CN106973743A - A kind of method of quick construction jujube woods - Google Patents

A kind of method of quick construction jujube woods Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106973743A
CN106973743A CN201710009862.4A CN201710009862A CN106973743A CN 106973743 A CN106973743 A CN 106973743A CN 201710009862 A CN201710009862 A CN 201710009862A CN 106973743 A CN106973743 A CN 106973743A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
jujube
spina date
seedling
grafting
date seed
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CN201710009862.4A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
汪星
汪有科
马建鹏
付国鹏
韩冰
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Institute Of Soil And Water Conservation Ministry Of Water Resources Chinese Academy Of Sciences
Northwest A&F University
Original Assignee
Institute Of Soil And Water Conservation Ministry Of Water Resources Chinese Academy Of Sciences
Northwest A&F University
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Application filed by Institute Of Soil And Water Conservation Ministry Of Water Resources Chinese Academy Of Sciences, Northwest A&F University filed Critical Institute Of Soil And Water Conservation Ministry Of Water Resources Chinese Academy Of Sciences
Priority to CN201710009862.4A priority Critical patent/CN106973743A/en
Publication of CN106973743A publication Critical patent/CN106973743A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods

Abstract

The present invention principally falls into jujube woods building technology field, and in particular to a kind of method of quick construction jujube woods.Methods described directly carries out spina date seed plantation in the reproducing area of selection, and Second Year grafting jujube kind on the wild jujube seedling in field is grown into forest, to realize grafting when annual bearing obtains yield or the annual bearing of grafting second obtains yield.Methods described changes the conventional method that domestic and international jujube woods are built.Present invention proposition on the basis of experiment afforestation for many years, the region that the semiarid loess hill jujube woods that can be applied under non-irrigated condition are built and have the arid biogeographic zone under irrigation conditions quickly to build jujube woods.

