CN104642047A - Culture method for high-quality and high-yield sandy Chinese red dates - Google Patents

Culture method for high-quality and high-yield sandy Chinese red dates Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104642047A
CN104642047A CN201510120051.2A CN201510120051A CN104642047A CN 104642047 A CN104642047 A CN 104642047A CN 201510120051 A CN201510120051 A CN 201510120051A CN 104642047 A CN104642047 A CN 104642047A
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China
Prior art keywords
jujube
branch
cultivation
quality
water
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CN201510120051.2A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
姚建云
闫红
叶文明
王联和
段正
田多秀
李亚琼
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Minqin County Tian Sheng Agricultural Science And Technology Co Ltd
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Minqin County Tian Sheng Agricultural Science And Technology Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201510120051.2A priority Critical patent/CN104642047A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

Abstract

The invention discloses a culture method for high-quality and high-yield sandy Chinese red dates, and belongs to the technical field of plant culturing. The culture method comprises the following steps: variety selection, planting, nutrient and water management, shaping and shearing and construction of windproof protection, wide gobi resources can be fully utilized, the large scale Chinese red date industry is developed on the arid region gobi, the pest control is not needed, the production cost is saved, the effective windproof effect can be achieved in a dense planting manner, the damage of strong wind in desert regions to jujube trees can be avoided by matching a windproof protection wall defined by white poplars, and by adopting a plastic mulched drip irrigation technology, on one hand, the heat preservation and cold resistance can be achieved, on the other hand, the water saving can be achieved, glycine betaine is added during irrigation, and the stress resistance of the jujube trees can be improved, so that the drought resistance, cold resistance and scorching resistance capacities of the jujube trees can be greatly improved, and further the yield and the quality of the Chinese red dates can be increased.

