, dark 30 ~ 40 centimetres.Spread the fertilizer executed 5 ~ 10cm and became thoroughly decomposed after holding ditch successfully at bottom of trench, on fertilizer, then cover the thin sand and soil of 15 ~ 20cm, and flatten, wait for sowing, before covering, the ratchel of more than 5cm in thin sand and soil is picked.
Stock is sowed: program request that employing film punches, the sowing of under-film drip irrigation pattern, time generally at late March to early April, seed mainly adopts the wild jujube kind benevolence after broken shell, and cave is apart from 0.5 ~ 0.75m, sowing depth 3 ~ 5cm, carries out the item operations such as fenestra grave mound, flanging after broadcasting.
Stock field management: after planting carry out drip irrigation, from emerging, should be noted that and hold up soil to some nursery stock, carries out benefit soil pressure limit to part film.
When nursery stock grows 5 ~ 6 true leaves, can in conjunction with executing drip irrigation fertilizer, every mu of consumption 5 ~ 10 kilograms, vegetative period 2 ~ 3 times, early stage nitrogenous fertilizer, later stage N-P-K mixed fertilizer.Annual drip irrigation 12 ~ 15 times, every mu of irrigation quantity 15 ~ 20m at every turn 3.
When height of seedling grows to about 10cm, when carrying out thinning final singling, early stage, 2 strains were stayed in every cave, and as the average 15 ~ 20cm of height of seedling, 1 strain is stayed in final singling again, pinches, make acceleration girth growth when nursery stock grows to 60 ~ 70cm.
Mid-September cuts off the water, its lignification short.Mid or late October fills with 1 water of surviving the winter again.
Garden is built in grafting: during the stock rudiment of spring in next year, and gave before mid-April in ground and fill with a water, after making grafting, the neat fast-growing of bud is told in scion.
During grafting, weed a garden, on ground, anvil is cut at 1 ~ 5cm place, uses scion of sealing with wax, and adopts scion grafting or bud grafting, is preferably scion grafting.
Nursery stock management after grafting: after grafting 10 ~ 15 days, scion is rudiment substantially all, waters, erase simultaneously to stock rudiment after at this moment can carrying out grafting, to promote grafting bud fast-growing.Like this, watered time water every 10 ~ 15 days, continuous 3 ~ 4 times later; Smear stock bud 2 ~ 3 times.Loosen the soil after watering in good time, pour water the whole year 10 ~ 12 times, loosen the soil 3 ~ 4 times, combine therebetween and water and execute drip irrigation fertilizer, every mu of consumption 10 ~ 15 kilograms, vegetative period 2 ~ 3 times, early stage nitrogenous fertilizer, later stage N-P-K mixed fertilizer.
Pinching really short: when nursery stock grows tall 60 ~ 70cm, pinch, bearing fruit with blooming to promote that nursery stock is sturdy.
During nursery stock fallen leaves in late autumn, note having watered winter irrigation water.
So far, the garden of building is completed on the ground in arid biogeographic zone Gobi desert.
Complete the management of the nursery stock behind the garden of building:
After Second Year soil in spring thaws, general late March, every strain to spread manuer in holes a fertilizer, and fill with once permeable then to jujube garden, in conjunction with pouring water, coupling applies urea.
Pre-preventing disease and pest: with sulphur, lime, water, in proportion 2:1.2 ~ 1.5:15 ~ 20, boil lime sulfur.Before jujube tree rudiment, be made into 3 ~ 5 Baume degrees and spray jujube tree limb and tree face, base; After jujube tree rudiment, be made into 0.3 Baume degrees and spray again once.To prevent and treat sterilization, to kill mite and desinsection.
Pour water, apply fertilizer: after having filled with rudiment water in early stage and fertilising, be also noted that filling with good flower water in early stage (early June) and the young fruit contained expands water (August), and with water coincidence fertilising, pour water the whole year 10 ~ 12 times, apply fertilizer 3 ~ 4 times.Cut off the water to the last ten-days period in September, its lignification short, fills with sufficient water of surviving the winter before freezing.
Cultivate tree-like: while building garden Getting Bumper Crops By Close Planting in early stage, will note pruning and cultivate the tree-like of permanent strain, determine that 1 strain is permanent strain by spacing in the rows 1.0 ~ 1.5 meters, all the other are as interim strain.
