CN110150014A - A kind of fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting method - Google Patents

A kind of fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110150014A
CN110150014A CN201910473027.5A CN201910473027A CN110150014A CN 110150014 A CN110150014 A CN 110150014A CN 201910473027 A CN201910473027 A CN 201910473027A CN 110150014 A CN110150014 A CN 110150014A
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fruit
tip
fertilizer
branch
tree
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CN110150014B (en
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黄其椿
陈东奎
纪素峰
王茜
黄克
黄宏明
刘福平
邓铁军
汪妮娜
陈香玲
张兰
欧智涛
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Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K17/00Soil-conditioning materials or soil-stabilising materials
    • C09K17/40Soil-conditioning materials or soil-stabilising materials containing mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The present invention relates to fertile mandarin orange field of planting, specifically disclose a kind of fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting method, comprising: S1, field selection: 15~100 mu of soil layers of selection are deep, loose fertile, drain, organic matter is abundant, the subacidity sandy loam or loam orchard establishment of pH value 5.5~6.5;S2, fruit seedling select: selecting the disease-free fertile mandarin orange seedling using Ziyang fragrant citrus as stock;S3, soil deep ploughing: plowing when soil moisture is little, and direction takes contour or vertical road, and plough can once plough depth 60cm or so, then harrows one to twice to smooth, excavation gutter;S4, field planting: disease-free fertile mandarin orange seedling is colonized, and by 3~4 meters of line-spacing, 2~3 meters of spacing in the rows, transplants 56~110 plants of plantations per acre into field;S5, treelet management: the first time tip applies fertilizer after turning green after field planting, and the 2nd year spring carried out flower and fruit thinning after field planting, and the 2nd year winter of field planting carries out expansion cave and improve the soil, apply fertilizer again later, periodically to treelet pruning;S6, bearing-age tree management.This method industrialized planting management level is preferable, so that the plantation yield and quality of fertile mandarin orange is higher.

Description

A kind of fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting method
Technical field
The invention belongs to irrigate mandarin orange field of planting, in particular to a kind of fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting method.
Background technique
The breeding units of fertile mandarin orange are Israel's Volcani agricultural research centers, and breeder is Pinhas Spiegel~Roy With Aliza Vardi, English name are as follows: " Orah " mandarin (order when Chongqing is authorized by Citrus Research Institute Of Chinese Academy Of Agricultural Sciences Entitled " fertile mandarin orange "), it is miscellaneous by female parent " Temple " tangor (temple tangerine orange) and male parent " Dancy " mandarin (Dan Xi) red tangerine Hand over breeding into (because breeder is dead, therefore true Parent has been difficult to investigate).By Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences mandarin orange Find that fertile mandarin orange is likely to be formed by king orange and Mediterranean tangerine selection cross when Molecular Identification is done by east of a river teacher team, tangerine research institute.Its Middle king orange originates from Vietnam, fruit yellow, thicker and coarse, but yield is high, mature evening, heat resistance are strong, the disadvantage is that seed is more, because And its filial generation majority kind generally has the characteristics that pericarp is hard, mature evening, also therefore adjoin Vietnam Guangxi be king orange after In generation, irrigates the preferential species growing area of mandarin orange.
Although currently fertile mandarin orange growth momentum is swift and violent, area, yield, benefit everyway achieve good performance, There are management level mixeds, and technology is not really up to the mark, and industrialized planting yield and quality is caused to be had a greatly reduced quality.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting methods, to overcome industrialized planting yield and product The defect that matter is had a greatly reduced quality.
To achieve the above object, the present invention provides a kind of fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting methods, comprising:
S1, field selection: 15~100 mu of soil layers of selection are deep, loose fertile, drain, and organic matter is abundant, pH value 5.5 ~6.5 subacidity sandy loam or loam orchard establishment;Water conservancy system is established in field, and water conservancy system includes water-fertilizer integral facility and row Water system;
S2, fruit seedling select: selecting the disease-free fertile mandarin orange seedling using Ziyang fragrant citrus as stock;
S3, soil deep ploughing: plowing when soil moisture is little, and direction takes contour or vertical road, and plough is primary Depth 60cm or so can be ploughed, then harrows one to twice to smooth, excavation gutter;
S4, field planting: disease-free fertile mandarin orange seedling is colonized, and by 3~4 meters of line-spacing, 2~3 meters of spacing in the rows, transplants 56~110 per acre Strain plantation is into field;
S5, treelet management:
(1) fertilising of earsh: to the application in fertilising point plantation 3 years of earsh, and expansion cave is carried out every year and is changed Soil:
A. kind plants the 1st year fertilizing method: earsh is after the first time tip turns green, the balanced type for being 0.3% with mass concentration Water soluble fertilizer is applied by the leaching of water-fertilizer integral facility, and every plant is applied 4.5~5kg;Rudiment is applied for 15 days before taking out the tip by the first time tip turn is green Fertile method is applied once, and by the green fertilizing method of the first time tip turn, Shi Yici, each dose gradually increase again after cutting certainly 0.5kg;Start in early March, select front and back of raining, monthly alternately applies 30~50g urea or 50g biological organic fertilizer, 1 year at least Fertilising 5 times;Each tip strengthens 1~2 foliar fertilizer of tip phase root outer spraying, and when fertilising will be away from 15~20cm of trunk;
B. kind plants the 2nd year fertilizing method: the Shi Dongfei before the Spring Festival, improves the soil progresss in conjunction with cave is expanded, every plant every time alternating apply 50~95g urea or 100~150g biological organic fertilizer, every plant of each urea amount of application are no more than 100g;It will be away from trunk when fertilising 15~20 centimeters;Each dose gradually increases 0.5kg;It at least applies fertilizer 5 times within 1 year;
C. kind plants the 3rd year fertilizing method: if not planning within the 3rd year fruiting after plantation, the 2nd year fertilising side of fertilizing method and plantation Method;
(2) shaping and trimming method: earsh will periodically be done surely after field planting, the tip is put in shaping and bud picking:
A. it the method done surely: after field planting survives, should be done surely the full place's cutting back of bud in the middle part of 30~50cm from the ground, branch; It is shaping strip between 10~15cm below clip bud after cutting back, is trunk below shaping strip;The branch sprouted on the trunk, Bud needs are erased in time, and trunk is kept to have the height of 30cm or more after entering operation;
B. the method for shaping: First Year selects 3~4 consistent branch of growing way of different direction to be trained one in shaping strip Grade major branch;Later every time tip selects and remain the branch that 3~4 growing ways are uniform, are reasonably distributed, short to cut and stay when each tip is aging It descends 20~25cm and includes the branch of 6~8 leaves, promote next group young sprout and sprout, so as to form major branches such as second level, three-level, level Four; The tree for preparing coming year operation, short cannot cut after autumn growth is aging;The plant upright to branch, with thin after young sprout is aging or before sprouting Major branch is pulled into 50 ° or so by rope, unlocks cord after restoring 45 °, 25~30 days after lightening restrictions on, tree crown is made to open a business;
C. the method that the tip is put in bud picking: each base tip appropriate pinching from before cutting, it is aging to accelerate branch;After branch is aging, stay 20~25cm limb and leave 6~8 leaves carry out it is short cut, sprouting it is long to 5~6cm when dredge remove excessive weak bud in time, every 2~3 healthy and strong buds being reasonably distributed only are stayed on the base tip;The uniform young sprout of growing way is selected and remain in each site when each bud thinning;Such as It is more than 100 or more into first period that autumn growth is cultivated when this is recycled to operation;
(3) control the management method of flowers and fruits: earsh takes flower and fruit thinning measure in the 2nd year spring of plantation:
A. spray plant growth regulator and pour water: spray mass fraction is 50ppm when the last time tip starts aging in winter Gibberellic acid and 250ppm urea, spray 1~2 time;
B. instant nitrogenousfertilizer and thin flower bud fruit thinning are applied: applying instant nitrogenousfertilizer within 9~12 days before spring takes out the spring tip;
(4) soil management method: the method combined using mulch and tree disk covering:
A. the method for covering with ground sheeting: mulch selects black film or silver grey film or anti-meadow cloth or water suction flannelette;When covering with ground sheeting Small part Naked dew around trunk is only stayed not cover;It is taken out after expanding to tree crown within covering with ground sheeting 2~3 years;
B. it sets the method for disk covering: the tree disk under tree crown should be carried out to litter covering, littered with a thickness of 10~20cm, every year Increase covering newly;
(5) it the method for water management: excavates tap drain and is not less than 60 × 60cm, gutter is not less than 40 × 40cm, and compartment ditch is not low In 20 × 20cm;
S6, bearing-age tree management:
(1) fertilizing method:
A. in halcyon days, dressing furrow, 15~40cm of ditch depth the fertilizing method of base manure: are excavated in plant tree crown drip; Every plant is applied decomposed manure l0~20kg, 0.5~1.0kg of compound fertilizer, green manure weeds 0.5kg, by lime 0.5kg, boron 0.1~ 2kg, zinc 0.2~0.25kg, 0.15~0.23kg magnesium apply every plant of earthing after mixing;
B. it the fertilizing method of spring tip fertilizer: applies within 10~15 days before rudiment, every plant is applied cake fertilizer liquid dung 10~30kg of fertilizer, cooperation 0.3~0.5kg of balanced type compound fertilizer is drenched by fertigation mode to be applied;
C. thank to the fertilizing method of flower and fruit fertilizer: thank spend 70% to thank spend it is latter week in apply, for strain produce 25kg fruit Set every Zhu Shigaojia type 0.2~0.3kg of compound fertilizer;
D. strengthen the fertilizing method that fruit attacks autumn growth fertilizer: 20 days before putting the tip, strong fruit attacks autumn growth fertilizer mainly based on organic fertilizer, and every plant is applied 1.5~3kg of cake fertilizer, decomposed manure l0~15kg, 0.2~0.5kg of urea, 1~2kg of compound fertilizer ditch along tree crown drip It applies and covers;