Description

A kind of cultivation method of sand ground red date good quality and high output
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of plant growing technology, specifically a kind of cultivation method of sand ground red date good quality and high output.
Background technology
Jujube tree is Rhamnaceae jujube, and in China, cultivation history is long, is the main cultivation economic tree in many places.Red date nutrient enriches, and not only can eat raw, and can make dry and processing, or good health-care food.Because economic worth is high, domestic and international selling market is wide, is successively introduced a fine variety to the ground such as Japan, Korea, the U.S., Philippine, India, Thailand, is a kind of dark seeds of welcoming by common people.
Drought desert, Gobi desert etc. are unfavorable for that the area badly of plant growth accounts for about 20% of China's area, in this arid, under the adverse circumstances that short of rain, barren, day and night temperature is large, sunshine is strong, rare plant can grow, usually can only grow on a small quantity without drought-enduring undershrub and the weeds of economic worth, cause people's income of such area life poor, living standard is low.
Jujube tree drought-resistant ability is strong, needs water few, is applicable to growth in lean soil, and desert, Gobi Region, sunlight-heat reaources enriches, and the sunshine time is long, and day and night temperature is large, if its natural conditions of Appropriate application can cultivate jujube tree, the red date excellent quality of production department, has very strong market competition advantage.
But desert and Gobi Region cultivation jujube tree main difficulty have 2 points, one is drought and water shortage, two be winter cold jujube tree cannot normally be survived the winter.
Through consulting prior art data, have in arid area cultivation jujube tree and the technology in high and cold area cultivation jujube tree.As Chinese patent CN103444481A plants the method for red date with disclosing a kind of arid biogeographic zone Gobi desert, although the method solves the impact of arid on plant growth, but Gobi Region is cold for winter, and four seasons strong wind, all the seed output and quality of jujube growth and red date is made a big impact.
Chinese patent CN102132664B discloses a kind of Mulched drip irrigation, and traditional drip irrigation technique combines with overlay film measure by the method, effectively reduces soil water evaporation, but does not also solve the problem of winter severe cold and four seasons strong wind.
Chinese patent CN103340100A is separately had to disclose a kind of method at high and cold area plantation red date.The method, on the method basis of arid biogeographic zone plantation red date, adopts foundation ridging method to carry out protection of surviving the winter, but does not still solve the impact of strong wind on plant.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to for prior art above shortcomings; a kind of cultivation method of sand ground red date good quality and high output is provided; the method is by Fruit variety, rich water quality management and build windproof protection wall; solve at sandy cultivation red date drought and water shortage; the problem of winter severe cold and four seasons strong wind, the red date of production good quality and high output.
For achieving the above object, concrete technical scheme provided by the invention is as follows:
A cultivation method for sand ground red date good quality and high output, comprises the following steps:
1) Fruit variety:
Root-stock selection: select the little wild jujube jujube core that kind of benevolence is full, the age of tree 3 ~ 5 years, then autumn gather to do nursery kind, the jujube core of collection is deposited 55 ~ 65 days under 0 ~-2 degree celsius temperature, before sowing jujube core to be immersed in the thiourea solution of 500 milligrams 4 ~ 5 hours, be seeded in seedbed spring in Second Year, grow to when tree-walk is 1.5 ~ 2.5 centimetres until seedling and do graft stock;
Scion is selected: select the annotinous branch of pear and date-printing blocks, Zanhuang jujube, the shortcake that do not fall, July fresh or fine horse jujube as grafting scion: to store after the annotinous branch getting above-mentioned kind then autumn is made into scion and seals with wax, adopt the grafting near the ground of the method for scion grafting spring at Second Year, connect rear plastics not solid for interface bondage;
2) plantation: select the sandy loam plantation of pH between 6 ~ 8, execute organic base manure by 2 ~ 4 tons every mu before plantation, the employing wide-and narrow-row bi-row mode sowing of seeding row spacing 2 × 4m, be i.e. wide line-spacing 1.2m, narrow row distance 0.8m, spacing in the rows 0.5m, every mu of 1300 strains;
3) rich water quality management: adopt covering membrane and drop irrigation method to carry out pouring water topdressing, grafting starts after 15 days to pour water for the first time, poured water once every 20 days later, pour water in Shi Xiangshui and add betain, betain consumption every mu of 5 ~ 10kg, the fertigation and period combination is poured water, every mu of consumption 15 ~ 25kg, fertile 3 ~ 5 times of annual filling, fills with fertilizer nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer;
4) pruning: wipe out root sprout tillers and unnecessary branch after under jujube kind, thick 1.5 ~ 1.8 centimetres of trunk, during thick 0.8 ~ 1.2 centimetre of Secondary Branch, trunk is being cut off apart from ground 45-60 centimeters, lower for clip first Secondary Branch is cut off, below selecting favorably situated 4 Secondary Branchs to stay, 1 bud is short cuts, to inspire Lateral shoot formation ground floor major branch, use the same method cultivation second later, third layer major branch, 2 ~ 3, second layer major branch, 1 ~ 2, third layer major branch, each interfloor distance 50 ~ 60 centimetres, adjacent two layers major branch staggers mutually non-overlapping copies, trunk grow is pinched to during 60 ~ 70cm, pinching when Secondary Branch grows to 50 ~ 60cm,
5) windproof protection wall is built: jujube garden surrounding plantation white poplar as windproof protection wall.
The cultivation method of a kind of sand ground red date good quality and high output of the present invention, except above-mentioned steps, other steps are identical with the method for conventional cultivation jujube tree.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: the present invention make use of wide Gobi desert land resources fully, using water wisely, red dates industry can be developed on the ground in scale ground in Gobi desert, arid area, simultaneously controlling ecological environment effectively, wasteland is made to become local special fruit tree base, obtain material wealth, support arid area scientific development sustainably, jujube woods is built in desert area, desert area dry and rainless high wind and the large natural environment of day and night temperature are not suitable for damage by disease and insect and occur, therefore do not need to carry out the extermination of disease and insect pest, save production cost, jujube woods takes dense planting mode, effective anti-blown sand effect can be reached, coordinate the windproof protection wall that white poplar surrounds, desert area high wind can be avoided to cause damage to jujube tree, rich water quality management adopts covering membrane and drop irrigation technology, heat-preservation cold-resistance on the one hand, can economize on water on the other hand, betain is added when pouring water, the resistance of jujube tree can be improved, make jujube tree drought resisting, cold-resistant, the ability of anti-inflammatory heat increases substantially, thus improve the yield and quality of red date.
Embodiment
Below by way of specific embodiment, the present invention will be further described.
Embodiment 1
Root-stock selection: select the little wild jujube jujube core that kind of benevolence is full, the age of tree 3 years, then autumn gather to do nursery kind, the jujube core of collection is deposited 55 days under-2 degree celsius temperature, before sowing jujube core to be immersed in the thiourea solution of 500 milligrams 5 hours, be seeded in seedbed spring in Second Year, grow to when tree-walk is 2.5 centimetres until seedling and do graft stock;
Scion is selected: select the annotinous branch of fine horse jujube as grafting scion: to store after the annotinous branch getting above-mentioned kind then autumn is made into scion and seals with wax, adopt the grafting near the ground of the method for scion grafting spring at Second Year, connect rear plastics not solid for interface bondage;
Plantation: select pH to be neutral sandy loam plantation, execute organic base manure by 4 tons every mu before plantation, the employing wide-and narrow-row bi-row mode sowing of seeding row spacing 2 × 4m, be i.e. wide line-spacing 1.2m, narrow row distance 0.8m, spacing in the rows 0.5m, every mu of 1300 strains;
Rich water quality management: adopt covering membrane and drop irrigation method to carry out pouring water topdressing, grafting starts after 15 days to pour water for the first time, poured water once every 20 days later, pour water in Shi Xiangshui and add betain, betain consumption every mu of 10kg, the fertigation and period combination is poured water, every mu of consumption 15kg, fertile 5 times of annual filling, fills with fertilizer nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer.
Pruning: wipe out root sprout tillers and unnecessary branch after under jujube kind, thick 1.8 centimetres of trunk, during thick 1.2 centimetres of Secondary Branch, trunk is being cut off apart from ground 45 centimeters, lower for clip first Secondary Branch is cut off, below selecting favorably situated 4 Secondary Branchs to stay, 1 bud is short cuts, to inspire Lateral shoot formation ground floor major branch, use the same method cultivation second later, third layer major branch, 3, second layer major branch, 2, third layer major branch, each interfloor distance 50 centimetres, adjacent two layers major branch staggers mutually non-overlapping copies, trunk grow is pinched to during 60cm, pinching when Secondary Branch grows to 50cm,
Build windproof protection wall: jujube garden surrounding plantation white poplar as windproof protection wall.