Description

A kind of method of quick construction jujube woods
Technical field
The present invention principally falls into jujube woods building technology field, and in particular to a kind of method of quick construction jujube woods.
Background technology
Jujube woods are the time-honored peculiar seeds of forest of Chinese cultivated.Traditional jujube woods mode of construction is usually with cultivation seedling Use seedling forest planting again afterwards, jujube tree seedling culture there are a two methods, one is generated with the root system near big jujube tree small Seedling, also referred to as Gen Nie seedlings are afforested, and two be that then grafting is big on stock first with wild jujube sowing as stock in nursery lot Jujube breed formation seedling, is afforested with grafting.There is the bad selection of nursery stock kind, nursery stock size and number not in former mode Manageable problem, second in the presence of the cultivation nursery stock needs time of more than 2 years.Meanwhile, both above mode be required for by The process that nursery stock is transplanted from outplanting to reproducing area, the problem of often there is plant percent and storage rate during this, Because survival rate and storage rate can not once reach 100%, usually need once more than benefit plant jujube tree, from nursery to Completing jujube woods construction needs the 4-5 years just to complete one piece of jujube woods construction.
The content of the invention
In view of the above-mentioned problems, the present invention provides a kind of method of quick construction jujube woods, the method for the invention is directly in choosing The reproducing area selected carries out spina date seed plantation, and Second Year grafting jujube kind on the wild jujube seedling in field is grown into forest, and realizes 2-3 jujube trees The effect for result of growing into forest.This method changes the conventional method that domestic and international jujube woods are built.The present invention is on experiment afforestation basis for many years Upper to propose, the jujube woods being primarily adapted for use under semiarid loess hill non-irrigated condition are built or have the arid biogeographic zone of irrigation conditions Jujube woods are built.
The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
A kind of method of quick construction jujube woods, methods described directly carries out spina date seed plantation, second in the reproducing area of selection Grafting jujube kind is grown into forest year on the wild jujube seedling in field, to realize that grafting obtains yield or grafting Second Year knot when annual bearing Fruit obtains yield.
Further, it the described method comprises the following steps:
(1) spina date seed is planted:Selection meets the spina date seed of sowing requirement, reproducing area is applied fertilizer, determines that spina date seed sowing is close Spend and dig cave or water furrow planting, and seedling management after being emerged, obtain stalwartness wild jujube seedling;
(2) grafting jujube kind:At the beginning of 5 months next years that wild jujube is sowed, by jujube kind scion grafting to be grafted in wild jujube On seedling;If it is required that the annual bearing of working as of grafting obtains yield, retaining a shape bud to each jujube scion after grafting, going Except unnecessary sprouting, 2-3 side shoot can be retained by staying the jujube head of a bud formation, then determine to grow according to cultivation outcome expectancy Degree, it is desirable to which grafting carries out going jujube head to handle when the jujube head of annual bearing is reaching 30cm, until result is ripe, the 3rd year starts Into conventional tree-like and field management;If it is required that the second annual bearing of grafting obtains yield, in grafting then with cultivation Based on tree-like, according to the reservation of required tree-like carry out major branch and secondary branch, it is not necessary to jujube head length is limited, to the 3rd Year directly carries out Secondary Branch length control, and the normal outcome phase can be entered by carrying out Routine Management.
Further, in step (1), the selection of spina date seed is specially:Select full grains, last year ripe wild Spina date seed, or the year before last keep good spina date seed, germination test are done indoors, it is desirable to germination percentage more than 80%.
Further, in step (1), it is specially to reproducing area fertilising:Determined according to reproducing area soil fertility to afforestation Applied fertilizer to ensure that wild jujube there are enough fertility to support its healthy growth after emerging in ground.
Further, the dose control to reproducing area exists:Every mu of reproducing area uses pure sheep manure 500-600kg, diamines 5- 10kg, ploughs deeply soil 20-30cm.
Further, in step (1), determine that spina date seed thickness of sowing is carried out digging cave bunch planting or trench digging ditch is broadcast,
Bunch planting is specially:Thickness of sowing is formulated according to jujube woods density is built, it is 2m to control spacing in the rows, and line-spacing is 3m;According to true Fixed thickness of sowing carries out digging cave, controls acupoint depth 6-10cm, pocket footpath 20-30cm;The center program request 2 in each cave Grain spina date seed, the mulching soil above spina date seed is so that apart from soil surface 2-3cm depths, pile things on wild jujube at spina date seed The soil of benevolence will be treaded;