E. it imposes the fertilizing method of fruit-promoting fertilizer: after autumn growth pumping, drought resisting being combined every month to apply 1~2 liquid manure, liquid manure is height Potassium type Water soluble fertilizer;
(2) method of healthy and strong autumn growth is cultivated:
A. the autumn growth phase is put surely: starting to put autumn growth around the beginning of autumn, puts the tip time in mid-August to early September;
B. it puts the method applied fertilizer before autumn growth: applying fertilizer within 15~20 days before putting autumn growth, if per plant amount 50kg, every plant is applied height Nitrogen 1.0kg, high potassium 1.0kg, low-phosphorous compound fertilizer 1.0kg;If the tree that tree vigo(u)r is weak or result is excessive is affixed by 0.1~0.15kg of urea;
C. put the method for autumn growth trimming and fruit thinning: the apex part of the weak branch of cutting back and old branch, clip stay vigorous branches to strengthen bud; Clip rugosity 0.5cm, when cutting back, leave 10cm stakes, about stay cutting back at 6 leaves;By intensive crossing branch, thin and delicate branch, disease pest secateurs It goes;For the bearing-age tree more than fruiting amount, it is thinning out the fruitlet of top section fruit, lower part, in conjunction with fruit thinning, cutting back lacks the bearing basal shoot of leaf With fruit drop branch;The dense bearing-age tree of branch is lacked for fruiting amount, the sturdy spring tip or summer shoot of tree crown periphery are trimmed, Autumn growth is put by bud picking realization, the bud for fragmentary pumping of erasing early period, until the bud of 70% branch on the plant in full garden 70% is sprouted When, then stop bud picking, uniformly puts autumn growth;
D. put the method for selecting the tip to stay the tip after autumn growth: after trimming and fertilising, young sprout is sprouted within 10~12 days, when branch extends Carry out when to 5~6cm and selects the tip and stay the tip;The method for staying the tip is to stay 3 on tree crown top, in tree crown, lower part stay 2~3, vigorous branches 3 are stayed, weak branch stays 1~2;The branch branch of excessive growth easy to form that other positions of tree crown are sprouted, in addition to giving over to fill vacancy individually, Remaining excision;
(3) promote flower technology:
A. paclobutrazol promotees flower: annual flower bud differentiation period, i.e. mid-November to late December, the use of mass concentration is 25% Paclobutrazol dilutes 300~400 times with solvent, squirts blade face, sprays 1~2 time;
B. girdling promotees flower: over growth or flower over the years measure few tree, carry out girdling in mid or late December view weather condition;I.e. A knife is cut in major branch or secondary major branch or branch part ring-type, is advisable with cutting off cortex without hurting xylem;
(4) fruit retention technology:
A. foliage top dressing: to spring tip bud stage before blooming, foliar fertilizer is sprayed;The weight ratio of the foliar fertilizer be 20%~ 35% boron fertilizer, 8%~12% magnesium sulfate, 2%~5% amino acid, 3%~7% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, remaining is water, is sprayed 2 times, It is primary every spray in 12~15 days;
B. drug fruit retention: thank spend 2/3 when spray gibberellic acid or gibberellic acid and brassin lactones, boron fertilizer mixed liquor, it is described Mixed liquor be that gibberellic acid crystal powder 1g that mass concentration is 5% is watered 50~75kg or mass concentration is 3% gibberellic acid 250ml It is watered the brassin lactones that 200kg+ mass concentration is 0.01% and dilutes the boron fertilizer that 3000~4500 times of liquid+mass concentrations are 98% 1500~2200 times of resulting mixed liquors of liquid are diluted, are sprayed again after 20~30 days primary;
C. girdling: thanking to the Hua Houzhi spring tip aging period, and when physiological fallen fruit to ideal fruit amount, selection cloudy day or fine day exist One knife of girdling on trunk or major branch cuts off bast;
D. the tip and bud picking fruit retention are dredged: suitably pruning the excessively prosperous spring tip of tree crown apical growth off;
E. it fruit thinning: is carried out within 15 days after second of physiological fallen fruit to before putting autumn growth, dredges and go to weak branch fruit, string-like fruit, top Fruit, day are burnt fruit, pest and disease damage fruit, malformed fruit, too small or excessive fruit, keep fruit to be evenly distributed, leaf-fruit ratio is (30~40): 1;
F. anti-sunscald: the tip is put after late June fruit covered with blade or is faced south after mid-July and fruit paster or whitewash processing;
G. phylactocarp: entering July, and for part fruit-setting rate height, the tree-like culture of trunk is undesirable, and fruiting long shoot is easily sagging to mop floor Orchard, need to carry out successively support and fruit and the phylactocarp of fruit dragged to work;Using central upright bar type or surrounding intersecting parallels, and combine rope Bondage drags fruit using plastic wire complete stool net shield.
Preferably, in above-mentioned technical proposal, shelter-forest is planted on field periphery.
Preferably, in above-mentioned technical proposal, if outdoor bare-root seeding, the permanganic acid for being 0.1% with mass concentration when field planting Potassium solution impregnates whole young plant 3~5 minutes, taking-up dries in the air 3~rinsed again with clear water after five minutes it is primary, then by the root of fertile mandarin orange seedling System is immersed in etc. in the root-inducing powder, nucleotide, thiophanate-methyl mixed liquor of quality 8~10 hours, is mixed after taking out seedling with this solution Yellow mud, slurry root can take away field planting.
Preferably, it in above-mentioned technical proposal, is treaded after a small amount of soil of training with both feet when field planting and helps straight, graft union exposes native face 5~10cm, ridging form a 10~15cm high, and diameter is 50~60cm or so width, the hill of bowl shape.
Preferably, in above-mentioned technical proposal, step S6 further include make between treelet, inter-row green covering covering or covering with ground sheeting, tree Disk covering.
Preferably, in above-mentioned technical proposal, step S5 further includes that d. carries out expanding the method that cave is improved the soil every year: being dripped in tree crown Outside line, and then the outer rim of original improve the soil cave or ditch carries out out cave or trench, and the depth of cave or ditch is 50~80cm, and width is 0.5~1m is advisable with seeing root system;Annual rotation is improved the soil position, is carried out, is carried out by stages year by year in the one or both sides of plant, And full garden is completed before high yield and is improved the soil;The soil amelioration material includes: 20 parts of crude fibre organic matters by ratio of weight and the number of copies, and 70 parts decomposed Manure of livestock and poultry, 10 parts of bran fertilizer, apply 20~30kg of soil amelioration material by every plant of layering, by soil amelioration material be divided into 2~3 layers, every layer plus 0.5~1kg of calcium superphosphate is added in appropriate lime, top layer.
Preferably, in above-mentioned technical proposal, the arrangement of time of tip phase in the step c in step S5: the 1st year, the 2nd after field planting Year stay 5 tips every year, put the tip time: the spring tip 2 months, in summer shoot the first tenday period of a month in May, the 2nd summer shoot was by the end of May to early June, in autumn growth August Ten days, by the end of September to early October;Young age bearing-age tree stays 3 tips within 3rd year, puts the tip time: on the spring tip 2 months, summer shoot late June to July Ten days, autumn growth late August to September early and middle ten days.
Compared with prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
Fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting method in the present invention, fruit seedling select Ziyang fragrant citrus as stock, improve industrialized planting Management level, main manure use improve soil, irrigate mandarin orange trimming in each stage, fertilizer treatment obtains more reasonable, Neng Gouchong Divide nutrition needed for meeting fertile mandarin orange growth, so that it is higher to plant yield and quality.
Specific embodiment
Specific embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail below, it is to be understood that protection scope of the present invention is not It is restricted by specific implementation.
Embodiment 1:
A kind of fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting method, specifically includes:
S1, field selection
Field selects 15~100 mu of soil layers deep, loose fertile, drains, and organic matter is abundant, the subacidity of pH value 5.5 Sandy loam or loam orchard establishment;
Water conservancy system is established, water conservancy system includes water-fertilizer integral facility and drainage system, and water-fertilizer integral facility includes Reservoir and liquid manure pond.Fertile mandarin orange growing way is strong, needs the big fertilizer of flood, installs water-fertilizer integral trickle irrigation or micro-spray device, device are main There are liquid manure pond, filter, suction pump, water main, branch pipe, switch, drop band, water dropper etc..Reservoir generally by needing 2 cubes of water per acre Construction, liquid manure pond generally by 0.5 cube of construction is needed per acre, and medicine pond is by needing to build 0.05 cube of construction per acre.Drainage system includes opening Level-one drainage ditch, Municipal secondary effluent ditch are dug, drainage ditch should have been dug at the low-lying place in orchard.
Shelter-forest is planted on field periphery, is conducive to prevent the invasion of harmful insect such as diaphorina citri, moreover it is possible to reduce wind speed, subtract Mandarin orange blade is irrigated less to be stabbed, to reduce blade wound, reduces the disease incidence of canker.Be suitable for make shelter-forest have pine tree, China fir Tree, eucalyptus etc..Pay attention to that the tree species for having common disease with citrus, such as Calusena lansium, kamuning cannot be selected.
S2, the selection of fruit seedling
Select plant type good, root system is complete, does not carry the quarantine diseases such as Citrus Huanglongbing pathogen, canker and broken leaf especially The fertile mandarin orange seedling of the Diseases such as disease, bark cracking, decline disease;It selects anti-/ resistance to adverse circumstance by force and scion variety can be promoted early to tie, is rich Production, stable yields, good excellent stock;Ziyang fragrant citrus, Fructus Aurantii, red tangerine, sour tangerine, lemon can make fertile mandarin orange stock.Wherein as a means of Positive fragrant citrus general performance is best, and stock set Fructus Aurantii is easy into flower, and flower and fruit protecting is relatively easy to, be easy to the spy of early fruiting and high yield Point, and gathered red tangerine, sour tangerine, lemon well developed root system, growing way is vigorous, resistance strong (the anti-crushing leaf disease of energy, drought resisting, cold ability By force), the characteristics of wide adaptability, fruit appearance is beautiful, and quality might as well.
