CN103250546A - Large-ridge and double-line under-film drip-irrigation water-saving cultivation method of winter and early spring potatoes - Google Patents

Large-ridge and double-line under-film drip-irrigation water-saving cultivation method of winter and early spring potatoes Download PDF

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CN103250546A
CN103250546A CN2013102253734A CN201310225373A CN103250546A CN 103250546 A CN103250546 A CN 103250546A CN 2013102253734 A CN2013102253734 A CN 2013102253734A CN 201310225373 A CN201310225373 A CN 201310225373A CN 103250546 A CN103250546 A CN 103250546A
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potato
water
ridge
saving
drip irrigation
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CN103250546B (en
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李燕山
隋启君
白建明
姚春光
普红梅
卢丽丽
潘哲超
包丽仙
杨琼芬
徐宁生
李先平
王颖
刘凌云
尹自友
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INSTITUTE OF INDUSTRIAL CROP YUNNAN ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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Abstract

The invention discloses a large-ridge and double-line under-film drip-irrigation water-saving cultivation method of winter and early spring potatoes. The method comprises the following steps of (1) potato seed selection and treatment, (2) seeding, (3) drip-irrigation equipment laying and plastic film mulching, and (4) field management. The cultivation method is a water-saving irrigation technology combining a large-ridge and double-line technology, a plastic film mulching technology and a drip-irrigation technology organically, has a particularly remarkable effect in arid and semi-arid regions, integrates the edge line advantage, maintenance of the optimum water content of root regions, effective improvement of the ground temperature, evaporation suppression and water saving, has the characteristics of preserving soil moisture, maintaining fertilizers, keeping warm, remarkably improving utilization of optical energy, water and the fertilizers, saving the water, saving labor, increasing a yield and improving the efficiency, and has the advantages of saving the water and the labor, increasing the yield and improving the efficiency.