Ditch is broadcast specially:Ditch is broadcast works as the high-density sowing that annual production is taken, the sowing spacing in the rows that ditch is broadcast suitable for pursuing grafting 2 spina date seeds of program request, the mulching soil above spina date seed at 20-30cm, line-spacing 50cm, each sowing so that at spina date seed Apart from soil surface 2-3cm depths, the soil of pile things on spina date seed will be treaded;Ditch is broadcast after planting carries out cover film with bunch planting: According to the wide films of 80-100cm are laid above the cave for being about to sow, shallow ridges is opened in film both sides prevents thin with native pile things on Film is damaged by wind and plays soil moisture conservation effect;If running into rainfall, each cave long-pending rain appearing above, now with thick thin of about 3mm Rod pricks hole and to accumulate rain and flow into increase soil moisture in cave in cave, promotes spina date seed germination.
Further, in step (1), seedling management is specially after emerging:Sowing starts observation spina date seed hair after 15 days Bud situation, when wild jujube seedling grows tall close to film, only stays a healthy and strong seedling at each sowing that every cave or ditch are broadcast, and The seedling retained is released from membrane pores above, the film around seedling is depressed into cave or ditch again with neighbouring soil Bottom, so as to form the cave covered by film or ditch;
It will be cut off until the growth of seedling of membrane highly reaches 30-40cm at the top of seedling, to promote the thick life of seedling stem It is long.
The advantageous effects of the present invention:
The method of the invention changes the conventional method that domestic and international jujube woods are built.The present invention is in experiment afforestation base for many years Proposed on plinth, the semiarid loess hill jujube woods that can be applied under non-irrigated condition are built and have dry under irrigation conditions Quickly build the region of jujube woods in drought-hit area.
Embodiment
In order to make the purpose , technical scheme and advantage of the present invention be clearer, following examples, enter to the present invention Row is described in further detail.It should be appreciated that specific embodiment described herein is used only for explaining the present invention, it is not used to Limit the present invention.
On the contrary, the present invention covers any replacement done in the spirit and scope of the present invention being defined by the claims, repaiied Change, equivalent method and scheme.Further, in order that the public has a better understanding to the present invention, below to the thin of the present invention It is detailed to describe some specific detail sections in section description.Part without these details for a person skilled in the art Description can also understand the present invention completely.
Embodiment 1
A kind of method of quick construction jujube woods, the described method comprises the following steps:
(1) spina date seed is planted:Selection meets the spina date seed of sowing requirement, reproducing area is applied fertilizer, determines that spina date seed sowing is close Spend and dig cave or water furrow planting, and seedling management after being emerged, obtain stalwartness wild jujube seedling.Specially:
Full grains are selected, the Wild jujube benevolence of last year maturation, or the year before last keep good spina date seed, done indoors Germination test, it is desirable to germination percentage more than 80%.
Selection afforestation plot:Determined according to reproducing area soil fertility after being applied fertilizer to reproducing area to ensure that wild jujube is emerged There are enough fertility to support its healthy growth.General every mu of use pure sheep manure 500kg, diamines 5kg, plough deeply soil 20cm.
Determine that spina date seed thickness of sowing is carried out digging cave bunch planting or trench digging ditch is broadcast specially:
Bunch planting is specially:Thickness of sowing is formulated according to jujube woods density is built, it is 2m to control spacing in the rows, and line-spacing is 3m;According to true Fixed thickness of sowing carries out digging cave, controls acupoint depth 6-10cm, pocket footpath 20-30cm;The center program request 2 in each cave Grain spina date seed, the mulching soil above spina date seed is so that apart from soil surface 2-3cm depths, pile things on wild jujube at spina date seed The soil of benevolence will be treaded;
Ditch is broadcast specially:Ditch is broadcast works as the high-density sowing that annual production is taken, the sowing spacing in the rows that ditch is broadcast suitable for pursuing grafting 2 spina date seeds of program request, the mulching soil above spina date seed at 20-30cm, line-spacing 50cm, each sowing so that at spina date seed Apart from soil surface 2-3cm depths, the soil of pile things on spina date seed will be treaded;
Ditch is broadcast after planting carries out cover film with bunch planting:It is wide according to 80-100cm is laid above the cave for being about to sow Film, shallow ridges is opened in film both sides prevents film from being damaged by wind and playing soil moisture conservation effect with native pile things on;If running into rainfall, Each cave long-pending rain appearing above, now using the thin rod bundle holes of about 3mm slightly to accumulate in rain inflow cave, soil is wet in increase cave Degree, promotes spina date seed germination.