S3, soil deep ploughing
Full garden deep ploughing subsoiling is carried out using big-powered tractor list colter, is plowed when soil moisture is little, direction Take contour or vertical road, plough can once plough depth 60cm or so, then harrow one to smooth, excavating draining with the machine of hook twice Ditch.
To full Orchard Soil deep ploughing subsoiling and the pre-planting essential step of fertile mandarin orange, because of many 30 centimeters of soils or less Plough sole be all not move in hundreds and thousands of years even decades, serious hardened hardening.After deep ploughing, soil property is more loose, breathes freely, protects It is aqueous can be more preferable, more conducively root system is pricked deeply absorbs mineral nutrition, moisture, conducive to the fast-growth development of root system early period, Neng Gouxun Speed formation is well established and vigorously developing, and early fruiting and high yield produces benefit early.
S4, field planting
1, planting density
3 meters of line-spacing, 2 meters of spacing in the rows, 56 plants are transplanted per acre.
2, resident time
Bare-root seeding is advisable with January~plantation in March.In April~May, can also be planted when rainfall is more or cloudy.Also it may be selected In 10~November, rainfall or cloudy day when planted.When temperature is higher, soil is more arid, such as kind is naked seedlings, should be infused Meaning trimming, retains certain trunk, extra branches and leaves is cut off, only retain a small amount of blade or blade is all cut, to reduce Transpiration improves survival rate.Container seedling whole year can plant.
3, field planting method
Seedling is carried out subregion plantation according to magnitude classification, facilitates final-period management.Outdoor bare-root seeding in this way, can be with 0.1% high Potassium manganate solution impregnates whole young plant 3 minutes, and taking-up is rinsed once with clear water again after drying in the air 3 minutes, can kill the presence of plant surface Canker germ, the root system of fertile mandarin orange seedling such as is then immersed at the root-inducing powders of quality, and (main component is methyl α-naphthyl acetate, indoles fourth Acid dilutes 400 times), nucleotide (dilution 400 times), 8 in thiophanate-methyl (mass concentration 70% dilutes 600 times) mixed liquor Hour, it takes out and mixes yellow mud with this solution after seedling, slurry root can take away field planting.If it is container seedling, container is cut off, takes out soil Ball can take bottom off 1/3 or so (then can directly plant as root system), make root system if root system is flourishing enough and winds Spread apart is conducive to treelet Fast Growth.As root system, then directly planted after can removing container.
Pitting has been dug according to root system length in the point of bracing wire in advance hole, treaded after a small amount of soil of training with both feet when field planting and help it is straight, Notice that graft union exposes soil face 5cm (graft union is susceptible to suffer from resin disease in being earthed), earths up and form a 10cm high, diameter is 50cm or so width, the hill of bowl shape.Hill can cover straw, and to prevent mound soil losses, when lid black film should be infused Being intended to water-permeable and air permeable prevents bored, otherwise, unfavorable growth.
S5, treelet management
(1) fertilizing method of earsh: to the application in fertilizing method point plantation 3 years of earsh, and every year will be into Row expands cave and improves the soil:
A. kind plants the 1st year fertilizing method: earsh is after the first time tip turns green, the balanced type for being 0.3% with mass concentration Water soluble fertilizer is applied by the leaching of water-fertilizer integral facility, and every plant is applied 4.5kg;Rudiment is turned green fertilising side by the first time tip in 15 days before taking out the tip Method Shi Yici, by the green fertilizing method of the first time tip turn, Shi Yici, each dose gradually increase 0.5kg again after cutting certainly;3 In the first tenday period of a month moon, front and back of raining is selected, monthly replaces and apply 30g urea or 50g biological organic fertilizer, 1 year at least fertilising 5 times;Each tip The strong tip phase, when fertilising, will be away from trunk 15cm in combination with 1~2 foliar fertilizer of prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control root outer spraying;
B. kind plants the 2nd year fertilizing method: the Shi Dongfei before the Spring Festival, improves the soil progresss in conjunction with cave is expanded, every plant every time alternating apply 50g urea or 100g biological organic fertilizer are applied, biological organic fertilizer is made by the raw material of following weight parts: 6 parts of mushroom residue, dried peppermint leaf 4 Part, 4 parts of chicken manure, 8 parts of corn stover, 0.5 part of natto powder.Every plant of each urea amount of application is no more than 100g;It will be away from tree when fertilising Dry 15cm;Each dose gradually increases 0.5kg;It at least applies fertilizer 5 times within 1 year;
C. kind plants the 3rd year fertilizing method: if not planning within the 3rd year fruiting after plantation, fertilizing method applied fertilizer with plantation the 2nd year Method is identical;If result is applied fertilizer by bearing-age tree fertilizing method;
D. it carries out expanding the method improved the soil of cave every year: outside tree crown drip, the and then outer rim of original improve the soil cave or ditch Carry out out cave or trench, the depth of cave or ditch is 50cm, and width 0.5m is advisable to see root system;Annual rotation is improved the soil position, It carries out, is carried out in the one or both sides of plant, and complete full garden before high yield and improve the soil by stages year by year;Soil amelioration material is in parts by weight Than including: 20 parts of crude fibre organic matters, 70 parts of decomposed manure of livestock and poultry, 10 parts of bran fertilizer, crude fibre organic matter is green manure or tree branches and leaves Weeds or mountain grass.Soil amelioration material 20kg is applied by every plant of layering, soil amelioration material is divided into 2 layers, every layer plus appropriate lime, it is most upper Calcium superphosphate 0.5kg is added in layer;
(2) shaping and trimming method: earsh will periodically be done surely after field planting, the tip is put in shaping and bud picking:
A. it the method done surely: after field planting survives, should be done surely the full place's cutting back of bud in the middle part of 30cm from the ground, branch;Cutting back 10cm below clip bud is shaping strip afterwards, is trunk below shaping strip;Branch, the bud needs sprouted on the trunk are smeared in time It goes, trunk is kept to have the height of 30cm or more after entering operation;
B. the method for shaping: First Year selects 3~4 consistent branch of growing way of different direction to be trained one in shaping strip Grade major branch;Later every time tip selects and remain the branch that 3~4 growing ways are uniform, are reasonably distributed, short to cut and stay when each tip is aging It descends 20~25cm and includes the branch of 6~8 leaves, promote next group young sprout and sprout, so as to form major branches such as second level, three-level, level Four; The tree for preparing coming year operation, short cannot cut after autumn growth is aging;The plant upright to branch, with thin after young sprout is aging or before sprouting Major branch is pulled into 50 ° or so by rope, unlocks cord after restoring 45 °, 25~30 days after lightening restrictions on, tree crown is made to open a business;
C. the method that the tip is put in bud picking: each base tip appropriate pinching from before cutting, it is aging to accelerate branch;After branch is aging, stay 20~25cm limb and leave 6~8 leaves carry out it is short cut, promote next group young sprout and sprout, sprouting it is long to 5~6cm when dredge in time Remove excessive weak bud, when bud thinning consider bud raw direction, only stay 2~3 healthy and strong buds being reasonably distributed on every base tip;Every time The uniform young sprout of growing way is selected and remain in each site when bud thinning;So circulation, until culture autumn growth is more than 100 or more when going into operation, First period can be entered;The arrangement of time of tip phase: the 1st year after field planting, 5 tips are stayed every year within the 2nd year, put the tip time: the spring tip 2 months, In summer shoot the first tenday period of a month in May, the 2nd summer shoot is by the end of May to early June, autumn growth mid-August, by the end of September to early October;3rd year young age result Tree stays 3 tips, puts the tip time: the spring tip 2 months, summer shoot late June to early July, autumn growth late August to September early and middle ten days;
(3) control the management management method of flowers and fruits: earsh takes flower and fruit thinning measure in the 2nd year spring of plantation:
A. spray plant growth regulator and pour water: spray mass fraction is 50ppm when the last time tip starts aging in winter Gibberellic acid and 250ppm urea, spray 1~2 time;The nitrogenous fertilizer if winter drought will pour water or be affixed by keeps tree vigo(u)r vigorous, can be effective Control next spring blooms, and inspires a large amount of spring tip nutrition branches;
B. instant nitrogenousfertilizer and thin flower bud fruit thinning are applied: applying within 9~12 days instant nitrogenousfertilizer before spring takes out the spring tip, accelerates Spring-shoot growth, Weaken bud, growth of young;If the above measure is not all handled properly, and has become colored, need artificial to extract bud, children in time Fruit promotes quickly to take out the tip;
(4) soil management method: the method combined using mulch and tree disk covering:
A. the method for covering with ground sheeting: mulch selects black film or silver grey film or anti-meadow cloth or water suction flannelette;Covering with ground sheeting one The garden Ban Quan carries out, and small part Naked dew around trunk is only stayed not cover;Covering with ground sheeting was only suitable for using 2~3 years, and tree crown preferably takes after expanding Out, in favor of root growth;
B. it sets the method for disk covering: the tree disk under tree crown should be carried out to litter covering, littered with a thickness of 10~20cm;Every year It increases covering newly, supplements the part for rotting to decompose;The covering is ground cloth or straw or straw or sugarcane leaf or mountain grass.
(5) method of water management: taking tap drain to be deeper than gutter, and gutter is deeper than the principle of compartment ditch, i.e. tap drain is not less than 60 × 60cm, gutter are not less than 40 × 40cm, and compartment ditch is not less than 20 × 20cm;Simultaneously hillside fields by earthen backfill to compartment face to avoid Hillside fields hangs root, not drought-enduring, resistance to ridge;Spring and summer rainy season will exclude ponding in time;Autumn and winter meet drought and to pour water in time, cover moisturizing; Next year wants the tree of fruiting to pay attention to control water after autumn growth is aging, to inhibit the winter tip and promote bud differentiation.