In the management of 2 ~ 5 afterwards year as the case may be, when nursery stock fallen leaves in late autumn, take the mode of digging 1 ~ 2 strain every a strain to carry out thinning and remove, finally retain permanent strain by the spacing in the rows of 1.0 ~ 1.5m.
The nursery stock dug out then can be used as commercial seedling and sells.
The cultivation of permanent strain is as follows: coronule dredges the one in a layer shape, spindle, fan-shaped or natural open centre shape.
Coronule dredges layer shape: the high 50 ~ 60cm of backbone, the height of tree 200 ~ 230cm.Full tree has 6 ~ 8 major branches, divides 2 ~ 3 layers and is arranged in central backbone, 3 ~ 4, ground floor major branch, 2 ~ 3, second layer major branch, 1 ~ 2, third layer major branch; Each major branch raw side shoot: ground floor 1 major branch 2 side shoot, the 2nd, 3 layer 2 ~ 1.
Spindle: the high 40 ~ 50cm of backbone, the height of tree about 180 ~ 220cm, even raw 8 ~ 10 major branches straggly on central authorities leader is dry, without side shoot on major branch, and give birth to medium and small fruit bearing shoot.
Fan-shaped: the high 50 ~ 60cm of backbone, the major branch of cultivation, in the ranks growing, is set as fan-shaped entirely.
Natural open centre shape: the high 30 ~ 40cm of backbone, non-stop layer trunk, backbone has the major branch of 3 ~ 4 balances of power, and extend respectively to 3 ~ 4 directions, major branch spacing 20 ~ 30cm, major branch is cultivated large, medium and small fruit-bearing shoot cluster.
To the cultivation of interim strain, be carry out beta pruning every year, pinch, when not affecting permanent strain and growing, make its good quality and high output.
Flower and fruit management: pinching, girdling: to blooming, the jujube branch jujube of setting hangs, and timely pinching; The jujube tree later to life in 5 years also will carry out girdling in flowering stage, with short flower, short fruit.
And the florescence will be taked to put honeybee, spray the measure such as foliage fertilizer and trace element improve percentage of fertile fruit, remove sick and weak residual fruit in time.
Integrated pest prevention and control: before fallen leaves, band on trunk, the beginning of spring burns in time; Enter the winter carry out clearly garden work, the beginning of spring sprays lime sulfur, can reduce the hibernating base of various pests.
In time chemical control is carried out to the large ball a red-spotted lizard, San Jose scale, two spotted spider mite, jujube cecidomyiia, jujube fruit borer etc. of occurrence injury jujube tree.
Cultivate permanent strain, remove interim strain: utilized for 3 ~ 5 years, the coronule that good quality and high output is cultivated in permanent strain can be dredged layer shape, many major branches spindle or happy shape as the case may be.Along with tree body increases, space diminishes, and can remove interim strain gradually every strain interlacing.
embodiment 4:
Wholely: to the hard ground, Gobi desert of arid first with machinery trench digging, namely the spacing of ditch afforests line-spacing, and for suitable dense planting high yield be convenient to mechanical work from now on, adopt line-spacing 1.5 ~ 2.0m trench digging, the specification of ditch is: suitable for reading wide 40 ~ 50 centimetres, dark 30 ~ 40 centimetres.Spread the fertilizer executed 5 ~ 10cm and became thoroughly decomposed after holding ditch successfully at bottom of trench, on fertilizer, then cover the thin sand and soil of 15 ~ 20cm, and flatten, wait for sowing, before covering, the ratchel of more than 5cm in thin sand and soil is picked.
Stock is sowed: program request that employing film punches, the sowing of under-film drip irrigation pattern, time generally at late March to early April, seed mainly adopts the wild jujube kind benevolence after broken shell, and cave is apart from 0.5 ~ 0.75m, sowing depth 3 ~ 5cm, carries out the item operations such as fenestra grave mound, flanging after broadcasting.
Stock field management: after planting carry out drip irrigation, from emerging, should be noted that and hold up soil to some nursery stock, carries out benefit soil pressure limit to part film.
When nursery stock grows 5 ~ 6 true leaves, can in conjunction with executing drip irrigation fertilizer, every mu of consumption 5 ~ 10 kilograms, vegetative period 2 ~ 3 times, early stage nitrogenous fertilizer, later stage N-P-K mixed fertilizer.Annual drip irrigation 12 ~ 15 times, every mu of irrigation quantity 15 ~ 20m at every turn 3.
