CN105359784A - Method for high-yield planting of sweet potatoes - Google Patents

Method for high-yield planting of sweet potatoes Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105359784A
CN105359784A CN201510766732.6A CN201510766732A CN105359784A CN 105359784 A CN105359784 A CN 105359784A CN 201510766732 A CN201510766732 A CN 201510766732A CN 105359784 A CN105359784 A CN 105359784A
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China
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potato
seedling
soil
root
water
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CN201510766732.6A
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Chinese (zh)
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王瑞俊
王继红
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和县利民蔬菜种植专业合作社
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Publication of CN105359784A publication Critical patent/CN105359784A/en

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES, AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N65/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing material from algae, lichens, bryophyta, multi-cellular fungi or plants, or extracts thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES, AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N65/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing material from algae, lichens, bryophyta, multi-cellular fungi or plants, or extracts thereof
    • A01N65/08Magnoliopsida [dicotyledons]
    • A01N65/38Solanaceae [Potato family], e.g. nightshade, tomato, tobacco or chilli pepper

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for high-yield planting of sweet potatoes, and the method comprises the steps including (1) preparation of a dedicated insecticide, (2) seedling culture, (3) soil selection, soil preparation and furrowing, (4) planting, (5) field management and (6) harvesting in good time. According to the method put forward by the invention, main problems about soil and prevention and control of diseases and pests existing in the planting of the sweet potatoes are solved, quality and a yield of the output sweet potatoes are improved, and the method is suitable for popularization and application in large-scale vegetable plantations.

Description

A kind of high-yield planting method of Ipomoea batatas

Technical field

The present invention relates to proportion of crop planting field, particularly a kind of high-yield planting method of Ipomoea batatas.

Background technology

Ipomoea batatas, also known as sweet potato, sweet potato, sweet potato, Chinese yam etc., different regions people are also different to its address, and people from Shandong is called pachyrhizus, and people from Sichuan is called sweet potato, and Pekinese is called sweet potato, and Hok-lo is called Ipomoea batatas.Ipomoea batatas contains abundant sugar, protein, cellulose and multivitamin, and wherein beta carotene, vitamin E and vitamin C are especially many.Particularly Ipomoea batatas contains abundant lysine, and rice, flour exactly lack lysine.Ipomoea batatas and rice and flour mix to be eaten, and can obtain Protein intake more comprehensively.With regard to overall nutrition, Ipomoea batatas is the outstanding person in grain and vegetables.

In recent years, Ipomoea batatas was extremely sold well in international, domestic market, and market development prospect is very wide.Ipomoea batatas plantation amount is unstable, and market supply is not enough, and this is the major reason that wholesale price is high in recent years.The plantation of Ipomoea batatas is with a long history, but traditional planting technology Ipomoea batatas yields poorly, and there is the problems such as damage by disease and insect is many, quality is not good.

Summary of the invention

Technical problem to be solved by this invention is to provide a kind of high-yield planting method of Ipomoea batatas; solve the main soil of existence and the problem of diseases and pests controlling in Ipomoea batatas planting process; improve the Quality and yield of Ipomoea batatas output, proper scale truck garden is applied.

For achieving the above object, the high-yield planting method of a kind of Ipomoea batatas that the present invention proposes, it comprises the steps:

One, special-purpose insecticide is prepared: special-purpose insecticide is prepared by the component raw material of following weight portion and obtains: datura flower 2, RADIX ACONITI KUSNEZIFFII 3, felwort 3, the coptis 1, purple perilla 1, thunder godvine 3, chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium 5, water 16, its preparation process is: 1, boiled by above-mentioned raw materials, and maintaining boiling time 3-6h until percentage by weight datura flower: RADIX ACONITI KUSNEZIFFII: felwort: the coptis: purple perilla: thunder godvine: chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium: water is 2:3:3:1:1:3:5:8, now leaches solution and obtains the first insecticide; 2, datura flower obtained for previous step, RADIX ACONITI KUSNEZIFFII, felwort, the coptis, purple perilla, thunder godvine, chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium are pulverized by cintrifugal disintegrator, the aqueous solution pressing down hooligan's missible oil containing 2% is injected again in this crushed material, the weight ratio of crushed material and the aqueous solution is 2:7, after depositing 48 hours, leach solution and obtain the second insecticide; 3, soil insecticide made by the waste residue collecting second step generation;

Two, nursery:

1, seeding: the nursery of potato block is appropriate to the occasion selects be of moderate size (single potato is heavy is advisable with 200-300 grams), straight uniform, anosis worm, without wound, plants without the potato block damaged to plants caused by sudden drop in temperature.Nursery bedside is 1-1.2 meters, and length depends on the needs, and generally often educating 50 kilograms of potato seeds can supply seedling 0.9-1.5 ten thousand strain, plants 3-4 mu, on average every mu of land for growing field crops sowing quantity about 10-25 kilograms, and the seeding phase rests in transplanting first about 100 days.

