CN101194584B - Cultivation method for lemon - Google Patents

Cultivation method for lemon Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101194584B
CN101194584B CN200710066494A CN200710066494A CN101194584B CN 101194584 B CN101194584 B CN 101194584B CN 200710066494 A CN200710066494 A CN 200710066494A CN 200710066494 A CN200710066494 A CN 200710066494A CN 101194584 B CN101194584 B CN 101194584B
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lemon
amount
pinching
soil
ditch
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CN200710066494A
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CN101194584A (en
Inventor
杨恩聪
岳建强
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HONGRUI LEMON INSTITUTE YUNNAN ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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HONGRUI LEMON INSTITUTE YUNNAN ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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Abstract

The invention provides a lemon early bearing high grade high yield cultivating method, which effectively restrains growth of perpendicular roots of lemons and promotes robust extension of lateral roots and fibrous root through tilling, excavating planting ditches or holes, fertilizing base fertilizer, planting, sprouting and pinching and controlling water and fertilizer at the later time, therebythe overground portion of a plant forms large numbers of relatively short shoots whose young shoots are picked for a plurality of times through selection, short fruit branch groups are cultivated to use erasing redundant buds to replace the thinning out of branches and use pinching to replace lopping shears for effectively reducing loss of tree bodies, and short shoots are promoted by concentrating nutrition, ventilating and translucent conditions in fields are improved through reasonable space among plants, fruits in a tree body are evenly distributed from the inside to the outside and from the bottom up, which are convenient for closely planting, preventing diseases, controlling pests and managing water and fertilizer, the operation of covering bags for fresh fruits is more convenient. Trees begin to flower and bear fruits after being planted for 8-10 months, and the output can reach 200-300kg/acre, 1000-1500kg/acre in the second year and 2000-3000kg/acre in the third year, the manufacturing investment is reduced more than 30% compared with the traditional cultivating method, and the output of 4500-6000kg/acre can be harvested in advance for 3-4 years.