S6, bearing-age tree management
Fertilizing method and bearing-age tree nutrient diagnosis method: fertilization compositions based on earth measurement and the Integration of Water into Fertilizer are used, has been increased Machine fertilizer rationally applies inorganic fertilizer and for nutrient diagnosis formula fertilizer;
(1) fertilizing method: the fertilizer in terms of producing, purity nitrogen 1.0kg, N:P:K ratio is 1:0.5:0.8 in terms of every production 50kg fruit, according to Aforementioned proportion selects peanut press pulp, compound fertilizer, urea and potassium sulfate, and organic nitrogen and inorganic nitrogen application select soil than being 4.5:5.5 Fertilization mode, fertigation mode and foliage top dressing mode:
A. soil application mode: according to each bearing-age tree orchard topographic features, tree crown size, fertilizer type and weather item Part to ditch at 0.2m near tree crown drip, and selects trench digging shape to carry out soil application for annular groove mode;Ditching depth It is shallowly applied by spring, summer, autumn, winter are applied deeply and applied deeply using organic fertilizer, the principle that inorganic fertilizer is shallowly applied.
B. fertigation mode: in bearing-age tree orchard, equipment water-fertilizer integral facility will be fertile using the fertilization mode of sprinkling irrigation Material is dissolved in irrigation water, is applied fertilizer by water-fertilizer integral facility.
C. foliage top dressing: being sprayed using foliar fertilizer nutrient, enters blade by stomata on blade and cuticula;Institute Stating foliar fertilizer weight ratio is 0.3% magnesium sulfate, 0.2% zinc sulfate, 0.1% boric acid, 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.5% urine Element, 0.3% auxotype nucleotide, remaining is water;Before each young sprout and turn green phase spray, a tip two is fertile.
(2) fertilizing method and dose: the fertilization mode of bearing-age tree is divided into winter top dressing, spring tip fertilizer, thanks flower and fruit fertilizer, strong fruit It attacks autumn growth fertilizer, impose fruit-promoting fertilizer, the dose of every kind of fertilization mode accounts for the 30% of current year dose respectively, and 20%, 5%, 35%, 10%:
A. it the fertilizing method of base manure: is applied in halcyon days, mainly based on organic fertilizer, in conjunction with compound fertilizer: dripping in plant tree crown Line excavates dressing furrow, ditch depth 15cm, wherein result is few, the energetic combination of tree vigo(u)r is completely cured it is appropriate it is deep apply, as a result less, tree vigo(u)r is weak avoids hurting Root is excessively suitably shallowly applied;Strain applies decomposed manure 20kg, compound fertilizer 1.0kg, mixes green manure weeds 0.5kg, lime 0.5kg, boron Every plant of application earthing after 2kg, zinc 0.25kg, magnesium 0.23kg are uniform;Decomposed manure is peanut press pulp.
B. it the fertilizing method of spring tip fertilizer: applies within 10~15 days before rudiment, every plant is applied cake fertilizer liquid dung fertilizer 30kg, complex equilibrium Type compound fertilizer 0.5kg is drenched by fertigation mode to be applied;Every plant that if upper annual bearing is excessive, tree vigo(u)r is weak increase urea 50~ 150g;Spring tip bud stage combines prevention and treatment pest and disease damage to carry out foliage top dressing.
C. thank to the fertilizing method of flower and fruit fertilizer: thank spend 70% to thank spend latter week in apply, due to bloom consume it is a large amount of Nutrient causes a large amount of fruit drops, and fruit tree every Zhu Shigaojia type 0.2~0.3kg of compound fertilizer of 25kg is produced for strain;If result Less, excessively prosperous young age bearing-age tree does not apply above-mentioned fertilizer.
D. strengthen the fertilizing method that fruit attacks autumn growth fertilizer: 20 days before putting the tip, i.e. mid or late July to early August applies, and strong fruit attacks the autumn Mainly based on organic fertilizer, every plant is applied cake fertilizer 1.5kg, decomposed manure l0kg, urea 0.2kg to tip fertilizer, and compound fertilizer 1kg is dripped along tree crown Waterline trench digging is applied and is covered;The big appropriate lift-augmented mechanism of tree of weak tree, fruiting amount.
E. impose the fertilizing method of fruit-promoting fertilizer: after autumn growth pumping, every month combines drought resisting to apply 1~2 liquid manure, with high potassium type Based on Water soluble fertilizer;After November, fertilizer is suitably controlled after autumn growth is aging.
(3) it irrigates mandarin orange nutrient diagnosis method: showing different symptoms for the branch of bearing-age tree, flower, leaf, fruit and examined It is disconnected, including zinc-deficiency diagnosis and correcting method, magnesium deficiency diagnosis and correcting method, boron deficiency diagnosis and its correcting method, manganese deficiency diagnosis and Its correcting method.
The method for cultivating healthy and strong autumn growth: including putting the slightly phase in autumn surely and putting the management method before and after the tip:
(1) it puts surely the autumn growth phase: depending on bearing-age tree puts time of autumn growth because of the age of tree, tree vigo(u)r, land occupation condition and result quantities, principle Be " three early three late ": the tree more than result, hillside orchard, growing way is weak, and the orchard of water and fertilizer condition difference is early put.Adverse consequences are few, paddy field Orchard, the orchard delayed release that growing way is energetic, water and fertilizer condition is good;The childhood tree just gone into operation carries out putting secondary autumn growth to expand tree crown; The specific time starts to put autumn growth before and after " the beginning of autumn ", generally puts the tip time in mid-August to early September;Fruiting amount it is big, mountainous region , water intaking is inconvenient also to shift to an earlier date 15 days.
(2) it puts the method applied fertilizer before autumn growth: applying fertilizer within 20 days before putting autumn growth, if per plant amount 50kg, every plant is about applied high nitrogen 1.0kg, high potassium 1.0kg, low-phosphorous compound fertilizer 1.0kg;If the tree that tree vigo(u)r is weak or result is excessive is affixed by 0.1~0.15kg of urea.
(3) method of autumn growth trimming and fruit thinning: the apex part of the weak branch of cutting back and old branch is put, clip stays vigorous branches strong Bud;Clip rugosity 0.5cm, when cutting back, leave 10cm stakes, about stay cutting back at 6 leaves;By intensive crossing branch, thin and delicate branch, disease pest Secateurs is gone;For the bearing-age tree more than fruiting amount, it is thinning out the fruitlet of top section fruit, lower part, in conjunction with fruit thinning, cutting back lacks the result of leaf Female branch and fruit drop branch;The dense bearing-age tree of branch is lacked for fruiting amount, the sturdy spring tip or summer shoot to tree crown periphery carry out It trims, based on sparse branching, supplemented by cutting back;Autumn growth is put by bud picking realization, the bud for fragmentary pumping of erasing early period, until full garden 70% When the bud of 70% branch is sprouted on plant, then stops bud picking, uniformly put autumn growth.
(4) put the method for selecting the tip to stay the tip after autumn growth: after trimming and fertilising, young sprout is sprouted within 12 days, when branch is extended to 5 Carry out when~6cm and selects the tip and stay the tip;The method for staying the tip is to stay 3 on tree crown top, in tree crown, lower part stay 2~3, vigorous branches stays 3 Item, weak branch stay 1~2;The branch branch of excessive growth easy to form that other positions of tree crown are sprouted, in addition to giving over to fill vacancy individually, remaining It extracts.
(5) it puts after autumn growth to the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: when young sprout is grown less than 1~2cm using fungicide and insecticide, desinsection Agent includes Acetamiprid, chlopyrifos, Diacloden;Fungicide includes the gloomy copper of thiophene, Mancozeb, pyraclostrobin;Above-mentioned fungicide and It is insecticide even spray 2 times or more, primary every spray in 10 days, until young sprout is aging;Spraying acaricide when autumn growth turns green.
Promote flower technology:
(1) paclobutrazol promotees flower: annual flower bud differentiation period, i.e. mid-November to late December, the use of mass concentration is 25% Paclobutrazol dilute 300 times with solvent, squirt blade face, spray 1~2 time, be advisable with not dripping.
(2) girdling promotees flower: over growth or flower over the years measure few tree, carry out girdling in mid or late December view weather condition; A knife is cut in major branch or secondary major branch or branch part ring-type, is advisable with cutting off cortex without hurting xylem;It not sprayed after girdling strong Property pesticide.
Fruit retention technology:
(1) it foliage top dressing: to spring tip bud stage before blooming, is carried out in conjunction with the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, sprays foliar fertilizer;The foliar fertilizer Weight ratio be 35% boron fertilizer, 12% magnesium sulfate, 5% amino acid, 7% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, remaining is water, spray 2 times, every Spray in 12 days is primary.
(2) drug fruit retention: spraying the mixed liquor of gibberellic acid or gibberellic acid and brassin lactones, boron fertilizer when thanking and spending 2/3, described Mixed liquor be that gibberellic acid crystal powder 1g that mass concentration is 5% is watered 50kg or mass concentration is that 3% gibberellic acid 250ml is watered The brassin lactones that 200kg+ mass concentration is 0.01% dilute the boron fertilizer that 3000 times of liquid+mass concentrations are 98% and dilute 1500 times The resulting mixed liquor of liquid, 20 days backsights divide fruit situation to spray again once;Gibberellic acid cannot apply repeatedly or concentration is excessive, to prevent generating Rough bark fruit.
(3) girdling: thanking to the Hua Houzhi spring tip aging period in energetic tree, when physiological fallen fruit to ideal fruit amount, selection yin It or fine day one knife of girdling on trunk or major branch cut off bast.
(4) tip and bud picking fruit retention are dredged: suitably pruning the excessively prosperous spring tip of tree crown apical growth off;Such as a large amount of pumping summer shoots, it is necessary to The tip is killed using manually extracing or spraying drug in time, to inhibit summer shoot to grow, until late June or before putting autumn growth, avoids Yin Xia The tip takes out hair and causes a large amount of sheddings.