Seedling management is specially after emerging:Sowing starts to observe spina date seed germination after 15 days, treats that wild jujube seedling grows tall During close to film, a healthy and strong seedling is only stayed at each sowing broadcast per cave or ditch, and by the seedling retained from above Membrane pores are released, and the film around seedling is depressed into cave or the bottom of ditch again with neighbouring soil, covered so as to be formed by film Cave or ditch;
It will be cut off until the growth of seedling of membrane highly reaches 30-40cm at the top of seedling, to promote the thick life of seedling stem It is long.
(2) grafting jujube kind:At the beginning of 5 months next years that wild jujube is sowed, by jujube kind scion grafting to be grafted in wild jujube On seedling;If it is required that the annual bearing of working as of grafting obtains yield, retaining a shape bud to each jujube scion after grafting, going Except unnecessary sprouting, 2-3 side shoot can be retained by staying the jujube head of a bud formation, then determine to grow according to cultivation outcome expectancy Degree, it is desirable to which grafting carries out going jujube head to handle when the jujube head of annual bearing is reaching 30cm, until result is ripe, the 3rd year starts Into conventional tree-like and field management;If it is required that the second annual bearing of grafting obtains yield, in grafting then with cultivation Based on tree-like, according to the reservation of required tree-like carry out major branch and secondary branch, it is not necessary to jujube head length is limited, to the 3rd Year directly carries out Secondary Branch length control, and the normal outcome phase can be entered by carrying out Routine Management.
Embodiment 2
A kind of method of quick construction jujube woods, the enforcement place that selection jujube woods in 2013 are built is Mizhi, implements mountain region jujube Garden is built, and the reproducing area of selection is the level terraced field of 16 mu of areas, carries out comprehensive ground fertilising and soil deeptillage on April 11, April 20 carried out digging cave according to spacing in the rows 100cm line-spacings 150cm, and cave depth 10cm, pocket footpath 25cm put 2 per cave centre bit Intact spina date seed, on spina date seed cover 2cm thickness soil and treaded with pin, then cover width 100cm film, both sides Open that shallow ridges is good by film soil pressure, also lived on the film between each two cave with a small amount of soil pressure, strengthen the stabilization of film and hold Long spreadability.May 13 spina date seed start germination be unearthed, during which running into overlay film on a rainfall and each cave has long-pending rain, adopts Take thin rod to prick hole to flow into rainwater under film in cave.Seedling grows tall about 5-8cm in June 15 cave, and now the seedling in each cave pushes up Portion's perforate retains a strong sprout and removes unnecessary seedling, and the seedling of reservation is released into good with soil pressure around it by fenestra, it is ensured that Film is not damaged by wind.August 16 starts that height is reached into 40cm seedling apical is cut off successively, promotes seedling stem girth growth, Stopped growing substantially to seedling on October 20th, 2013, seedling base portion rugosity reaches more than 4mm, meets grafting rugosity.2014 May 13 carried out winter jujube kind grafting, started July 11 to take head up to 30cm shoot to length, every plant has 2-3 result branch, Result successively afterwards, per mu yield fresh dates 183kg, obtains every mu up to more than 3000 yuan of income then.In April, 2015 digs in every line The small jujube tree of a line is gone, one plant of small jujube tree is cut out every one plant so that experimental field spacing in the rows 200cm line-spacings 300cm is remained per per mu Standard jujube woods.2015 experimental field every mu of result yield of jujube woods reach 616kg, income reaches more than 5000 yuan.It will dig up Small jujube tree transplants expansion jujube woods area nearby, due to transplanting nearby so survival rate will enter by 100%, 2016 year then Fruiting period successively.It thus form a kind of technology mode of the quick construction jujube woods under loess plateau non-irrigated condition.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of method of quick construction jujube woods, it is characterised in that methods described directly carries out spina date seed in the reproducing area of selection Plantation, Second Year grafting jujube kind on the wild jujube seedling in field, to realize that grafting obtains yield or grafting second when annual bearing Annual bearing obtains yield.
2. a kind of method of quick construction jujube woods according to claim 1, it is characterised in that methods described includes following step Suddenly:
(1) spina date seed is planted:Selection meets the spina date seed of sowing requirement, reproducing area is applied fertilizer, spina date seed thickness of sowing is determined simultaneously Dig cave or water furrow planting, and seedling management after being emerged, obtain stalwartness wild jujube seedling;