Description

The lemon cultivation method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of lemon cultivation method, especially a kind ofly can allow lemon early tie and the cultivation method of high grade producing.
Background technology
It is vigorous that lemon has growth, branch is taken out and is sent out often, take out characteristics such as the amount of giving birth to is big, adopt traditional cultivation method, need the time in 4 years just can bear fruit, that is: decided dry spell for field planting survives in 1 year, 1 year is vegetative period, be shaping examination flowering fruit bearing stage on the 3rd year, just formally bore fruit in the 4th year and to put on market.Yet in the production process of lemon, during often by the 4th, the 5th year, be that the lemon body is nourished and grown vigorous period, cause branch eccentric growth advantage easily, make lemon plant tall and big, cause nourishing and growing and reproductive growth imbalance, finally bring result, fruit-setting rate low, yield poorly, fruit matter is poor, problem, especially output such as management cost height, average per unit area yield all is lower than 200--300kg/ mu.Therefore, change traditional lemon kind method for planting, make full use of lemon physiology, growth characteristics enforcement early producing high quality fertility cultivation method for lemon, become the solution lemon and yielded poorly the important technique measure that poor quality and management cost are high.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is directed in the existing lemon cultivation process, it is early ageing that treelet is early tied, and needs the time in 3~4 years could the result, and tree body at this moment is too high excessive, and it is vigorous to nourish and grow, but fruit-setting rate is lower, and output and quality are limited, can't realize the high-quality of getting bumper crops.Especially set that body is too high, the lemon fresh fruit is excessive, fresh fruit bagging difficulty, deficiency such as extermination of disease and insect pest cost height, difficulty are big provides a kind of early producing high quality fertility cultivation method for lemon.
The present invention finishes by following technical proposal: a kind of early producing high quality fertility cultivation method for lemon is characterized in that through the following step:
A, whole ground: by ploughing, plough, harrowing, make loosing soil, carefully equal, smooth, and keep the active soil stratum degree of depth to reach more than the 40cm;
B, open plantation ditch or dig the cave: open the dark plantation ditch of 40~50cm by 2.5~3.5m line-spacing, perhaps dig the kind plant hole of long 80cm, wide 80cm, dark 40~50cm by 2.5~3.5m line-spacing, 1.5~2.5m spacing in the rows;
C, basal dressing: by the amount of 40~50kg/ mu, with general calcareous fertilisers with after an amount of mellow soil mixes, apply in ditch or the cave, perhaps by the amount of 40~50kg/ mu with general calcareous fertilisers with after mellow soil and farmyard manure mix in right amount, apply in ditch or the cave, backfill soil is to exceeding original soil face 10cm after applying base manure, and the farmyard manure fertilizing amount is 1000~1500kg/ mu;
D, plantation: the lemon seedling of choosing health is colonizated in the ditch by the spacing in the rows of 1.5~2.5m, or after directly being colonizated in the cave, waters normal root water, until surviving;
E, germination pinching: pinching when 6~8 spires are grown in germination, and the irrational young shoot of adnation position of suitably erasing, before taking out the tip,, impose the composite fertilizer of following mass ratio: N: P: K=1: 1: 1 by the amount of 30~50g/ strain according to the thickness length of the treelet growing way and the young sprout of taking out at every turn;
F, fertilising: with the growth of tree body and the increase of output, the amount of pressing 50~100g/ strain increases fertilizing amount after 1 year;
G, control water control fertilizer: when the lemon treelet hat width of cloth reaches 80cm,, and reduce fertilising with the tree body suitably arid that is as the criterion of not falling leaves, with nourishing and growing of restriction treelet, reduce of the absorption of tree body, improve the cell sap concentration of branch bud point, impel leaf bud to be transformed into bud moisture and nitrogen.
Pinching during described spire, branch after pinching is taken out to give birth to and form 2~3 young sprout pinching again within a short period of time, so repeat 4~6 times, can make tree crown skeleton branch level inferior few, take out and give birth to soon, often, effectively shorten the time of nourishing and growing, saved nutrient consumption, make the interior nutritious substances accumulation of tree body many,, finally allow the lemon treelet yield positive results for reproductive growth creates conditions.
By the setting in whole ground and plantation ditch or cave, effectively suppress the growth of the vertical root system of lemon after the field planting, inspire the stalwartness elongation of lateral root and fibrous root, thereby it is a large amount of than the brachyplast tip that above-ground plant parts is formed.By selecting and repeatedly carrying out tender tip pinching, cultivate short fruit bearing shoot group again, accomplish to dredge branch with bud picking generation, for lopping, can effectively reduce tree body nutritive loss with pinching, concentrated nutrient inspires the brachyplast tip, makes it result as early as possible.
The present invention has following advantage and effect; Can effectively realize lemon treelet reproductive growth and the balance of nourishing and growing by the inventive method, cultivate the branch group of reasonable length, thereby reduce the nutrition waste, simultaneously suppress its vigorous nourishing and growing with treelet precocity fruiting, make lemon treelet tree bulk-growth and fresh fruit production synchronous, thereby improved water and fertilizer utilization effectively, shorten the fruit time, again by comparatively rational space between the plant, improved the field ventilation, the printing opacity condition makes fruit at the tree body from inside to outside, and shape from top to bottom is evenly distributed, be convenient to dense planting, diseases prevention, control worm and water and fertilizer management, particularly the operation of fresh fruit bagging is more convenient.Field planting promptly began to yield positive results in 8~10 months, output can reach 200~300kg/ mu, can reach 1000~1500kg/ mu in 1 year, can reach 2000~3000kg/ mu on the 3rd year, and reduce to produce than traditional cultivation method and drop into more than 30%, 3~4 years in advance results, and overcharge and obtain 4500~6000kg/ mu, the present invention's method suits less in the gradient, and the soil texture is better, and apply in the deeper area of plow layer.