2, nursery: carry out heeling in numerous seedling when the seedling length that potato kind grows reaches 25-30 centimetres, and carry out pinching when falsity seedling joint number reaches 6-10 joint positions and to pinch short branch.

3, fertilising short strong sprout: cultivate tender seedling strong sprout at plan (before plantation) 5-8 days thin instant nitrogenousfertilizer of executing of collecting seedling the phase, and reach 25-30 centimetres of plantations of collecting seedling in time in potato seedling length.

Three, selection of land, whole with play furrow:

1, selection of land.Should select more than middle fertility, irrigation and drainage are sandy loam or loam easily.The feature of Ipomoea batatas high production soil is that the soil is porous, soil layer is deep, nutrient is sufficient, and air capacity of soils is strong.

2, site preparation and fertilization.Ploughing deeply loam 25-30cm, in conjunction with ploughing deeply basal dressing, executing farmyard manure 3000 kilograms, superphosphate 20-25 kilograms, potassium sulfate 10-15 kilograms for every mu, 25 kilograms, carbonic hydroammonium, soil insecticide 30-45 kilogram, then sandy soil are covered to loam, the thick 15-25cm of sandy soil;

Topdress then based on nitrogenous fertilizer, according to the split application of growing way appearance.Within after general cultivation 5-7 days, impose short seed manure, mu executes carbon ammonium 5-8 kilograms, and chase after strong strain after 30-40 days fertile, mu executes carbon ammonium 80-100 kilograms; It is fertile that later stage sees that seedling imposes short potato, and mu executes water excrement 10-15 load.Advocate root and spray fertilizer outward, mu 0.5 kilogram, urea, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.2 kilogram is watered 30-40 kilograms and sprays between the lights.

3, furrow are played.Play furrow plantation and be both conducive to draining in rainy season, also help organic material decomposition, and it is fast to make absorb heat daytime, improves ground temperature, night rapid heat dissipation, day and night temperature is large, is beneficial to Ipomoea batatas growth and root system accumulates nutrient.Good soil also in conjunction with furrow plantation of having deep ploughed, will could improve the physicochemical property of soil and obtain high yield.Should accomplish that furrow ditch is deeply narrow when playing furrow, nothing " hard-core " etc. as far as possible.Furrow are apart from general 1.1-1.3 meters (comprising furrow ditch), and furrow are high 0.3-0.4 meter, and select east-west, to make Ipomoea batatas receive better illumination, improve utility rate of luminous energy.

Four, plant:

1, top is selected to plant strong sprout.Top stem in strong sprout is thick, leaf seedlings weight, and robust growth, has apical dominance, and nutrition organs is flourishing, and resistance against disadvantage is strong, turns green fast, take root early after cultivation, expands block, and output is high.Test proves: adopt top to plant strong sprout and cut seedling than hotbed or generally increase production 10% with other assorted seedling.

2, field transplanting: the implantation methods of sweet potato has the multiple methods such as straight cutting, oblique cutting, level are inserted, fishhook is inserted, improvement level is inserted, and should determine according to the position in soil, underground water and the rain fall of planting season.Growing method survives potato seedling root of hair, potato block is formed all has a direct impact with expanding, the therefore GPRS depth of planting, makes potato seedling each joint that buries all be in grown junction potato in the soil layer that the soil is porous, air capacity of soils good, day and night temperature is large.Generally there are 7-8 leaves on the top of length 20-25 centimetres strong sprout, and about staying 3-4 leaves on the ground when planting, all the other 4-5 leaves insert in soil is advisable.Drying up to prevent planting rear blade, when planting, watering sufficient final singling water.

3, rational close planting.Density fall planting sweet potato every mu 3000-4000 strain of sweet potato transplanting, it is comparatively reasonable that the winter plants sweet potato every mu 4000-5000 strain, and with reference to the characteristic of different cultivars, the height of soil fertility with grasp flexibly season.High ridge dense planting.Ridge does plantation can add thick soil stratum, increases soil light-receiving area, and day and night temperature is large, expands root system scope of activities, is conducive to the absorption of root system, the accumulation of Assimilate and running, and block root expands rapidly raising output.High 30-the 40cm in general ridge, two row are planted on every ridge, about autumn in summer potato mu plants 5000 strains, adopt oblique cutting or plug flat, and potato seedling buries 3-5cm, and 3 joints, firming wants consolidation, to improve planting percent.

Five, field management: Ipomoea batatas is nonirrigated farmland root crop, fertilizer requirement is large, does not have again the obvious maturing stage, all avoids soil accumulated water whole breeding time simultaneously.Therefore, carry out the balanced growth of management talent maintenance Ipomoea batatas acrial part and under ground portion according to the growth characteristic of Ipomoea batatas and obtain high yield.