Claims (2)

1. a cultivation method for sand ground red date good quality and high output, is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
1) Fruit variety:
Root-stock selection: select the little wild jujube jujube core that kind of benevolence is full, the age of tree 3 ~ 5 years, then autumn gather to do nursery kind, the jujube core of collection is deposited 55 ~ 65 days under 0 ~-2 degree celsius temperature, before sowing jujube core to be immersed in the thiourea solution of 500 milligrams 4 ~ 5 hours, be seeded in seedbed spring in Second Year, grow to when tree-walk is 1.5 ~ 2.5 centimetres until seedling and do graft stock;
Scion is selected: select the annotinous branch of pear and date-printing blocks, Zanhuang jujube, the shortcake that do not fall, July fresh or fine horse jujube as grafting scion: to store after the annotinous branch getting above-mentioned kind then autumn is made into scion and seals with wax, adopt the grafting near the ground of the method for scion grafting spring at Second Year, connect rear plastics not solid for interface bondage;
2) plantation: select the sandy loam plantation of pH between 6 ~ 8, execute organic base manure by 2 ~ 4 tons every mu before plantation, the employing wide-and narrow-row bi-row mode sowing of seeding row spacing 2 × 4m, be i.e. wide line-spacing 1.2m, narrow row distance 0.8m, spacing in the rows 0.5m, every mu of 1300 strains;
3) rich water quality management: adopt covering membrane and drop irrigation method to carry out pouring water topdressing, grafting starts after 15 days to pour water for the first time, poured water once every 20 days later, pour water in Shi Xiangshui and add betain, betain consumption every mu of 5 ~ 10kg, the fertigation and period combination is poured water, every mu of consumption 15 ~ 25kg, fertile 3 ~ 5 times of annual filling, fills with fertilizer nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer;
4) pruning: wipe out root sprout tillers and unnecessary branch after under jujube kind, thick 1.5 ~ 1.8 centimetres of trunk, during thick 0.8 ~ 1.2 centimetre of Secondary Branch, trunk is being cut off apart from ground 45-60 centimeters, lower for clip first Secondary Branch is cut off, below selecting favorably situated 4 Secondary Branchs to stay, 1 bud is short cuts, to inspire Lateral shoot formation ground floor major branch, use the same method cultivation second later, third layer major branch, 2 ~ 3, second layer major branch, 1 ~ 2, third layer major branch, each interfloor distance 50 ~ 60 centimetres, adjacent two layers major branch staggers mutually non-overlapping copies, trunk grow is pinched to during 60 ~ 70cm, pinching when Secondary Branch grows to 50 ~ 60cm,
5) windproof protection wall is built: jujube garden surrounding plantation white poplar as windproof protection wall.
2. the cultivation method of a kind of sand ground red date good quality and high output according to claim 1, is characterized in that, except above-mentioned steps, other steps of the present invention are identical with the method for conventional cultivation jujube tree.
CN201510120051.2A 2015-03-18 2015-03-18 Culture method for high-quality and high-yield sandy Chinese red dates Pending CN104642047A (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105850625A (en) * 2016-01-29 2016-08-17 新疆林科院造林治沙研究所 Method for planting red dates by wide-row and narrow-row furrowing in gravel Gobi with extremely arid environment
CN106034593A (en) * 2016-05-28 2016-10-26 兰州大学 Water-saving and time-saving red jujube-planting method in arid desert region
CN106034938A (en) * 2016-06-23 2016-10-26 石河子大学 Irrigation method for changing flooding irrigation into drop irrigation of mature red dates in desert zones in south Xinjiang
CN107580960A (en) * 2017-10-24 2018-01-16 太湖县香茗山生态果品科技园有限公司 High yield winter jujube implantation methods
CN107711238A (en) * 2017-09-26 2018-02-23 安徽徽大农业有限公司 A kind of method for culturing seedlings of jujube seed
CN111316855A (en) * 2020-03-03 2020-06-23 宁夏大学 Lingwu long jujube tree high-ridge cultivation method