Embodiment
Below by embodiment the present invention is described further.
Embodiment 1
A, whole ground: by deep ploughing, plough, rake, make loosing soil, carefully equal, smooth, and keep the active soil stratum degree of depth to reach more than the 40cm, create the rhizosphere environment of a good preserve moisture and fertility for the growth of lemon; Whole ground should be suited measures to local conditions to carry out according to the different soils plot, and soil physical property is better, and soil layer is deep and loose, and pears are flat rakes; If be that the hillside fields must be put the contour cultivation tableland in order by contour planning and designing excavation, in a word, whole ground should be at the environment that digs the cave, build the healthy and strong growth of lemon root system of being easy to ditch, be convenient under the prerequisite of farming management, and in conjunction with the plot, the previous crops situation is grasped flexibly;
B, open plantation ditch or dig the cave: gentle hillside fields, level land lemon plantation moisture in the soil is to open the dark plantation ditch of 40cm by the 2.5m line-spacing;
C, basal dressing: to be the heap barnyard manure that will become thoroughly decomposed earlier be put on the other mellow soil of ditch between the field planting position by the amount of 1500kg/ mu gentle hillside fields, level land, and the amount by 50kg/ mu imposes on general calcareous fertilisers on the heap barnyard manure again, mixes the back backfill in ditch, closes moisture in the soil afterwards;
D, plantation: the lemon seedling of choosing health is colonizated in the ditch by the spacing in the rows of 2.5m, waters normal root water, until surviving;
E, germination pinching: survive the in time thin tip-promoting fertilizer of executing in back, before taking out the tip at every turn, impose the composite fertilizer of following mass ratio: N: P: K=1 by the amount of 30g/ strain: 1: 1, pinching when 6~8 spires are grown in germination, and the irrational young shoot of adnation position of suitably erasing, branch after the pinching is promptly taken out to give birth to and form 2~3 young sprout pinching again within a short period of time, so repeat 4~6 times, can make tree crown skeleton branch level inferior few, take out and give birth to soon, often, effectively shorten the time of nourishing and growing, saved nutrient consumption, make the interior nutritious substances accumulation of tree body many, for reproductive growth creates conditions;
F, fertilising: with the growth of tree body and the increase of output, the amount of pressing the 50g/ strain increases fertilizing amount after 1 year;
G, control water control fertilizer: when the lemon treelet hat width of cloth reaches 80cm,, and reduce fertilising with the tree body suitably arid that is as the criterion of not falling leaves, with nourishing and growing of restriction treelet, reduce of the absorption of tree body, improve the cell sap concentration of branch bud point, impel leaf bud to be transformed into bud moisture and nitrogen;
H, covering: utilize straw, bagasse etc. to set dish and cover, resist arid weather with enhancing tree body and protect the ability of leaf, improve the spring flower fruit-setting rate with surviving the winter.
Embodiment 2
A, whole ground: by deep ploughing, plough, rake, make loosing soil, carefully equal, smooth, and keep the active soil stratum degree of depth to reach more than the 40cm, create the rhizosphere environment of a good preserve moisture and fertility for the growth of lemon;
B, open plantation ditch or dig the cave: hillside is to dig dark 40~50cm by 3.5m line-spacing, 2.5m spacing in the rows in the tableland, and length and width respectively is the planting pit of 80cm;
C, basal dressing: to be the heap barnyard manure that will become thoroughly decomposed impose on the other mellow soil in cave by the amount of 1500kg/ mu hillside, amount by 50kg/ mu imposes on general calcareous fertilisers on the heap barnyard manure again, mix the back backfill afterwards with mellow soil in the cave, backfill soil is to exceeding original soil face 10cm after applying base manure, operation is expanded the cave year by year with soil regime in backsight plant strain growth and the garden, with the lemon is that the center is outwards expanded, carry out once every year, and to apply mass ratio be N: P: K=1: 1: 1 composite fertilizer 500g/ strain, and well-rotted farmyard manure 30-40kg/ strain;
D, plantation: the healthy lemon seedling of choosing is colonizated in the cave, waters normal root water, until surviving;
E, germination pinching: survive the in time thin tip-promoting fertilizer of executing in back, before taking out the tip at every turn, impose the composite fertilizer of following mass ratio: N: P: K=1 by the amount of 50g/ strain: 1: 1, pinching when 6~8 spires are grown in germination, and the irrational young shoot of adnation position of suitably erasing, branch after the pinching is promptly taken out to give birth to and form 2~3 young sprout pinching again within a short period of time, so repeat 4~6 times, can make tree crown skeleton branch level inferior few, take out and give birth to soon, often, effectively shorten the time of nourishing and growing, saved nutrient consumption, make the interior nutritious substances accumulation of tree body many, for reproductive growth creates conditions;
F, fertilising: with the growth of tree body and the increase of output, the amount of pressing the 100g/ strain increases fertilizing amount after 1 year;
G, control water control fertilizer: when the lemon treelet hat width of cloth reaches 80cm,, and reduce fertilising with the tree body suitably arid that is as the criterion of not falling leaves, with nourishing and growing of restriction treelet, reduce of the absorption of tree body, improve the cell sap concentration of branch bud point, impel leaf bud to be transformed into bud moisture and nitrogen;
H, covering: utilize straw, bagasse etc. to set dish and cover, resist arid weather with enhancing tree body and protect the ability of leaf, improve the spring flower fruit-setting rate with surviving the winter.