1, root of hair also seedling stage to branch knot potato period management: this period is that the normal root of Ipomoea batatas is turned green the stage, and water requirement is few, consumes nutrient few, and therefore, emphasis looks into seedling to fill a vacancy and save seedling from damage.General carrying out in 5 days after transplanting looks into the cultivation of seedling benefit, and keeps ground moistening, to improve the survival rate of potato seedling.Within after transplanting about 15 days, to mend in time according to growing way and execute seed manure (about 20% of the total consumption of total nitrogen, potash fertilizer), to mending, the seedling of planting suitably more to be executed.

2, the branch knot potato phase contains long-period of management to cauline leaf: this period is long branch seedling, root growth and knot potato stage, and emphasis carries out the climing short branch of control.After transplanting before 40-45 days, water requirement is few, and field keeps ground moistening.Behind cauline leaf envelope ridge, water requirement is maximum, and water capacity should remain on 70%-80% of maximum water-holding capacity; Therefore, should fill with as one sees fit: " horse race water ".See that seedling imposes short potato fertile: after transplanting, combine large ridging heavy dressing potash fertilizer before and after 60 days, general mu executes ash 100 kilograms or potassium sulfate 6 kilograms (accounting for 60% of total consumption); Nitrogenous fertilizer, with 5 kilograms, urea (50% of total consumption).Prevent steep length, to the prosperous length of cauline leaf, leaf look dark green, and petiole is long, hair root and the too much steep long seedling of Chai Gen, take lifting up of vines, method mentions climing for potato gently, after put back, simultaneously in conjunction with intertillage, play the measures such as climing point, reduce field humidity, improve ventilation condition, suppress cauline leaf growth, promote that block root expands, must guard against and turn over climing, turn over climing easy damaged base leaf, reduce nutrient manufacturing capacity, upset blade to be uniformly distributed, weaken leaf photosynthesis usefulness, affect nutrient operation and often cause the underproduction with accumulation.And attention control insect pest, the main insect of sweet potato has tortrix moth, palaearctic sweet potato, prodenia litura, little weevil etc., and little weevil can water climing head 1-2 time with the 30% the first insecticides; Other insect can with 80% the second insecticide 1000 times of liquid in afternoon sprinkling.

3, cauline leaf is contained and is grown to the management of potato block expanding stage.Be that potato block expands this period, nutrition fully to the important period that fast root accumulates, emphasis is the balanced growth phase being kept sweet potato overground part and lower bottom by water management, causes over growth to prevent excess moisture.Therefore, note opening up nitches and gutters, accomplish flood row accumulated water, drought filling horse race water, and attention control insect pest.

4, the management before potato block expanding stage to results: this period mainly Starch accumulation important period.Potato block is contained long-term, and from cauline leaf summit of growth until maturation, the growth of base leaf is gradually slow, and leaf look turns light, then stops growing.Organic centre transfers potato block to and contains long.To yellow leaf early ageing field, use long climing fertilizer in time.The general liquid dung 15-20 that executes carries on a shoulder pole, and method is watered along crack, top, ridge.Or add 500 grams, urea with potassium dihydrogen phosphate 200 grams and be watered 40 kilograms of root outer sprayings 2 times.Want ditch cleaning to arrange stain simultaneously, prevent rotten potato.Or after planting before and after 90 days, if overground part growth potential is more weak, mu a small amount of nitrogenous fertilizer (about 2 kilograms of urea) pouring of washing by water is executed or sprays to prevent early ageing, note filling with horse race water with drought in good time.Gather in the crops and generally do not pour water for first 20-30 days, be beneficial to the results storage of sweet potato.

Six, gather in the crops in good time.

The critical temperature of sweet potato block growth is 15 DEG C, and less than 9 DEG C will be caused freeze injury, should be down to start results in about 15 DEG C at temperature.About 12 DEG C harvest.

The high-yield planting method of a kind of Ipomoea batatas proposed by the invention, solve the main soil of existence and the problem of diseases and pests controlling in Ipomoea batatas planting process, improve the Quality and yield of Ipomoea batatas output, proper scale truck garden is applied.

Embodiment

A high-yield planting method for Ipomoea batatas, it comprises the steps:

One, special-purpose insecticide is prepared: special-purpose insecticide is prepared by the component raw material of following weight portion and obtains: datura flower 2, RADIX ACONITI KUSNEZIFFII 3, felwort 3, the coptis 1, purple perilla 1, thunder godvine 3, chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium 5, water 16, its preparation process is: 1, boiled by above-mentioned raw materials, and maintaining boiling time 3-6h until percentage by weight datura flower: RADIX ACONITI KUSNEZIFFII: felwort: the coptis: purple perilla: thunder godvine: chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium: water is 2:3:3:1:1:3:5:8, now leaches solution and obtains the first insecticide; 2, datura flower obtained for previous step, RADIX ACONITI KUSNEZIFFII, felwort, the coptis, purple perilla, thunder godvine, chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium are pulverized by cintrifugal disintegrator, the aqueous solution pressing down hooligan's missible oil containing 2% is injected again in this crushed material, the weight ratio of crushed material and the aqueous solution is 2:7, after depositing 48 hours, leach solution and obtain the second insecticide; 3, soil insecticide made by the waste residue collecting second step generation;

Two, nursery:

1, seeding: the nursery of potato block is appropriate to the occasion selects be of moderate size (single potato is heavy is advisable with 200-300 grams), straight uniform, anosis worm, without wound, plants without the potato block damaged to plants caused by sudden drop in temperature.Nursery bedside is 1-1.2 meters, and length depends on the needs, and generally often educating 50 kilograms of potato seeds can supply seedling 0.9-1.5 ten thousand strain, plants 3-4 mu, on average every mu of land for growing field crops sowing quantity about 10-25 kilograms, and the seeding phase rests in transplanting first about 100 days.