When height of seedling grows to about 10cm, when carrying out thinning final singling, early stage, 2 strains were stayed in every cave, and as the average 15 ~ 20cm of height of seedling, 1 strain is stayed in final singling again, pinches, make acceleration girth growth when nursery stock grows to 60 ~ 70cm.
Mid-September cuts off the water, its lignification short.Mid or late October fills with 1 water of surviving the winter again.
Garden is built in grafting: during the stock rudiment of spring in next year, and gave before mid-April in ground and fill with a water, after making grafting, the neat fast-growing of bud is told in scion.
During grafting, weed a garden, on ground, anvil is cut at 1 ~ 5cm place, uses scion of sealing with wax, and adopts scion grafting or bud grafting, is preferably scion grafting.
Nursery stock management after grafting: after grafting 10 ~ 15 days, scion is rudiment substantially all, waters, erase simultaneously to stock rudiment after at this moment can carrying out grafting, to promote grafting bud fast-growing.Like this, watered time water every 10 ~ 15 days, continuous 3 ~ 4 times later; Smear stock bud 2 ~ 3 times.Loosen the soil after watering in good time, pour water the whole year 10 ~ 12 times, loosen the soil 3 ~ 4 times, combine therebetween and water and execute drip irrigation fertilizer, every mu of consumption 10 ~ 15 kilograms, vegetative period 2 ~ 3 times, early stage nitrogenous fertilizer, later stage N-P-K mixed fertilizer.
Pinching really short: when nursery stock grows tall 60 ~ 70cm, pinch, bearing fruit with blooming to promote that nursery stock is sturdy.
During nursery stock fallen leaves in late autumn, note having watered winter irrigation water.
So far, the garden of building is completed on the ground in arid biogeographic zone Gobi desert.
Complete the management of the nursery stock behind the garden of building: after Second Year soil in spring thaws, general late March, every strain to spread manuer in holes a fertilizer, fill with once permeable then to jujube garden, in conjunction with pouring water, coupling applies urea.
Pre-preventing disease and pest: with sulphur, lime, water, in proportion 2:1.2 ~ 1.5:15 ~ 20, boil lime sulfur.Before jujube tree rudiment, be made into 3 ~ 5 Baume degrees and spray jujube tree limb and tree face, base; After jujube tree rudiment, be made into 0.3 Baume degrees and spray again once.To prevent and treat sterilization, to kill mite and desinsection.
Pour water, apply fertilizer: after having filled with rudiment water in early stage and fertilising, be also noted that filling with good flower water in early stage (early June) and the young fruit contained expands water (August), and with water coincidence fertilising, pour water the whole year 10 ~ 12 times, apply fertilizer 3 ~ 4 times.Cut off the water to the last ten-days period in September, its lignification short, fills with sufficient water of surviving the winter before freezing.
Cultivate tree-like: while building garden Getting Bumper Crops By Close Planting in early stage, will note pruning and cultivate the tree-like of permanent strain, permanent row and interim row are determined in interlacing, and determine that 1 strain is permanent strain by spacing in the rows 1.0 ~ 1.5 meters, all the other are as interim strain.
In the management of 2 ~ 5 afterwards year as the case may be, when nursery stock fallen leaves in late autumn, take the mode of digging 1 ~ 2 strain every a strain to carry out thinning and remove, finally retain permanent strain by the spacing in the rows of line-spacing 1.5 ~ 2.0m, 1.0 ~ 1.5m.
The nursery stock dug out then can be used as commercial seedling and sells.
The cultivation of permanent strain is as follows: coronule dredges the one in a layer shape, spindle, fan-shaped or natural open centre shape.
Coronule dredges layer shape: the high 50 ~ 60cm of backbone, the height of tree 200 ~ 230cm.Full tree has 6 ~ 8 major branches, divides 2 ~ 3 layers and is arranged in central backbone, 3 ~ 4, ground floor major branch, 2 ~ 3, second layer major branch, 1 ~ 2, third layer major branch; Each major branch raw side shoot: ground floor 1 major branch 2 side shoot, the 2nd, 3 layer 2 ~ 1.
Spindle: the high 40 ~ 50cm of backbone, the height of tree about 180 ~ 220cm, even raw 8 ~ 10 major branches straggly on central authorities leader is dry, without side shoot on major branch, and give birth to medium and small fruit bearing shoot.