(5) it fruit thinning: is carried out within 15 days after second of physiological fallen fruit to before putting autumn growth, dredges and go to weak branch fruit, string-like fruit, top Fruit, day are burnt fruit, pest and disease damage fruit, malformed fruit, too small or excessive fruit, keep fruit to be evenly distributed, leaf-fruit ratio 30:1.
(6) anti-sunscald: the tip is put after late June fruit covered with blade or is faced south after mid-July and fruit paster or whitewash processing;
(7) phylactocarp: for entering July, part fruit-setting rate is high, and the tree-like culture of trunk is undesirable, and fruiting long shoot is easily sagging to be dragged The orchard on ground needs to carry out successively support fruit and the phylactocarp of fruit is dragged to work;Using central upright bar type or surrounding intersecting parallels, and combine rope Rope bondage drags fruit using plastic wire complete stool net shield.
Embodiment 2:
A kind of fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting method, specifically includes:
S1, field selection
Field selects 15~100 mu of soil layers deep, loose fertile, drains, and organic matter is abundant, the subacidity of pH value 6.5 Sandy loam or loam orchard establishment;
Water conservancy system is established, water conservancy system includes water-fertilizer integral facility and drainage system, and water-fertilizer integral facility includes Reservoir and liquid manure pond.Fertile mandarin orange growing way is strong, needs the big fertilizer of flood, installs water-fertilizer integral trickle irrigation or micro-spray device, device are main There are liquid manure pond, filter, suction pump, water main, branch pipe, switch, drop band, water dropper etc..Reservoir generally by needing 4 cubes of water per acre Construction, liquid manure pond generally by 0.5 cube of construction is needed per acre, and medicine pond is by needing to build 0.1 cube of construction per acre.Drainage system includes excavating Level-one drainage ditch, Municipal secondary effluent ditch should dig drainage ditch at the low-lying place in orchard.
Shelter-forest is planted on field periphery, is conducive to prevent the invasion of harmful insect such as diaphorina citri, moreover it is possible to reduce wind speed, subtract Mandarin orange blade is irrigated less to be stabbed, to reduce blade wound, reduces the disease incidence of canker.Be suitable for make shelter-forest have pine tree, China fir Tree, eucalyptus etc..Pay attention to that the tree species for having common disease with citrus, such as Calusena lansium, kamuning cannot be selected.
S2, the selection of fruit seedling
Select plant type good, root system is complete, does not carry the quarantine diseases such as Citrus Huanglongbing pathogen, canker and broken leaf especially The fertile mandarin orange seedling of the Diseases such as disease, bark cracking, decline disease;It selects anti-/ resistance to adverse circumstance by force and scion variety can be promoted early to tie, is rich Production, stable yields, good excellent stock;Ziyang fragrant citrus, Fructus Aurantii, red tangerine, sour tangerine, lemon can make fertile mandarin orange stock.Wherein as a means of Positive fragrant citrus general performance is best, and stock set Fructus Aurantii is easy into flower, and flower and fruit protecting is relatively easy to, be easy to the spy of early fruiting and high yield Point, and gathered red tangerine, sour tangerine, lemon well developed root system, growing way is vigorous, resistance strong (the anti-crushing leaf disease of energy, drought resisting, cold ability By force), the characteristics of wide adaptability, fruit appearance is beautiful, and quality might as well.
S3, soil deep ploughing
Full garden deep ploughing subsoiling is carried out using big-powered tractor list colter, is plowed when soil moisture is little, direction Take contour or vertical road, plough can once plough depth 60cm or so, then harrow one to smooth, excavating draining with the machine of hook twice Ditch.
To full Orchard Soil deep ploughing subsoiling and the pre-planting essential step of fertile mandarin orange, because of many 30 centimeters of soils or less Plough sole be all not move in hundreds and thousands of years even decades, serious hardened hardening.After deep ploughing, soil property is more loose, breathes freely, protects It is aqueous can be more preferable, more conducively root system is pricked deeply absorbs mineral nutrition, moisture, conducive to the fast-growth development of root system early period, Neng Gouxun Speed formation is well established and vigorously developing, and early fruiting and high yield produces benefit early.
S4, field planting
1, planting density
4 meters of line-spacing, 3 meters of spacing in the rows, 110 plants are transplanted per acre.
2, resident time
Bare-root seeding is advisable with January~plantation in March.In April~May, can also be planted when rainfall is more or cloudy.Also it may be selected In 10~November, rainfall or cloudy day when planted.Temperature is higher, and when soil is more arid, such as kind is naked seedlings, should infuse Meaning trimming, retains certain trunk, extra branches and leaves is cut off, only retain a small amount of blade or blade is all cut, to reduce Transpiration improves survival rate.Container seedling whole year can plant.
3, field planting method
Seedling is carried out subregion plantation according to magnitude classification, facilitates final-period management.Outdoor bare-root seeding in this way, can be with 0.1% high Potassium manganate solution impregnates whole young plant 5 minutes, and taking-up is dried in the air and rinsed once with clear water again after five minutes, can kill the presence of plant surface Canker germ, the root system of fertile mandarin orange seedling such as is then immersed at the root-inducing powders of quality, and (main component is methyl α-naphthyl acetate, indoles fourth Acid dilutes 400 times), nucleotide (dilution 400 times), in thiophanate-methyl (mass concentration 70% dilutes 600 times) mixed liquor It 10 hours, takes out and mixes yellow mud with this solution after seedling, slurry root can take away field planting.If it is container seedling, container is cut off, takes out soil Ball can take bottom off 1/3 or so (then can directly plant as root system), make root system if root system is flourishing enough and winds Spread apart is conducive to treelet Fast Growth.As root system, then directly planted after can removing container.
Pitting has been dug according to root system length in the point of bracing wire in advance hole, treaded after a small amount of soil of training with both feet when field planting and help it is straight, Notice that graft union exposes soil face 10cm (graft union is susceptible to suffer from resin disease in being earthed), earths up and form a 15cm high, diameter is 60cm or so width, the hill of bowl shape.Hill can cover straw, and to prevent mound soil losses, when lid black film should be infused Being intended to water-permeable and air permeable prevents bored, otherwise, unfavorable growth.
S5, treelet management
(1) fertilizing method of earsh: to the application in fertilizing method point plantation 3 years of earsh, and every year will be into Row expands cave and improves the soil:
A. kind plants the 1st year fertilizing method: earsh is after the first time tip turns green, the balanced type for being 0.3% with mass concentration Water soluble fertilizer is applied by the leaching of water-fertilizer integral facility, and every plant is applied 5kg;Rudiment is turned green fertilizing method by the first time tip in 15 days before taking out the tip It applies once, by the green fertilizing method of the first time tip turn, Shi Yici, each dose gradually increase 0.5kg again after cutting certainly;In March The first tenday period of a month select front and back of raining, and monthly alternately apply 50g urea or 50g biological organic fertilizer, at least apply fertilizer 5 times within 1 year;Each tip is strong The tip phase, when fertilising, will be away from trunk 20cm in combination with 1~2 foliar fertilizer of prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control root outer spraying;
B. kind plants the 2nd year fertilizing method: the Shi Dongfei before the Spring Festival, improves the soil progresss in conjunction with cave is expanded, every plant every time alternating apply 100g urea or 150g biological organic fertilizer are applied, biological organic fertilizer is made by the raw material of following weight parts: 10 parts of mushroom residue, dried peppermint leaf 6 parts, 8 parts of chicken manure, 10 parts of corn stover, 3 parts of natto powder.Every plant of each urea amount of application is no more than 100g;It will be away from tree when fertilising Dry 20cm;Each dose gradually increases 0.5kg;It at least applies fertilizer 5 times within 1 year;
C. kind plants the 3rd year fertilizing method: if not planning within the 3rd year fruiting after plantation, fertilizing method applied fertilizer with plantation the 2nd year Method;If result is applied fertilizer by bearing-age tree fertilizing method;
D. it carries out expanding the method improved the soil of cave every year: outside tree crown drip, the and then outer rim of original improve the soil cave or ditch Carry out out cave or trench, the depth of cave or ditch is 80cm, and width 1m is advisable to see root system;Annual rotation is improved the soil position, by Year carries out by stages, carries out in the one or both sides of plant, and complete full garden before high yield and improve the soil;Soil amelioration material is by ratio of weight and the number of copies Include: 20 parts of crude fibre organic matters, 70 parts of decomposed manure of livestock and poultry, 10 parts of bran fertilizer, crude fibre organic matter be green manure or tree branches and leaves or Weeds or mountain grass.Soil amelioration material 30kg is applied by every plant of layering, soil amelioration material is divided into 3 layers, every layer plus appropriate lime, top layer Calcium superphosphate 1kg is added;
(2) shaping and trimming method: earsh will periodically be done surely after field planting, the tip is put in shaping and bud picking:
A. it the method done surely: after field planting survives, should be done surely the full place's cutting back of bud in the middle part of 50cm from the ground, branch;Cutting back 15cm below clip bud is shaping strip afterwards, is trunk below shaping strip;Branch, the bud needs sprouted on the trunk are smeared in time It goes, trunk is kept to have the height of 30cm or more after entering operation;
B. the method for shaping: First Year selects 3~4 consistent branch of growing way of different direction to be trained one in shaping strip Grade major branch;Later every time tip selects and remain that 3~4 growing ways are uniform, and the branch being reasonably distributed is short to cut and stay when each tip is aging It descends 20~25cm and includes the branch of 6~8 leaves, promote next group young sprout and sprout, so as to form major branches such as second level, three-level, level Four; The tree for preparing coming year operation, short cannot cut after autumn growth is aging;The plant upright to branch, with thin after young sprout is aging or before sprouting Major branch is pulled into 50 ° or so by rope, unlocks cord after restoring 45 °, 25~30 days after lightening restrictions on, tree crown is made to open a business;
C. the method that the tip is put in bud picking: each base tip appropriate pinching from before cutting, it is aging to accelerate branch;After branch is aging, stay 20~25cm limb and leave 6~8 leaves carry out it is short cut, promote next group young sprout and sprout, sprouting it is long to 5~6cm when dredge in time Remove excessive weak bud, when bud thinning consider bud raw direction, only stay 2~3 healthy and strong buds being reasonably distributed on every base tip;Every time The uniform young sprout of growing way is selected and remain in each site when bud thinning;So circulation, until culture autumn growth is more than 100 or more when going into operation, First period can be entered;The arrangement of time of tip phase: the 1st year after field planting, 5 tips are stayed every year within the 2nd year, put the tip time: the spring tip 2 months, In summer shoot the first tenday period of a month in May, the 2nd summer shoot is by the end of May to early June, autumn growth mid-August, by the end of September to early October;3rd year young age result Tree stays 3 tips, puts the tip time: the spring tip 2 months, summer shoot late June to early July, autumn growth late August to September early and middle ten days;
(3) control the management management method of flowers and fruits: earsh takes flower and fruit thinning measure in the 2nd year spring of plantation:
A. spray plant growth regulator and pour water: spray mass fraction is 50ppm when the last time tip starts aging in winter Gibberellic acid and 250ppm urea, spray 1~2 time;The nitrogenous fertilizer if winter drought will pour water or be affixed by keeps tree vigo(u)r vigorous, can be effective Control next spring blooms, and inspires a large amount of spring tip nutrition branches;
B. instant nitrogenousfertilizer and thin flower bud fruit thinning are applied: applying within 9~12 days instant nitrogenousfertilizer before spring takes out the spring tip, accelerates Spring-shoot growth, Weaken bud, growth of young;If the above measure is not all handled properly, and has become colored, need artificial to extract bud, children in time Fruit promotes quickly to take out the tip;
(4) soil management method: the method combined using mulch and tree disk covering:
A. the method for covering with ground sheeting: mulch selects black film or silver grey film or anti-meadow cloth or water suction flannelette;Covering with ground sheeting one The garden Ban Quan carries out, and small part Naked dew around trunk is only stayed not cover;Covering with ground sheeting was only suitable for using 2~3 years, and tree crown preferably takes after expanding Out, in favor of root growth;
B. it sets the method for disk covering: the tree disk under tree crown should be carried out to litter covering, littered with a thickness of 10~20cm;Every year It increases covering newly, supplements the part for rotting to decompose;The covering is ground cloth or straw or straw or sugarcane leaf or mountain grass.