2, nursery: carry out heeling in numerous seedling when the seedling length that potato kind grows reaches 25-30 centimetres, and carry out pinching when falsity seedling joint number reaches 6-10 joint positions and to pinch short branch.

3, fertilising short strong sprout: cultivate tender seedling strong sprout at plan (before plantation) 5-8 days thin instant nitrogenousfertilizer of executing of collecting seedling the phase, and reach 25-30 centimetres of plantations of collecting seedling in time in potato seedling length.

Three, selection of land, whole with play furrow:

1, selection of land.Should select more than middle fertility, irrigation and drainage are sandy loam or loam easily.The feature of Ipomoea batatas high production soil is that the soil is porous, soil layer is deep, nutrient is sufficient, and air capacity of soils is strong.

2, site preparation and fertilization.Ploughing deeply loam 25-30cm, in conjunction with ploughing deeply basal dressing, executing farmyard manure 3000 kilograms, superphosphate 20-25 kilograms, potassium sulfate 10-15 kilograms for every mu, 25 kilograms, carbonic hydroammonium, soil insecticide 30-45 kilogram, then sandy soil are covered to loam, the thick 15-25cm of sandy soil;

Topdress then based on nitrogenous fertilizer, according to the split application of growing way appearance.Within after general cultivation 5-7 days, impose short seed manure, mu executes carbon ammonium 5-8 kilograms, and chase after strong strain after 30-40 days fertile, mu executes carbon ammonium 80-100 kilograms; It is fertile that later stage sees that seedling imposes short potato, and mu executes water excrement 10-15 load.Advocate root and spray fertilizer outward, mu 0.5 kilogram, urea, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.2 kilogram is watered 30-40 kilograms and sprays between the lights.

3, furrow are played.Play furrow plantation and be both conducive to draining in rainy season, also help organic material decomposition, and it is fast to make absorb heat daytime, improves ground temperature, night rapid heat dissipation, day and night temperature is large, is beneficial to Ipomoea batatas growth and root system accumulates nutrient.Good soil also in conjunction with furrow plantation of having deep ploughed, will could improve the physicochemical property of soil and obtain high yield.Should accomplish that furrow ditch is deeply narrow when playing furrow, nothing " hard-core " etc. as far as possible.Furrow are apart from general 1.1-1.3 meters (comprising furrow ditch), and furrow are high 0.3-0.4 meter, and select east-west, to make Ipomoea batatas receive better illumination, improve utility rate of luminous energy.

Four, plant:

1, top is selected to plant strong sprout.Top stem in strong sprout is thick, leaf seedlings weight, and robust growth, has apical dominance, and nutrition organs is flourishing, and resistance against disadvantage is strong, turns green fast, take root early after cultivation, expands block, and output is high.Test proves: adopt top to plant strong sprout and cut seedling than hotbed or generally increase production 10% with other assorted seedling.

2, field transplanting: the implantation methods of sweet potato has the multiple methods such as straight cutting, oblique cutting, level are inserted, fishhook is inserted, improvement level is inserted, and should determine according to the position in soil, underground water and the rain fall of planting season.Growing method survives potato seedling root of hair, potato block is formed all has a direct impact with expanding, the therefore GPRS depth of planting, makes potato seedling each joint that buries all be in grown junction potato in the soil layer that the soil is porous, air capacity of soils good, day and night temperature is large.Generally there are 7-8 leaves on the top of length 20-25 centimetres strong sprout, and about staying 3-4 leaves on the ground when planting, all the other 4-5 leaves insert in soil is advisable.Drying up to prevent planting rear blade, when planting, watering sufficient final singling water.

3, rational close planting.Density fall planting sweet potato every mu 3000-4000 strain of sweet potato transplanting, it is comparatively reasonable that the winter plants sweet potato every mu 4000-5000 strain, and with reference to the characteristic of different cultivars, the height of soil fertility with grasp flexibly season.High ridge dense planting.Ridge does plantation can add thick soil stratum, increases soil light-receiving area, and day and night temperature is large, expands root system scope of activities, is conducive to the absorption of root system, the accumulation of Assimilate and running, and block root expands rapidly raising output.High 30-the 40cm in general ridge, two row are planted on every ridge, about autumn in summer potato mu plants 5000 strains, adopt oblique cutting or plug flat, and potato seedling buries 3-5cm, and 3 joints, firming wants consolidation, to improve planting percent.