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1650687A (en) * 2005-03-24 2005-08-10 唐兆青 Seed selection of drought desert, Gobi dessert beach high yield large dates
CN103340100A (en) * 2013-06-13 2013-10-09 新疆农垦科学院 Method for planting red jujubes in alpine region
CN103444481A (en) * 2013-09-06 2013-12-18 塔里木大学 Method for planting red dates in gobi field of arid region
CN104335866A (en) * 2013-08-06 2015-02-11 常鸿 Ecological jujube tree planting method in arid and semi-arid region
CN104396547A (en) * 2014-12-11 2015-03-11 李润霞 Method for improving chilling resistance of plant via glycine betaine

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1650687A (en) * 2005-03-24 2005-08-10 唐兆青 Seed selection of drought desert, Gobi dessert beach high yield large dates
CN103340100A (en) * 2013-06-13 2013-10-09 新疆农垦科学院 Method for planting red jujubes in alpine region
CN104335866A (en) * 2013-08-06 2015-02-11 常鸿 Ecological jujube tree planting method in arid and semi-arid region
CN103444481A (en) * 2013-09-06 2013-12-18 塔里木大学 Method for planting red dates in gobi field of arid region
CN104396547A (en) * 2014-12-11 2015-03-11 李润霞 Method for improving chilling resistance of plant via glycine betaine

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105850625A (en) * 2016-01-29 2016-08-17 新疆林科院造林治沙研究所 Method for planting red dates by wide-row and narrow-row furrowing in gravel Gobi with extremely arid environment
CN106034593A (en) * 2016-05-28 2016-10-26 兰州大学 Water-saving and time-saving red jujube-planting method in arid desert region
CN106034938A (en) * 2016-06-23 2016-10-26 石河子大学 Irrigation method for changing flooding irrigation into drop irrigation of mature red dates in desert zones in south Xinjiang
CN107711238A (en) * 2017-09-26 2018-02-23 安徽徽大农业有限公司 A kind of method for culturing seedlings of jujube seed
CN107580960A (en) * 2017-10-24 2018-01-16 太湖县香茗山生态果品科技园有限公司 High yield winter jujube implantation methods
CN111316855A (en) * 2020-03-03 2020-06-23 宁夏大学 Lingwu long jujube tree high-ridge cultivation method

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