(2) grafting jujube kind:At the beginning of 5 months next years that wild jujube is sowed, by jujube kind scion grafting to be grafted in wild jujube seedling On;If it is required that the annual bearing of working as of grafting obtains yield, retaining a shape bud to each jujube scion after grafting, it is unnecessary to remove Sprouting, 2-3 side shoot can be retained by staying the jujube head of a bud formation, then determine length according to cultivation outcome expectancy, it is desirable to Grafting carries out going jujube head to handle when the jujube head of annual bearing is reaching 30cm, until result is ripe, initially enters routine within the 3rd year Tree-like and field management;If it is required that grafting the second annual bearing obtain yield, grafting then with cultivate it is tree-like based on, According to the reservation of required tree-like carry out major branch and secondary branch, it is not necessary to limit jujube head length, directly carried out by the 3rd year Secondary Branch length is controlled, and the normal outcome phase can be entered by carrying out Routine Management.
3. a kind of method of quick construction jujube woods according to claim 2, it is characterised in that in step (1), spina date seed Selection is specially:Full grains are selected, the Wild jujube benevolence of last year maturation, or the year before last keep good spina date seed, indoors Do germination test, it is desirable to germination percentage more than 80%.
4. a kind of method of quick construction jujube woods according to claim 2, it is characterised in that in step (1), to reproducing area Fertilising is specially:Determined and reproducing area is applied fertilizer to ensure that wild jujube there are enough fertility after emerging according to reproducing area soil fertility Support its healthy growth.
5. a kind of method of quick construction jujube woods according to claim 4, it is characterised in that the dose to reproducing area is controlled :Every mu of reproducing area uses pure sheep manure 500-600kg, diamines 5-10kg, ploughs deeply soil 20-30cm.
6. a kind of method of quick construction jujube woods according to claim 2, it is characterised in that in step (1), determine wild jujube Benevolence thickness of sowing carries out digging cave bunch planting or trench digging ditch is broadcast,
Bunch planting is specially:Thickness of sowing is formulated according to jujube woods density is built, it is 2m to control spacing in the rows, and line-spacing is 3m;According to determination Thickness of sowing carries out digging cave, controls acupoint depth 6-10cm, pocket footpath 20-30cm;2 wild jujubes of center program request in each cave Benevolence, the mulching soil above spina date seed are so that apart from soil surface 2-3cm depths, the soil of pile things on spina date seed at spina date seed Tread;
Ditch is broadcast specially:Ditch is broadcast works as the high-density sowing that annual production is taken, the sowing spacing in the rows 20- that ditch is broadcast suitable for pursuing grafting 2 spina date seeds of program request at 30cm, line-spacing 50cm, each sowing, the mulching soil above spina date seed is so that in distance at spina date seed Soil surface 2-3cm depths, the soil of pile things on spina date seed will be treaded;Ditch is broadcast after planting carries out cover film with bunch planting:According to It is about to film wide laying 80-100cm above the cave sowed, shallow ridges is opened in film both sides prevents film by wind with soil pile things on Blow loss simultaneously plays soil moisture conservation effect;If running into rainfall, each cave long-pending rain appearing above now pricks hole with thin rod thick about 3mm So that product rain, which is flowed into, increases soil moisture in cave in cave, promote spina date seed germination.
7. a kind of method of quick construction jujube woods according to claim 2, it is characterised in that in step (1), young after emerging Seedling is managed:Sowing starts to observe spina date seed germination after 15 days, when wild jujube seedling grows tall close to film, per cave or A healthy and strong seedling is only stayed at each sowing that person's ditch is broadcast, and the seedling retained is released from membrane pores above, near Soil the film around seedling is depressed into cave or the bottom of ditch again, so as to form the cave covered by film or ditch;
It will be cut off until the growth of seedling of membrane highly reaches 30-40cm at the top of seedling, to promote the girth growth of seedling stem.
CN201710009862.4A 2017-01-06 2017-01-06 A kind of method of quick construction jujube woods Pending CN106973743A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109699368A (en) * 2018-10-08 2019-05-03 沧州市农林科学院 A kind of soil management method improving golden jujube quality

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103444481A (en) * 2013-09-06 2013-12-18 塔里木大学 Method for planting red dates in gobi field of arid region

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103444481A (en) * 2013-09-06 2013-12-18 塔里木大学 Method for planting red dates in gobi field of arid region

Non-Patent Citations (3)

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Title
彭刚: "《酸枣直播造林建园技术》", 《新疆农垦科技》 *
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109699368A (en) * 2018-10-08 2019-05-03 沧州市农林科学院 A kind of soil management method improving golden jujube quality

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Application publication date: 20170725