(5) method of water management: taking tap drain to be deeper than gutter, and gutter is deeper than the principle of compartment ditch, i.e. tap drain is not less than 60 × 60cm, gutter are not less than 40 × 40cm, and compartment ditch is not less than 20 × 20cm;Simultaneously hillside fields by earthen backfill to compartment face to avoid Hillside fields hangs root, not drought-enduring, resistance to ridge;Spring and summer rainy season will exclude ponding in time;Autumn and winter meet drought and to pour water in time, cover moisturizing; Next year wants the tree of fruiting to pay attention to control water after autumn growth is aging, to inhibit the winter tip and promote bud differentiation.
S6, bearing-age tree management
Fertilizing method and bearing-age tree nutrient diagnosis method: fertilization compositions based on earth measurement and the Integration of Water into Fertilizer are used, has been increased Machine fertilizer rationally applies inorganic fertilizer and for nutrient diagnosis formula fertilizer;
(1) fertilizing method: the fertilizer in terms of producing, purity nitrogen 1.0kg, N:P:K ratio is 1:0.5:0.8 in terms of every production 50kg fruit, according to Aforementioned proportion selects peanut press pulp, compound fertilizer, urea and potassium sulfate, and organic nitrogen and inorganic nitrogen application select soil than being 4.5:5.5 Fertilization mode, fertigation mode and foliage top dressing mode:
A. soil application mode: according to each bearing-age tree orchard topographic features, tree crown size, fertilizer type and weather item Part to ditch at 0.2m near tree crown drip, and selects trench digging shape to carry out soil application for annular groove mode;Ditching depth It is shallowly applied by spring, summer, autumn, winter are applied deeply and applied deeply using organic fertilizer, the principle that inorganic fertilizer is shallowly applied.
B. fertigation mode: in bearing-age tree orchard, equipment water-fertilizer integral facility will be fertile using the fertilization mode of sprinkling irrigation Material is dissolved in irrigation water, is applied fertilizer by water-fertilizer integral facility.
C. foliage top dressing: being sprayed using foliar fertilizer nutrient, enters blade by stomata on blade and cuticula;Institute Stating foliar fertilizer weight ratio is 0.3% magnesium sulfate, 0.2% zinc sulfate, 0.1% boric acid, 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.5% urine Element, 0.3% auxotype nucleotide, remaining is water;Before each young sprout and turn green phase spray, a tip two is fertile.
(2) fertilizing method and dose: the fertilization mode of bearing-age tree is divided into winter top dressing, spring tip fertilizer, thanks flower and fruit fertilizer, strong fruit It attacks autumn growth fertilizer, impose fruit-promoting fertilizer, the dose of every kind of fertilization mode accounts for the 30% of current year dose respectively, and 20%, 5%, 35%, 10%:
A. it the fertilizing method of base manure: is applied in halcyon days, mainly based on organic fertilizer, in conjunction with compound fertilizer: dripping in plant tree crown Line excavates dressing furrow, ditch depth 40cm, wherein result is few, the energetic combination of tree vigo(u)r is completely cured it is appropriate it is deep apply, as a result less, tree vigo(u)r is weak avoids hurting Root is excessively suitably shallowly applied;Decomposed manure 20kg, compound fertilizer 1.0kg, green manure weeds 0.5kg are applied in strain, mix lime 0.5kg, boron Every plant of application earthing after 2kg, zinc 0.25kg, magnesium 0.23kg are uniform;Decomposed manure is peanut press pulp.
B. it the fertilizing method of spring tip fertilizer: applies within 10~15 days before rudiment, every plant is applied cake fertilizer liquid dung fertilizer 30kg, complex equilibrium Type compound fertilizer 0.5kg is drenched by fertigation mode to be applied;If upper annual bearing is excessive, weak every plant of tree vigo(u)r increase urea 50~ 150g;Spring tip bud stage combines prevention and treatment pest and disease damage to carry out foliage top dressing.
C. thank to the fertilizing method of flower and fruit fertilizer: thank spend 70% to thank spend latter week in apply, due to bloom consume it is a large amount of Nutrient causes a large amount of fruit drops, and fruit tree every Zhu Shigaojia type 0.2~0.3kg of compound fertilizer of 25kg is produced for strain;If result Less, excessively prosperous young age bearing-age tree does not apply above-mentioned fertilizer.
D. strengthen the fertilizing method that fruit attacks autumn growth fertilizer: 20 days before putting the tip, i.e. mid or late July to early August applies, and strong fruit attacks the autumn Mainly based on organic fertilizer, every plant is applied cake fertilizer 3kg, decomposed manure 15kg, urea 0.5kg to tip fertilizer, and compound fertilizer 2kg drips along tree crown Line trench digging is applied and is covered;The big appropriate lift-augmented mechanism of tree of weak tree, fruiting amount.
E. impose the fertilizing method of fruit-promoting fertilizer: after autumn growth pumping, every month combines drought resisting to apply 1~2 liquid manure, with high potassium type Based on Water soluble fertilizer;After November, fertilizer is suitably controlled after autumn growth is aging.
(3) it irrigates mandarin orange nutrient diagnosis method: showing different symptoms for the branch of bearing-age tree, flower, leaf, fruit and examined It is disconnected, including zinc-deficiency diagnosis and correcting method, magnesium deficiency diagnosis and correcting method, boron deficiency diagnosis and its correcting method, manganese deficiency diagnosis and Its correcting method.
The method for cultivating healthy and strong autumn growth: including putting the slightly phase in autumn surely and putting the management method before and after the tip:
(1) it puts surely the autumn growth phase: depending on bearing-age tree puts time of autumn growth because of the age of tree, tree vigo(u)r, land occupation condition and result quantities, principle Be " three early three late ": tree, hillside orchard more than result, the orchard that growing way is weak, water and fertilizer condition is poor are early put, and adverse consequences are few, paddy field Orchard, the orchard delayed release that growing way is energetic, water and fertilizer condition is good;The childhood tree just gone into operation carries out putting secondary autumn growth to expand tree crown; The specific time starts to put autumn growth before and after " the beginning of autumn ", generally puts the tip time in mid-August to early September;Fruiting amount it is big, mountainous region , water intaking is inconvenient also to shift to an earlier date 15 days.
(2) it puts the method applied fertilizer before autumn growth: applying fertilizer within 20 days before putting autumn growth, if per plant amount 50kg, every plant is about applied high nitrogen 1.0kg, high potassium 1.0kg, low-phosphorous compound fertilizer 1.0kg;If the tree that tree vigo(u)r is weak or result is excessive is affixed by 0.1~0.15kg of urea.
(3) method of autumn growth trimming and fruit thinning: the apex part of the weak branch of cutting back and old branch is put, clip stays vigorous branches strong Bud;Clip rugosity 0.5cm, when cutting back, leave 10cm stakes, about stay cutting back at 6 leaves;By intensive crossing branch, thin and delicate branch, disease pest Secateurs is gone;For the bearing-age tree more than fruiting amount, it is thinning out the fruitlet of top section fruit, lower part, in conjunction with fruit thinning, cutting back lacks the result of leaf Female branch and fruit drop branch;The dense bearing-age tree of branch is lacked for fruiting amount, the sturdy spring tip or summer shoot to tree crown periphery carry out It trims, based on sparse branching, supplemented by cutting back;Autumn growth is put by bud picking realization, the bud for fragmentary pumping of erasing early period, until full garden 70% When the bud of 70% branch is sprouted on plant, then stops bud picking, uniformly put autumn growth.