Five, field management: Ipomoea batatas is nonirrigated farmland root crop, fertilizer requirement is large, does not have again the obvious maturing stage, all avoids soil accumulated water whole breeding time simultaneously.Therefore, carry out the balanced growth of management talent maintenance Ipomoea batatas acrial part and under ground portion according to the growth characteristic of Ipomoea batatas and obtain high yield.

1, root of hair also seedling stage to branch knot potato period management: this period is that the normal root of Ipomoea batatas is turned green the stage, and water requirement is few, consumes nutrient few, and therefore, emphasis looks into seedling to fill a vacancy and save seedling from damage.General carrying out in 5 days after transplanting looks into the cultivation of seedling benefit, and keeps ground moistening, to improve the survival rate of potato seedling.Within after transplanting about 15 days, to mend in time according to growing way and execute seed manure (about 20% of the total consumption of total nitrogen, potash fertilizer), to mending, the seedling of planting suitably more to be executed.

2, the branch knot potato phase contains long-period of management to cauline leaf: this period is long branch seedling, root growth and knot potato stage, and emphasis carries out the climing short branch of control.After transplanting before 40-45 days, water requirement is few, and field keeps ground moistening.Behind cauline leaf envelope ridge, water requirement is maximum, and water capacity should remain on 70%-80% of maximum water-holding capacity; Therefore, should fill with as one sees fit: " horse race water ".See that seedling imposes short potato fertile: after transplanting, combine large ridging heavy dressing potash fertilizer before and after 60 days, general mu executes ash 100 kilograms or potassium sulfate 6 kilograms (accounting for 60% of total consumption); Nitrogenous fertilizer, with 5 kilograms, urea (50% of total consumption).Prevent steep length, to the prosperous length of cauline leaf, leaf look dark green, and petiole is long, hair root and the too much steep long seedling of Chai Gen, take lifting up of vines, method mentions climing for potato gently, after put back, simultaneously in conjunction with intertillage, play the measures such as climing point, reduce field humidity, improve ventilation condition, suppress cauline leaf growth, promote that block root expands, must guard against and turn over climing, turn over climing easy damaged base leaf, reduce nutrient manufacturing capacity, upset blade to be uniformly distributed, weaken leaf photosynthesis usefulness, affect nutrient operation and often cause the underproduction with accumulation.And attention control insect pest, the main insect of sweet potato has tortrix moth, palaearctic sweet potato, prodenia litura, little weevil etc., and little weevil can water climing head 1-2 time with the 30% the first insecticides; Other insect can with 80% the second insecticide 1000 times of liquid in afternoon sprinkling.

3, cauline leaf is contained and is grown to the management of potato block expanding stage.Be that potato block expands this period, nutrition fully to the important period that fast root accumulates, emphasis is the balanced growth phase being kept sweet potato overground part and lower bottom by water management, causes over growth to prevent excess moisture.Therefore, note opening up nitches and gutters, accomplish flood row accumulated water, drought filling horse race water, and attention control insect pest.

4, the management before potato block expanding stage to results: this period mainly Starch accumulation important period.Potato block is contained long-term, and from cauline leaf summit of growth until maturation, the growth of base leaf is gradually slow, and leaf look turns light, then stops growing.Organic centre transfers potato block to and contains long.To yellow leaf early ageing field, use long climing fertilizer in time.The general liquid dung 15-20 that executes carries on a shoulder pole, and method is watered along crack, top, ridge.Or add 500 grams, urea with potassium dihydrogen phosphate 200 grams and be watered 40 kilograms of root outer sprayings 2 times.Want ditch cleaning to arrange stain simultaneously, prevent rotten potato.Or after planting before and after 90 days, if overground part growth potential is more weak, mu a small amount of nitrogenous fertilizer (about 2 kilograms of urea) pouring of washing by water is executed or sprays to prevent early ageing, note filling with horse race water with drought in good time.Gather in the crops and generally do not pour water for first 20-30 days, be beneficial to the results storage of sweet potato.

Six, gather in the crops in good time.

The critical temperature of sweet potato block growth is 15 DEG C, and less than 9 DEG C will be caused freeze injury, should be down to start results in about 15 DEG C at temperature.About 12 DEG C harvest.

Employing said method, planting with area, county, per mu yield can reach about 5000 kilograms, every mu of average results more than 4700 kilogram, Ipomoea batatas in 2013, every mu of average results more than 5200 kilogram, Ipomoea batatas in 2014.

The high-yield planting method of a kind of Ipomoea batatas proposed by the invention, solve the main soil of existence and the problem of diseases and pests controlling in Ipomoea batatas planting process, improve the Quality and yield of Ipomoea batatas output, proper scale truck garden is applied.