Fan-shaped: the high 50 ~ 60cm of backbone, the major branch of cultivation, in the ranks growing, is set as fan-shaped entirely.
Natural open centre shape: the high 30 ~ 40cm of backbone, non-stop layer trunk, backbone has the major branch of 3 ~ 4 balances of power, and extend respectively to 3 ~ 4 directions, major branch spacing 20 ~ 30cm, major branch is cultivated large, medium and small fruit-bearing shoot cluster.
To the cultivation of interim strain, be carry out beta pruning every year, pinch, when not affecting permanent strain and growing, make its good quality and high output.
Flower and fruit management: pinching, girdling: to blooming, the jujube branch jujube of setting hangs, and timely pinching; The jujube tree later to life in 5 years also will carry out girdling in flowering stage, with short flower, short fruit.
And the florescence will be taked to put honeybee, spray the measure such as foliage fertilizer and trace element improve percentage of fertile fruit, remove sick and weak residual fruit in time.
Integrated pest prevention and control: before fallen leaves, band on trunk, the beginning of spring burns in time; Enter the winter carry out clearly garden work, the beginning of spring sprays lime sulfur, can reduce the hibernating base of various pests.
In time chemical control is carried out to the large ball a red-spotted lizard, San Jose scale, two spotted spider mite, jujube cecidomyiia, jujube fruit borer etc. of occurrence injury jujube tree.
Cultivate permanent strain, remove interim strain: utilized for 3 ~ 5 years, the coronule that good quality and high output is cultivated in permanent strain can be dredged layer shape, many major branches spindle or happy shape as the case may be.Along with tree body increases, space diminishes, and can remove interim strain gradually every strain interlacing.

Claims (2)

1. the method for arid biogeographic zone Gobi desert ground plantation red date, it is characterized in that: select the ground, Gobi desert of arid biogeographic zone pH value 6.5 ~ 8.5 as planting site, wild jujube or Keshen circle jujube is utilized to do stock, the annotinous branch selected grey jujube, fine horse jujube, Hami Chinese date, No. one, Jinchang or praise new jujube kind carries out grafting as scion, cultivate nursery stock, build up red date field, detailed process is as follows:
Wholely: to the hard ground, Gobi desert of arid first with machinery trench digging, namely the spacing of ditch afforests line-spacing, for suitable dense planting high yield be convenient to mechanical work from now on, adopts line-spacing 1.5 ~ 2.0m trench digging;
The specification of ditch is: suitable for reading wide 40 ~ 50 centimetres, dark 30 ~ 40 centimetres;
Spread the fertilizer executed 5 ~ 10cm and became thoroughly decomposed after holding ditch successfully at bottom of trench, on fertilizer, then cover the thin sand and soil of 15 ~ 20cm, and flatten, wait for sowing, before covering, the ratchel of more than 5cm in thin sand and soil is picked;
Stock is sowed: program request that employing film punches, the sowing of under-film drip irrigation pattern, at late March to early April, seed mainly adopts the wild jujube kind benevolence after broken shell, sowing depth 3 ~ 5cm, sowing kind of benevolence amount 0.3 ~ 0.5 kilogram every mu, carries out fenestra grave mound, flanging operation after broadcasting;
Stock field management: after planting carry out drip irrigation, from emerging, should be noted that and hold up soil to some nursery stock, carries out benefit soil pressure limit to part film;
When nursery stock grows 5 ~ 6 true leaves, execute drip irrigation fertilizer, every mu of consumption 5 ~ 10 kilograms, vegetative period 2 ~ 3 times, early stage nitrogenous fertilizer, later stage N-P-K mixed fertilizer;
Annual drip irrigation 12 ~ 15 times, every mu of irrigation quantity 15 ~ 20m at every turn 3;
When height of seedling grows to 8 ~ 15cm, carry out thinning final singling, early stage, 2 strains were stayed in every cave, and when height of seedling grows to 15 ~ 20cm, final singling stays 1 strain as permanent strain again, pinches, make thickening growth when nursery stock grows to 60 ~ 70cm;
Mid-September cuts off the water, its lignification short;
Mid or late October fills with 1 water of surviving the winter;