(4) put the method for selecting the tip to stay the tip after autumn growth: after trimming and fertilising, young sprout is sprouted within 12 days, when branch is extended to 5 Carry out when~6cm and selects the tip and stay the tip;The method for staying the tip is to stay 3 on tree crown top, in tree crown, lower part stay 2~3, vigorous branches stays 3 Item, weak branch stay 1~2;The branch branch of excessive growth easy to form that other positions of tree crown are sprouted, in addition to giving over to fill vacancy individually, remaining It extracts.
(5) it puts after autumn growth to the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: when young sprout is grown less than 1~2cm using fungicide and insecticide, desinsection Agent includes Acetamiprid, chlopyrifos, Diacloden;Fungicide includes the gloomy copper of thiophene, Mancozeb, pyraclostrobin;Above-mentioned fungicide and It is insecticide even spray 2 times or more, primary every spray in 10 days, until young sprout is aging;Spraying acaricide when autumn growth turns green.
Promote flower technology:
(1) paclobutrazol promotees flower: annual flower bud differentiation period, i.e. mid-November to late December, the use of mass concentration is 25% Paclobutrazol dilute 400 times with solvent, squirt blade face, spray 1~2 time, be advisable with not dripping.
(2) girdling promotees flower: over growth or flower over the years measure few tree, carry out girdling in mid or late December view weather condition; A knife is cut in major branch or secondary major branch or branch part ring-type, is advisable with cutting off cortex without hurting xylem;It not sprayed after girdling strong Property pesticide.
Fruit retention technology:
(1) it foliage top dressing: to spring tip bud stage before blooming, is carried out in conjunction with the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, sprays foliar fertilizer;The foliar fertilizer Weight ratio be 35% boron fertilizer, 12% magnesium sulfate, 5% amino acid, 7% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, remaining is water, spray 2 times, every Spray in 12 days is primary.
(2) drug fruit retention: spraying the mixed liquor of gibberellic acid or gibberellic acid and brassin lactones, boron fertilizer when thanking and spending 2/3, described Mixed liquor be that gibberellic acid crystal powder 1g that mass concentration is 5% is watered 75kg or mass concentration is that 3% gibberellic acid 250ml is watered The brassin lactones that 200kg+ mass concentration is 0.01% dilute the boron fertilizer that 4500 times of liquid+mass concentrations are 98% and dilute 2200 times The resulting mixed liquor of liquid, 30 days backsights divide fruit situation to spray again once;Gibberellic acid cannot apply repeatedly or concentration is excessive, to prevent generating Rough bark fruit.
(3) girdling: thanking to the Hua Houzhi spring tip aging period in energetic tree, when physiological fallen fruit to ideal fruit amount, selection yin It or fine day one knife of girdling on trunk or major branch cut off bast.
(4) tip and bud picking fruit retention are dredged: suitably pruning the excessively prosperous spring tip of tree crown apical growth off;Such as a large amount of pumping summer shoots, it is necessary to The tip is killed using manually extracing or spraying drug in time, to inhibit summer shoot to grow, until late June or before putting autumn growth, avoids Yin Xia The tip takes out hair and causes a large amount of sheddings.
(5) it fruit thinning: is carried out within 15 days after second of physiological fallen fruit to before putting autumn growth, dredges and go to weak branch fruit, string-like fruit, top Fruit, day are burnt fruit, pest and disease damage fruit, malformed fruit, too small or excessive fruit, keep fruit to be evenly distributed, leaf-fruit ratio 40:1.
(6) anti-sunscald: the tip is put after late June fruit covered with blade or is faced south after mid-July and fruit paster or whitewash processing;
(7) phylactocarp: for entering July, part fruit-setting rate is high, and the tree-like culture of trunk is undesirable, and fruiting long shoot is easily sagging to be dragged The orchard on ground needs to carry out successively support fruit and the phylactocarp of fruit is dragged to work;Using central upright bar type or surrounding intersecting parallels, and combine rope Rope bondage drags fruit using plastic wire complete stool net shield.
The resident time, First Year tree crown, second year tree crown, of the present embodiment and fertile mandarin orange implantation methods are described below 3 years tree crowns, result number and yield.
As shown in table 1 below, the present embodiment is with the comparative example of the common fertile mandarin orange result tree method of comparison from 2014 on the same day October 12 started to be colonized in the different location on Nanning City, east wind farm, Wuming, the identical situation of surface slope.At 2016 1 The moon starts to the present embodiment management method corresponding with the implementation of the bearing-age tree of comparative example on the 5th.
On 2 23rd, 2019 survey datas irrigate mandarin orange implantation methods and fertile mandarin orange plantation side as shown in table 1 below for the present embodiment Method indulges diameter, average vitamin C in bearing-age tree harvest result irrigates mandarin orange in total in two years single plant yield, average weight, average transverse diameter * The case where content, average edible rate, average soluble solid object, can therefrom compare to obtain which kind of method can obtain higher irrigate of grading Mandarin orange.For the overall condition of following table, the present embodiment result indulges diameter, average dimension in single plant yield, average weight, average transverse diameter * All it is better than comparative example on life element C content, averagely edible rate, the average soluble index of object admittedly.
1 the present embodiment of table irrigates the result situation that mandarin orange bearing-age tree management method and comparative example commonly irrigate mandarin orange result tree method
And the present embodiment is after two months using staying the fertile mandarin orange peel smooth of fruit preservation technology, lovely luster, disease-free spot Healthy fruit is up to 95.6%, rough bark fruit, sun fruit inferior fruit rate be only 4.4%, and the fertile mandarin orange healthy fruit of comparative example is only 81.7%, inferior fruit ratio is up to 19.3%.
In conclusion each stage of this method in fertile mandarin orange, such as selection of land select seedling, field planting, treelet management, results management rank Section, takes more scientific fertilising, modification and management method, so that fertile mandarin orange setting ratio is higher, nutritive value is more abundant.
The aforementioned description to specific exemplary embodiment of the invention is in order to illustrate and illustration purpose.These descriptions It is not wishing to limit the invention to disclosed precise forms, and it will be apparent that according to the above instruction, can much be changed And variation.The purpose of selecting and describing the exemplary embodiment is that explaining specific principle of the invention and its actually answering With so that those skilled in the art can be realized and utilize a variety of different exemplary implementation schemes of the invention and Various chooses and changes.The scope of the present invention is intended to be limited by claims and its equivalents.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting method characterized by comprising
S1, field selection: 15~100 mu of soil layers of selection are deep, loose fertile, drain, and organic matter is abundant, pH value 5.5~6.5 Subacidity sandy loam or loam orchard establishment;Water conservancy system is established in field, and water conservancy system includes water-fertilizer integral facility and draining system System;
S2, fruit seedling select: selecting the disease-free fertile mandarin orange seedling using Ziyang fragrant citrus as stock;
S3, soil deep ploughing: plowing when soil moisture is little, and direction takes contour or vertical road, and plough can once plough Depth 60cm or so, then one is harrowed to twice to smooth, excavation gutter;
S4, field planting: disease-free fertile mandarin orange seedling is colonized, and by 3~4 meters of line-spacing, 2~3 meters of spacing in the rows, transplants 56~110 plants of kinds per acre It plants into field;
S5, treelet management:
(1) fertilising of earsh: to the application in fertilising point plantation 3 years of earsh, and expansion cave is carried out every year and is improved the soil:
A. kind plants the 1st year fertilizing method: for earsh after the first time tip turns green, the balanced type for being 0.3% with mass concentration is water-soluble Fertilizer is applied by the leaching of water-fertilizer integral facility, and every plant is applied 4.5~5kg;Rudiment is turned green fertilising side by the first time tip in 15 days before taking out the tip Method Shi Yici, by the green fertilizing method of the first time tip turn, Shi Yici, each dose gradually increase 0.5kg again after cutting certainly;3 In the first tenday period of a month moon, front and back of raining is selected, monthly replaces and apply 30~50g urea or 50g biological organic fertilizer, 1 year at least fertilising 5 times;Often The secondary tip strengthens 1~2 foliar fertilizer of tip phase root outer spraying, and when fertilising will be away from 15~20cm of trunk;
B. kind plants the 2nd year fertilizing method: the Shi Dongfei before the Spring Festival, improves the soil progresss in conjunction with cave is expanded, every plant every time alternating apply 50~ 95g urea or 100~150g biological organic fertilizer, every plant of each urea amount of application are no more than 100g;When fertilising will away from trunk 15~ 20 centimeters;Each dose gradually increases 0.5kg;It at least applies fertilizer 5 times within 1 year;
C. kind plants the 3rd year fertilizing method: if not planning within the 3rd year fruiting after plantation, the 2nd year fertilizing method of fertilizing method and plantation;
(2) shaping and trimming method: earsh will periodically be done surely after field planting, the tip is put in shaping and bud picking:
A. it the method done surely: after field planting survives, should be done surely the full place's cutting back of bud in the middle part of 30~50cm from the ground, branch;Cutting back Afterwards it is shaping strip between 10~15cm below clip bud, is trunk below shaping strip;Branch, the bud sprouted on the trunk need It to erase in time, trunk is kept to have the height of 30cm or more after entering operation;
B. the method for shaping: First Year selects 3~4 consistent branch of growing way of different direction to be trained level-one master in shaping strip Branch;Later every time tip selects and remain that 3~4 growing ways are uniform, and the branch being reasonably distributed is short to cut and leave 20 when each tip is aging ~25cm and include 6~8 leaves branch, promote next group young sprout sprout, so as to form major branches such as second level, three-level, level Four;Prepare The tree that the coming year goes into operation, short cannot cut after autumn growth is aging;The plant upright to branch, will with cord after young sprout is aging or before sprouting Major branch pulls into 50 ° or so, unlocks cord after restoring 45 °, 25~30 days after lightening restrictions on, tree crown is made to open a business;