Claims (1)

1. a high-yield planting method for Ipomoea batatas, it comprises the steps:
One, special-purpose insecticide is prepared: special-purpose insecticide is prepared by the component raw material of following weight portion and obtains: datura flower 2, RADIX ACONITI KUSNEZIFFII 3, felwort 3, the coptis 1, purple perilla 1, thunder godvine 3, chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium 5, water 16, its preparation process is: 1, boiled by above-mentioned raw materials, and maintaining boiling time 3-6h until percentage by weight datura flower: RADIX ACONITI KUSNEZIFFII: felwort: the coptis: purple perilla: thunder godvine: chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium: water is 2:3:3:1:1:3:5:8, now leaches solution and obtains the first insecticide; 2, datura flower obtained for previous step, RADIX ACONITI KUSNEZIFFII, felwort, the coptis, purple perilla, thunder godvine, chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium are pulverized by cintrifugal disintegrator, the aqueous solution pressing down hooligan's missible oil containing 2% is injected again in this crushed material, the weight ratio of crushed material and the aqueous solution is 2:7, after depositing 48 hours, leach solution and obtain the second insecticide; 3, soil insecticide made by the waste residue collecting second step generation;
Two, nursery:
1, seeding: the nursery of potato block is appropriate to the occasion select be of moderate size, straight uniform, anosis worm, without wound, plant without the potato block damaged to plants caused by sudden drop in temperature, nursery bedside is 1-1.2 meters, length depends on the needs, and generally often educating 50 kilograms of potato seeds can supply seedling 0.9-1.5 ten thousand strain, plants 3-4 mu, on average every mu of land for growing field crops sowing quantity about 10-25 kilograms, the seeding phase rests in transplanting first about 100 days;
2, nursery: carry out heeling in numerous seedling when the seedling length that potato kind grows reaches 25-30 centimetres, and carry out pinching when falsity seedling joint number reaches 6-10 joint positions and to pinch short branch;
3, fertilising short strong sprout: cultivate tender seedling strong sprout at plan 5-8 days phases thin instant nitrogenousfertilizer of executing of collecting seedling, and reach 25-30 centimetres of plantations of collecting seedling in time in potato seedling length;
Three, selection of land, whole with play furrow:
1, selection of land, should select more than middle fertility, and irrigation and drainage are sandy loam or loam easily, and the feature of Ipomoea batatas high production soil is that the soil is porous, soil layer is deep, nutrient is sufficient, and air capacity of soils is strong;
2, site preparation and fertilization, ploughs deeply loam 25-30cm, in conjunction with ploughing deeply basal dressing, executes farmyard manure 3000 kilograms for every mu, superphosphate 20-25 kilograms, potassium sulfate 10-15 kilograms, 25 kilograms, carbonic hydroammonium, soil insecticide 30-45 kilogram, then covers sandy soil to loam, the thick 15-25cm of sandy soil;
Topdress then based on nitrogenous fertilizer, according to the split application of growing way appearance, within 5-7 days, impose short seed manure after general cultivation, mu executes carbon ammonium 5-8 kilograms, and chase after strong strain after 30-40 days fertile, mu executes carbon ammonium 80-100 kilograms; It is fertile that later stage sees that seedling imposes short potato, and mu executes water excrement 10-15 load, and advocate root and spray fertilizer outward, mu 0.5 kilogram, urea, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.2 kilogram is watered 30-40 kilograms and sprays between the lights;
3, furrow are played, play furrow plantation and be both conducive to draining in rainy season, also help organic material decomposition, and it is fast to make absorb heat daytime, improve ground temperature, night rapid heat dissipation, day and night temperature is large, be beneficial to Ipomoea batatas growth and root system accumulation nutrient, good soil also in conjunction with furrow plantation of having deep ploughed, will could improve the physicochemical property of soil and obtain high yield, should accomplish that furrow ditch is deeply narrow when playing furrow as far as possible, nothing " hard-core " etc., furrow are apart from general 1.1-1.3 meters, and furrow are high 0.3-0.4 meter, and select east-west, to make Ipomoea batatas receive better illumination, improve utility rate of luminous energy;
Four, plant:
1, top is selected to plant strong sprout, top stem in strong sprout is thick, leaf seedlings weight, robust growth, there is apical dominance, nutrition organs is flourishing, and resistance against disadvantage is strong, turns green fast after cultivation, take root early, expand block, output is high, and test proves: adopt top to plant strong sprout and cut seedling than hotbed or generally increase production 10% with other assorted seedling;
2, field transplanting: the implantation methods of sweet potato has straight cutting, oblique cutting, level is inserted, fishhook is inserted, the multiple methods such as improvement level is slotting, should according to the position in soil, the rain fall of underground water and planting season and determining, growing method survives potato seedling root of hair, potato block is formed and expands all to be had a direct impact, therefore the GPRS depth of planting, potato seedling each joint that buries is made all to be in that the soil is porous, air capacity of soils is good, grown junction potato in the soil layer that day and night temperature is large, generally there are 7-8 leaves on the top of length 20-25 centimetres strong sprout, about staying 3-4 leaves on the ground when planting, all the other 4-5 leaves insert in soil is advisable, dry up to prevent planting rear blade, sufficient final singling water is watered when planting,
3, rational close planting, density fall planting sweet potato every mu 3000-4000 strain of sweet potato transplanting, it is comparatively reasonable that winter plants sweet potato every mu 4000-5000 strain, and the characteristic of reference different cultivars, height and the season of soil fertility are grasped flexibly, high ridge dense planting, ridge does plantation can add thick soil stratum, increase soil light-receiving area, day and night temperature is large, expand root system scope of activities, be conducive to the absorption of root system, the accumulation of Assimilate and running, and block root expands rapidly raising output, high 30-the 40cm in general ridge, two row are planted on every ridge, about autumn in summer potato mu plants 5000 strains, adopt oblique cutting or plug flat, potato seedling buries 3-5cm, 3 joints, firming wants consolidation, to improve planting percent,