Garden is built in grafting: during the stock rudiment of spring in next year, and gave before mid-April in ground and fill with a water, after making grafting, the neat fast-growing of bud is told in scion;
During grafting, weed a garden, on ground, anvil is cut at 1 ~ 5cm place, uses scion of sealing with wax, and adopts scion grafting or bud grafting;
Nursery stock management after grafting: after grafting 10 ~ 15 days, scion is rudiment substantially all, waters after carrying out grafting, erases to stock rudiment simultaneously, to promote grafting bud fast-growing;
Watered time water every 10 ~ 15 days, continuous 3 ~ 4 times later; Smear stock bud 2 ~ 3 times;
Loosen the soil after watering in good time, pour water the whole year 10 ~ 12 times, loosen the soil 3 ~ 4 times, combine therebetween and water and execute drip irrigation fertilizer, every mu of consumption 10 ~ 15 kilograms, vegetative period 2 ~ 3 times, early stage nitrogenous fertilizer, later stage N-P-K mixed fertilizer;
Pinching really short: when nursery stock grows tall 60 ~ 70cm, pinch, bearing fruit with blooming to promote that nursery stock is sturdy;
During nursery stock fallen leaves in late autumn, note having watered winter irrigation water;
So far, the garden of building is completed on the ground in arid biogeographic zone Gobi desert;
Described stock sowing is carried out apart from 0.5 ~ 0.75m with line-spacing 1.5 ~ 2.0m, cave, in the management of 2 ~ 5 afterwards year, late autumn nursery stock fallen leaves time or take as the case may be to excavate 1 row every a line, the mode of excavating 1 ~ 2 strain every a strain carries out thinning, finally by 3 ~ 4 meters, spacing in the rows 1.0 ~ 1.5m retains permanent strain;
The cultivation of described permanent strain is as follows: coronule dredges the one in a layer shape, spindle, fan-shaped or natural open centre shape;
Coronule dredges layer shape: the high 50 ~ 60cm of backbone, the height of tree 200 ~ 230cm;
Full tree has 6 ~ 8 major branches, divides 2 ~ 3 layers and is arranged in central backbone, 3 ~ 4, ground floor major branch, 2 ~ 3, second layer major branch, 1 ~ 2, third layer major branch; Each major branch raw side shoot: ground floor 1 major branch 2 side shoot, the 2nd, 3 layer 2 ~ 1;
Spindle: the high 40 ~ 50cm of backbone, the height of tree 180 ~ 220cm, even raw 8 ~ 10 major branches straggly on central authorities leader is dry, without side shoot on major branch, and give birth to medium and small fruit bearing shoot;
Fan-shaped: the high 50 ~ 60cm of backbone, the major branch of cultivation, in the ranks growing, is set as fan-shaped entirely;
Natural open centre shape: the high 30 ~ 40cm of backbone, non-stop layer trunk, backbone has the major branch of 3 ~ 4 balances of power, and extend respectively to 3 ~ 4 directions, major branch spacing 20 ~ 30cm, major branch is cultivated large, medium and small fruit-bearing shoot cluster.
2. the method for ground, arid biogeographic zone Gobi desert plantation red date according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described in complete the management of the nursery stock behind the garden of building as follows:
After Second Year soil in spring thaws, at late March, every strain to spread manuer in holes a fertilizer, fill with once permeable then to jujube garden, in conjunction with pouring water, coupling applies urea;
Pre-preventing disease and pest: with sulphur, lime, water, in proportion 2:1.2 ~ 1.5:15 ~ 20, boil lime sulfur; Before jujube tree rudiment, be made into 3 ~ 5 Baume degrees and spray jujube tree limb and tree face, base; After jujube tree rudiment, be made into 0.3 Baume degrees and spray again once;
To prevent and treat sterilization, to kill mite and desinsection;
Pour water, apply fertilizer: after filling with rudiment water in early stage and fertilising, also will water early June and contain flower water in early stage, water young fruit August and expand water, and with water coincidence fertilising, pour water the whole year 10 ~ 12 times, fertilising 3 ~ 4 times; Cut off the water to the last ten-days period in September, its lignification short, fills with sufficient water of surviving the winter before freezing;
Flower and fruit management: to blooming, the jujube branch jujube of setting hangs, and timely pinching; The jujube tree later to life in 5 years also will carry out girdling in flowering stage, with short flower, short fruit; Remove sick and weak residual fruit in time.
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