Claims (2)

1. lemon cultivation method is characterized in that through the following step:
A, whole ground: by ploughing, plough, harrowing, make loosing soil, carefully equal, smooth, and keep the active soil stratum degree of depth to reach more than the 40cm;
B, open plantation ditch or dig the cave: open the dark plantation ditch of 40~50cm by 2.5~3.5m line-spacing, perhaps dig the kind plant hole of long 80cm, wide 80cm, dark 40~50cm by 2.5~3.5m line-spacing, 1.5~2.5m spacing in the rows;
C, basal dressing: by the amount of 40~50kg/ mu, with general calcareous fertilisers with after an amount of mellow soil mixes, apply in ditch or the cave, perhaps by the amount of 40~50kg/ mu with general calcareous fertilisers with after mellow soil and farmyard manure mix in right amount, apply in ditch or the cave, backfill soil is to exceeding original soil face 10cm after applying base manure, and the farmyard manure fertilizing amount is 1000~1500kg/ mu;
D, plantation: the lemon seedling of choosing health is colonizated in the ditch by the spacing in the rows of 1.5~2.5m, or after directly being colonizated in the cave, waters normal root water, until surviving;
E, germination pinching: pinching when 6~8 spires are grown in germination, and the irrational young shoot of adnation position of suitably erasing, before taking out the tip,, impose the composite fertilizer of following mass ratio: N: P: K=1: 1: 1 by the amount of 30~50g/ strain according to the thickness length of the treelet growing way and the young sprout of taking out at every turn;
F, fertilising: with the growth of tree body and the increase of output, the amount of pressing 50~100g/ strain increases fertilizing amount after 1 year;
G, control water control fertilizer: when the lemon treelet hat width of cloth reaches 80cm,, and reduce fertilising with the tree body suitably arid that is as the criterion of not falling leaves.
2. lemon cultivation method according to claim 1 is characterized in that in the described step e, pinching during spire, and the branch after pinching is taken out living 2~3 the young sprout pinching again that form within a short period of time, so repeats 4~6 times.
CN200710066494A 2007-12-27 2007-12-27 Cultivation method for lemon Expired - Fee Related CN101194584B (en)

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CN103460950B (en) * 2013-09-22 2015-06-24 云南省农业科学院热带亚热带经济作物研究所 Cultivation method for picking fresh fruits of winter flowered and summer ripened lemons in batches
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Assignee: Yunnan HR Lemon Development Co., Ltd.

Assignor: Hongrui Lemon Research Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Contract record no.: 2010530000059

Denomination of invention: Cultivation method for lemon

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