C. the method that the tip is put in bud picking: each base tip appropriate pinching from before cutting, it is aging to accelerate branch;After branch is aging, 20 are stayed~ 25cm limb and leave 6~8 leaves carry out it is short cut, sprouting it is long to 5~6cm when dredge remove excessive weak bud, every base tip in time On only stay 2~3 healthy and strong buds being reasonably distributed;The uniform young sprout of growing way is selected and remain in each site when each bud thinning;So follow Ring is more than 100 or more to culture autumn growth when going into operation and enters first period;
(3) control the management method of flowers and fruits: earsh takes flower and fruit thinning measure in the 2nd year spring of plantation:
A. spray plant growth regulator and pour water: spray mass fraction is the red of 50ppm when the last time tip starts aging in winter The urea of mould acid and 250ppm, sprays 1~2 time;
B. instant nitrogenousfertilizer and thin flower bud fruit thinning are applied: applying instant nitrogenousfertilizer within 9~12 days before spring takes out the spring tip;
(4) soil management method: the method combined using mulch and tree disk covering:
A. the method for covering with ground sheeting: mulch selects black film or silver grey film or anti-meadow cloth or water suction flannelette;It is only stayed when covering with ground sheeting Small part Naked dew does not cover around trunk;It is taken out after expanding to tree crown within covering with ground sheeting 2~3 years;
B. it sets the method for disk covering: the tree disk under tree crown should be carried out to litter covering, litter with a thickness of 10~20cm, it is new every year Increase covering;
(5) it the method for water management: excavates tap drain and is not less than 60 × 60cm, gutter is not less than 40 × 40cm, and compartment ditch is not less than 20 ×20cm;
S6, bearing-age tree management:
(1) fertilizing method:
A. in halcyon days, dressing furrow, 15~40cm of ditch depth the fertilizing method of base manure: are excavated in plant tree crown drip;Every plant Decomposed manure l0~20kg, 0.5~1.0kg of compound fertilizer, green manure weeds 0.5kg are applied, by lime 0.5kg, 0.1~2kg of boron, zinc 0.2~0.25kg, 0.15~0.23kg of magnesium apply every plant of earthing after mixing;
B. it the fertilizing method of spring tip fertilizer: applies within 10~15 days before rudiment, every plant is applied cake fertilizer liquid dung 10~30kg of fertilizer, complex equilibrium 0.3~0.5kg of type compound fertilizer is drenched by fertigation mode to be applied;
C. thank to the fertilizing method of flower and fruit fertilizer: thank spend 70% to thank spend it is latter week in apply, for strain produce 25kg every plant of fruit tree Shi Gaojia type 0.2~0.3kg of compound fertilizer;
D. strengthen the fertilizing method that fruit attacks autumn growth fertilizer: 20 days before putting the tip, strong fruit attacks autumn growth fertilizer mainly based on organic fertilizer, and every plant is applied cake fertilizer 1.5~3kg, decomposed manure l0~15kg, 0.2~0.5kg of urea, 1~2kg of compound fertilizer ditch along tree crown drip and apply And it covers;
E. it imposes the fertilizing method of fruit-promoting fertilizer: after autumn growth pumping, drought resisting being combined every month to apply 1~2 liquid manure, liquid manure is high potassium type Water soluble fertilizer;
(2) method of healthy and strong autumn growth is cultivated:
A. the autumn growth phase is put surely: starting to put autumn growth around the beginning of autumn, puts the tip time in mid-August to early September;
B. it puts the method applied fertilizer before autumn growth: applying fertilizer within 15~20 days before putting autumn growth, if per plant amount 50kg, every plant is applied high nitrogen 1.0kg, high potassium 1.0kg, low-phosphorous compound fertilizer 1.0kg;If the tree that tree vigo(u)r is weak or result is excessive is affixed by 0.1~0.15kg of urea;
C. put the method for autumn growth trimming and fruit thinning: the apex part of the weak branch of cutting back and old branch, clip stay vigorous branches to strengthen bud;Clip Rugosity 0.5cm, when cutting back, leave 10cm stakes, about stay cutting back at 6 leaves;Intensive crossing branch, thin and delicate branch, sick branch are cut off; For the bearing-age tree more than fruiting amount, be thinning out the fruitlet of top section fruit, lower part, in conjunction with fruit thinning, cutting back lack leaf bearing basal shoot and Fruit drop branch;The dense bearing-age tree of branch is lacked for fruiting amount, the sturdy spring tip or summer shoot of tree crown periphery are trimmed, is led to It crosses bud picking realization and puts autumn growth, the bud for fragmentary pumping of erasing early period, when the bud of 70% branch on the plant in full garden 70% is sprouted, then Stop bud picking, uniformly puts autumn growth;
D. put the method for selecting the tip to stay the tip after autumn growth: after trimming and fertilising, young sprout is sprouted within 10~12 days, when branch is extended to 5 Carry out when~6cm and selects the tip and stay the tip;The method for staying the tip is to stay 3 on tree crown top, in tree crown, lower part stay 2~3, vigorous branches stays 3 Item, weak branch stay 1~2;The branch branch of excessive growth easy to form that other positions of tree crown are sprouted, in addition to giving over to fill vacancy individually, remaining It extracts;
(3) promote flower technology:
A. paclobutrazol promotees flower: annual flower bud differentiation period, i.e. mid-November to late December, the multiple-effect for the use of mass concentration being 25% Azoles dilutes 300~400 times with solvent, squirts blade face, sprays 1~2 time;
B. girdling promotees flower: over growth or flower over the years measure few tree, carry out girdling in mid or late December view weather condition;I.e. in master Branch or secondary major branch or branch part ring-type cut a knife, are advisable with cutting off cortex without hurting xylem;
(4) fruit retention technology:
A. foliage top dressing: to spring tip bud stage before blooming, foliar fertilizer is sprayed;The weight ratio of the foliar fertilizer is 20~35% boron fertilizers, 8~12% magnesium sulfate, 2~5% amino acid, 3~7% potassium dihydrogen phosphates, remaining is water, is sprayed 2 times, primary every spray in 12~15 days;
B. drug fruit retention: thank spend 2/3 when spray gibberellic acid or gibberellic acid and brassin lactones, boron fertilizer mixed liquor, described is mixed Closing liquid is that the gibberellic acid crystal powder 1g that mass concentration is 5% is watered 50~75kg or mass concentration is that 3% gibberellic acid 250ml is watered The brassin lactones that 200kg+ mass concentration is 0.01% dilute the boron fertilizer dilution that 3000~4500 times of liquid+mass concentrations are 98% 1500~2200 times of resulting mixed liquors of liquid spray primary again after 20~30 days;
C. girdling: thanking to the Hua Houzhi spring tip aging period, and when physiological fallen fruit to ideal fruit amount, selection cloudy day or fine day are in trunk Or one knife of girdling on major branch, cut off bast;
D. the tip and bud picking fruit retention are dredged: suitably pruning the excessively prosperous spring tip of tree crown apical growth off;
E. fruit thinning: carrying out after second of physiological fallen fruit to before putting autumn growth for 15 days, dredge go weak branch fruit, string-like fruit, basidixed fruit, It day burns fruit, pest and disease damage fruit, malformed fruit, too small or excessive fruit, keeps fruit to be evenly distributed, leaf-fruit ratio is (30~40): 1;
F. anti-sunscald: the tip is put after late June fruit covered with blade or is faced south after mid-July and fruit paster or whitewash processing;
G. phylactocarp: entering July, and for part fruit-setting rate height, the tree-like culture of trunk is undesirable, the fruiting long shoot easily sagging fruit to mop floor Garden needs to carry out successively support fruit and the phylactocarp of fruit is dragged to work;It is tied up using central upright bar type or surrounding intersecting parallels, and in conjunction with rope It ties up, fruit is dragged using plastic wire complete stool net shield.
2. fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that plant shelter-forest in field periphery.
3. fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that if outdoor bare-root seeding when field planting, Whole young plant to be impregnated 3~5 minutes with the liquor potassic permanganate that mass concentration is 0.1%, taking-up dries in the air 3~it is rushed again with clear water after five minutes It washes primary, then the root system of fertile mandarin orange seedling is immersed in etc. 8~10 in the root-inducing powder, nucleotide, thiophanate-methyl mixed liquor of quality Hour, it takes out and mixes yellow mud with this solution after seedling, slurry root can take away field planting.
4. fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that use both feet after training a small amount of soil when field planting It treads and helps directly, graft union exposes soil 5~10cm of face, and ridging forms a 10~15cm high, and diameter is 50~60cm or so width, The hill of bowl shape.
5. fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that step S6 further include make between treelet, Inter-row green covering covering or covering with ground sheeting, tree disk covering.
6. fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that step S5 further includes that d. is carried out every year Expand the method improved the soil of cave: outside tree crown drip, and then the outer rim of original improve the soil cave or ditch carries out out cave or trench, cave or The depth of ditch is 50~80cm, and width is 0.5~1m, is advisable with seeing root system;Annual rotation is improved the soil position, year by year by stages into Row carries out in the one or both sides of plant, and completes full garden before high yield and improve the soil;The soil amelioration material is wrapped by ratio of weight and the number of copies Include: 20 parts of crude fibre organic matters, 70 parts of decomposed manure of livestock and poultry, 10 parts of bran fertilizer apply 20~30kg of soil amelioration material by every plant of layering, Soil amelioration material is divided into 2~3 layers, every layer plus appropriate lime, 0.5~1kg of calcium superphosphate is added in top layer.
7. fertile mandarin orange industrialized planting method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the tip phase in the step c in step S5 Arrangement of time: the 1st year after field planting, stay 5 tips every year within the 2nd year, put the tip time: the spring tip 2 months, summer shoot the first tenday period of a month in May, the 2nd summer The tip is by the end of May to early June, autumn growth mid-August, by the end of September to early October;Young age bearing-age tree stays 3 tips within 3rd year, puts the tip time: The spring tip 2 months, summer shoot late June to early July, autumn growth late August to September early and middle ten days.
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CN111615987A (en) * 2020-06-30 2020-09-04 大理万众苑科技有限公司 Planting method of Or

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