Five, field management: Ipomoea batatas is nonirrigated farmland root crop, fertilizer requirement is large, does not have again the obvious maturing stage, all avoids soil accumulated water whole breeding time simultaneously, therefore, carry out the balanced growth of management talent maintenance Ipomoea batatas acrial part and under ground portion according to the growth characteristic of Ipomoea batatas and obtain high yield;
1, root of hair also ties potato period management to branch seedling stage: this period is that the normal root of Ipomoea batatas is turned green the stage, water requirement is few, consumption nutrient is few, therefore, emphasis looks into seedling to fill a vacancy and save seedling from damage, generally carries out in 5 days to look into seedling and mend and plant after transplanting, and keep ground moistening, to improve the survival rate of potato seedling, within after transplanting about 15 days, to mend in time according to growing way and execute seed manure, to mending, the seedling of planting suitably more to be executed;
2, the branch knot potato phase contains long-period of management to cauline leaf: this period is long branch seedling, root growth and knot potato stage, emphasis carries out the climing short branch of control, after transplanting before 40-45 days, water requirement is few, field keeps ground moistening, behind cauline leaf envelope ridge, water requirement is maximum, and water capacity should remain on 70%-80% of maximum water-holding capacity, therefore, should fill with as one sees fit: " horse race water ", see that seedling imposes short potato fertile: after transplanting, combine large ridging heavy dressing potash fertilizer before and after 60 days, general mu executes ash 100 kilograms or potassium sulfate 6 kilograms, nitrogenous fertilizer, with 5 kilograms, urea, prevent steep length, to the prosperous length of cauline leaf, leaf look dark green, petiole is long, hair root and the too much steep long seedling of Chai Gen, take lifting up of vines, method mentions climing for potato gently, after put back, simultaneously in conjunction with intertillage, play the measures such as climing point, reduce field humidity, improve ventilation condition, suppress cauline leaf growth, promote that block root expands, must guard against turn over climing, turn over climing easy damaged base leaf, reduce nutrient manufacturing capacity, upset blade to be uniformly distributed, weaken leaf photosynthesis usefulness, affect nutrient operation and often cause the underproduction with accumulation, and attention control insect pest, the main insect of sweet potato has tortrix moth, palaearctic sweet potato, prodenia litura, little weevil etc., little weevil can water climing head 1-2 time with the 30% the first insecticides, other insect can with 80% the second insecticide 1000 times of liquid in afternoon sprinkling,
3, cauline leaf is contained and is grown to the management of potato block expanding stage, be that potato block expands this period, nutrition is fully to the important period that fast root accumulates, emphasis is the balanced growth phase being kept sweet potato overground part and lower bottom by water management, over growth is caused to prevent excess moisture, therefore, note opening up nitches and gutters, accomplish flood row accumulated water, drought filling horse race water, and attention control insect pest;
4, management before potato block expanding stage to results: this period mainly Starch accumulation important period, potato block is contained long-term, from cauline leaf summit of growth until maturation, Ji Ye growth is gradually slow, leaf look turns light, then stop growing, organic centre transfers potato block to and contains long, to yellow leaf early ageing field, use long climing fertilizer in time, the general liquid dung 15-20 that executes carries on a shoulder pole, method is watered along crack, top, ridge, or add 500 grams, urea with potassium dihydrogen phosphate 200 grams and be watered 40 kilograms of root outer sprayings 2 times, want ditch cleaning to arrange stain simultaneously, prevent rotten potato, or after planting before and after 90 days, if overground part growth potential is more weak, the a small amount of nitrogenous fertilizer bath pouring of mu is executed or sprays to prevent early ageing, note filling with horse race water with drought in good time, gather in the crops and generally do not pour water for first 20-30 days, be beneficial to the results storage of sweet potato,
Six, gather in the crops in good time:
The critical temperature of sweet potato block growth is 15 DEG C, and less than 9 DEG C will be caused freeze injury, and should be down at temperature and start results in about 15 DEG C, about 12 DEG C harvest.
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CN105706805A (en) * 2016-03-08 2016-06-29 李家建 Method for assisting underground insect damage prevention during seedling stage of sweet potatoes by use of wheat
CN106233982A (en) * 2016-08-10 2016-12-21 自然味(重庆)农业科技股份有限公司 A kind of green planting method of Radix Ipomoeae
CN106258414A (en) * 2016-08-15 2017-01-04 松桃苗族自治县土肥站 A kind of implantation methods of Radix Ipomoeae high yield
CN106342504A (en) * 2016-08-15 2017-01-25 松桃苗族自治县土肥站 Sweet potato planting method
CN106358545A (en) * 2016-08-02 2017-02-01 甘肃金农肥业有限公司 Fertilization method for Baihao
CN106588406A (en) * 2016-11-10 2017-04-26 金寨县益农农业科技开发有限公司 Method of utilizing waste woven bags to plant sweet potatoes high efficiently
CN106576718A (en) * 2016-11-10 2017-04-26 周梦倩 Planting method for high-yield sweet potatoes
CN106665092A (en) * 2017-01-13 2017-05-17 和县德生农业发展有限公司 Planting method for high-yield high-quality sweet potatoes
CN106717809A (en) * 2016-11-25 2017-05-31 河池市农业科学研究所 A kind of high-production planting method for sweet potato
CN106717834A (en) * 2016-11-29 2017-05-31 马健 For the cultural method of organic Ipomoea batatas high yield
CN106804636A (en) * 2016-12-08 2017-06-09 河池市农业科学研究所 The preparation method of the special-purpose insecticide of Ipomoea batatas
CN107295893A (en) * 2017-08-10 2017-10-27 湛江市农业科学研究院(广东省(湛江)区域性农业试验中心) A kind of sweet potato nursery Fast incremental expands numerous method
CN107667808A (en) * 2016-07-31 2018-02-09 陆超 A kind of cultivation method of sweet potato
CN108575634A (en) * 2018-07-05 2018-09-28 张友红 A kind of innoxious cultural method of Sweet Potato For High. yield Production
CN109041729A (en) * 2018-10-27 2018-12-21 山西惠亿农生物科技有限公司 A kind of selenium-enriched sweet potato implantation methods
CN109601304A (en) * 2019-01-11 2019-04-12 宁波恒鑫生物科技有限公司 A kind of sweet potato positioning knot potato cultivation
CN109729949A (en) * 2019-03-15 2019-05-10 宝鸡市农业科学研究院 The method for culturing seedlings of sweet potato in a kind of greenhouse

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105706805A (en) * 2016-03-08 2016-06-29 李家建 Method for assisting underground insect damage prevention during seedling stage of sweet potatoes by use of wheat
CN107667808A (en) * 2016-07-31 2018-02-09 陆超 A kind of cultivation method of sweet potato
CN106358545A (en) * 2016-08-02 2017-02-01 甘肃金农肥业有限公司 Fertilization method for Baihao
CN106233982A (en) * 2016-08-10 2016-12-21 自然味(重庆)农业科技股份有限公司 A kind of green planting method of Radix Ipomoeae
CN106258414A (en) * 2016-08-15 2017-01-04 松桃苗族自治县土肥站 A kind of implantation methods of Radix Ipomoeae high yield
CN106342504A (en) * 2016-08-15 2017-01-25 松桃苗族自治县土肥站 Sweet potato planting method
CN106588406A (en) * 2016-11-10 2017-04-26 金寨县益农农业科技开发有限公司 Method of utilizing waste woven bags to plant sweet potatoes high efficiently
CN106576718A (en) * 2016-11-10 2017-04-26 周梦倩 Planting method for high-yield sweet potatoes
CN106717809A (en) * 2016-11-25 2017-05-31 河池市农业科学研究所 A kind of high-production planting method for sweet potato
CN106717834A (en) * 2016-11-29 2017-05-31 马健 For the cultural method of organic Ipomoea batatas high yield
CN106804636A (en) * 2016-12-08 2017-06-09 河池市农业科学研究所 The preparation method of the special-purpose insecticide of Ipomoea batatas
CN106665092A (en) * 2017-01-13 2017-05-17 和县德生农业发展有限公司 Planting method for high-yield high-quality sweet potatoes
CN107295893A (en) * 2017-08-10 2017-10-27 湛江市农业科学研究院(广东省(湛江)区域性农业试验中心) A kind of sweet potato nursery Fast incremental expands numerous method
CN108575634A (en) * 2018-07-05 2018-09-28 张友红 A kind of innoxious cultural method of Sweet Potato For High. yield Production
CN109041729A (en) * 2018-10-27 2018-12-21 山西惠亿农生物科技有限公司 A kind of selenium-enriched sweet potato implantation methods
CN109601304A (en) * 2019-01-11 2019-04-12 宁波恒鑫生物科技有限公司 A kind of sweet potato positioning knot potato cultivation
CN109729949A (en) * 2019-03-15 2019-05-10 宝鸡市农业科学研究院 The method for culturing seedlings of sweet potato in a kind of greenhouse

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