Description

A kind of early spring in winter potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method
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Technical field
The present invention relates to proportion of crop planting agronomic technique field, specifically early spring in a kind of winter potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method.
Background technology
Potato is cereal crops, is again economic crops, in generally plantation all over the world.Development southwest potato in early spring in winter not only can increase cropping index, increases total output of grain, and can fill up the neutral gear of northern potato supply, to further guarantee national food safety, promotes that increasing peasant income are significant.In recent years, early spring in winter, potato was rapid in the southern area development, had been defined as the key area of following Chinese potato development by the national Ministry of Agriculture.But nearly 3 years, the southwest serious autumn, winter, spring occurred and has connected gas dry days, and irrigation conditions lacks in addition, causes the serious underproduction of potato in early spring in winter, and arid has become the bottleneck problem that most of zone, restriction southwest potato in early spring in winter produces.
The development trend of arid frequently increases, and expanded range has become normalization.The moisture environment that the growth needs of potato is certain under the prerequisite that guarantees output, can farthest be economized on water, and this just need artificially control the water environment in the potato production process.Traditional irrigation canals and ditches flood irrigation mode, water resource waste is bigger, these regional irrigating facility conditions lack relatively in addition, early spring in incompatibility winter the potato producing region demand for development.In recent years, the plantation of southwest potato though in technology, kind bigger development has been arranged, is adapting on the arid climate environment, and the comparison weakness still seems.
Summary of the invention
Purpose of the present invention is exactly technical problem and the defective that exists at the high moisture in the soil plastic-film-covered cultivation of potato in early spring in following winter of arid climatic conditions method, provide a kind of early spring in winter potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method, in the hope of the area that lacks relatively at irrigation conditions, can reduce manpower and agricultural chemicals drops into, improve the availability of limited water resources, utilize drip irrigation technique when effectively suppressing evaporation, improve the drought-resistant ability of potato yield and whole growth process, water saving, saving of labor, increase production and improve productivity.
In order to take full advantage of limited water resource, the ability that improves potato yield and adapt to drought environment, the potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method in early spring in winter of the present invention's exploitation, this method is a kind of water-saving irrigation technique that large-ridge double-row, plastic mulching, drip irrigation technique are organically combined, especially in arid, the semiarid zone effect is particularly remarkable, the advantage that have water saving, saving of labor, increases production and improves productivity.
A kind of early spring in winter of the present invention, potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method comprised the steps:
(1) potato seed is selected and is handled: the virus-free seed potato of suiting measures to local conditions to select for use precocity, strong stress resistance, high yield, high-quality, potato seed was taken out from the warehouse in 10~15 days prior to seeding, reject disease, worm, mashed potato, be placed on indoor vernalization, broadcast preceding 2~3 days and will carry out the stripping and slicing processing greater than the potato piece of 75g, each stripping and slicing should contain 2 eyes, potato kind after the stripping and slicing adds agricultural streptomycin with land plaster and adds carbendazim, three's ratio is: 90:5:5, evenly seed dressing, the Mexician scammony ratio is 1.5:100, and carries out airing, cicatrizes a wound;
(2) sowing: at the beginning of by the end of December to 1 month, finish, adopt the large-ridge double-row plantation, wide row space 70cm, little line-spacing 40cm, plantation 2 row potatos on the ridge, spacing in the rows is 30cm, after potato seed is put with farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer as the disposable deep placement of base manure, after planting play high ridge;
(3) drip irrigation equipment is laid and plastic mulching: drip irrigation equipment is installed in the field behind the ridging, lay successively that water delivery is responsible for, is in charge of, bypass cock, irrigate band, the dropper band is laid on the centre of each ridge face, water dropper is corresponding one by one with potato plant, before the overlay film, herbicide spraying, carry out artificial overlay film then, mulch film requires the film of fabric width 90~100cm, accomplishes that the face earthing is tight, evenly;
(4) the preceding field management of emerging: the potato water of emerging carried out drip irrigation at after planting 10~15 days, reached 60~65% to the soil relative moisture content;
(5) emerge the back field management: in time carry out rupture of membranes after 1. potato emerges and draw seedling, burnt by high temperature to avoid seedling; 2. pour water: when pouring water, need the water characteristic except grasping the potato kind in good time, growing stage, soil types, rainfall distribution and yield level are taken all factors into consideration, potato fertility stage difference, requirement to soil moisture content is also different, and the soil moisture content that suits a period to group that comes up is 60~65%; The tiller phase is 75~80% to tying suitable soil moisture content of potato phase, the knot potato later stage, suitable soil moisture content was 60~65%, in time irrigate according to growth of seedling situation, soil moisture situation, climate condition after emerging, can be controlled in irrigation frequency about 7~10 days, potato is poured water 8~10 times the time of infertility, and irrigation quantity is about 150~180 m 3/ 667m 2
Early spring in winter of the present invention, the advantage of potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method was:
(1) film-covering planting, ground temperature changes more stable, is conducive to crop and early emerges, and goes out full stand.According to the land for growing field crops observation under-film drip irrigation routine 7~15d of emerging ahead of time that pours water, emergence rate is up to more than 95%.
(2) but the under-film drip irrigation timely and appropriate discovery supply water, water-saving result is obvious, potato under-film drip irrigation in time of infertility water 171 m 3/ 667m 2, more traditional ditch canal irrigation 320 m 3/ 667m 2, 149 m economize on water 3/ 667m 2, water saving reaches 46.6%, volume increase 30~50%, and commodity potato rate improves about 20%.
(3) under-film drip irrigation, because plant does not have irrigation moisture in the ranks, thereby weeds can reduce weeding and throw the worker than lacking that gross area is irrigated.(4) can effectively suppress the propagation of damage by disease and insect, crop disease and insect takes place few.
(5) low cost, every 667m 2Only about 280~300 yuan, the equipment operating period can reach about 2~3 years the input of Zeng Jiaing on the original basis.
Method of the present invention integrates limit row advantage, keeps root district optimum moisture content, effectively improves ground temperature, suppresses evaporation, economizes on water.Have soil moisture conservation, protect characteristics fertile, that be incubated, significantly improve luminous energy and liquid manure utilization, water saving, saving of labor, increase production and improve productivity.
Embodiment
The present invention has carried out potato production experiment in early spring in winter in little one hundred houses town, Luliang County, Qujing, Yunnan Province, respond well.Specific practice is:
(1) potato seed is selected and is handled: select kind breeding time about 75~90 days, and strong stress resistance, potato shape is good, and eye is shallow, the virus-free seed potato of the improved seeds that commodity rate is high.Potato seed is handled broadcasting preceding 2~3 days and will carry out greater than the potato piece of 75g stripping and slicing, and each stripping and slicing should contain 2 eyes, and the potato kind after the stripping and slicing adds agricultural streptomycin with land plaster and adds carbendazim, three's ratio is: 90:5:5, and evenly seed dressing, the Mexician scammony ratio is 1.5:100, and carry out airing, cicatrize a wound;
(2) at the beginning of 1 month, finish sowing, adopt the large-ridge double-row pattern during sowing, but the also animal power trench digging of can manually ditching, row spacing is 1.1m wide row space 70cm, little line-spacing 40cm, and plantation 2 row potatos on the ridge, spacing in the rows is 30cm.After then potato seed is put farmyard manure and urea, superphosphate, compound potassium sulfate fertilizer are applied as base manure is disposable, wherein the farmyard manure consumption is 1000Kg/667m 2, urea 20 Kg/667m 2, superphosphate 75 Kg/667m 2, compound potassium sulfate fertilizer 40Kg/667m 2, boron fertilizer 2 Kg/667m 2Play the high ridge about 25cm behind the seeding and fertilizing, make the ridge face be shallow U-shaped.
(3) drip irrigation equipment is laid and plastic mulching: lay drip irrigation equipment and mulch film afterwards, lay successively that water delivery is responsible for, is in charge of, the irrigate band; Water delivery is responsible for and is arranged in the middle of the drip irrigation system, is in charge of cloth on the face of ridge, is in charge of to connect the irrigate band, extend to both sides along the ridge body irrigate band, and the dropper band is laid on the centre of each ridge face, and water dropper is corresponding one by one with potato plant, the irrigate band is stretching, can not give a discount, and water dropper down, arrangement the irrigate band time on the face of ridge covering with plastic film, before the overlay film, herbicide spraying, mulch film is selected the plastic film of 100cm fabric width for use, carry out artificial overlay film, accomplish that the face earthing is tight, evenly;
(4) the preceding field management of emerging: after planting 10~15 days drip irrigations water of emerging, open the dropper system and irrigated 2~3 hours, the water dropper flow velocity is controlled to be 3L/h, reaches 60% to soil relative water content, be beneficial to potato early emerge, emerge neat, emergence rate is high.
(5) the back field management of emerging: 1. the potato seeding stage will in time be carried out rupture of membranes and drawn seedling, is burnt by high temperature to avoid seedling, requires seedling stage to put seedling every day, all sprouts up to seedling; 2. pour water: because kind law of needing the water, the soil texture, weather difference between breeding time, irrigation quantity is also different with the blanking time of pouring water in good time.The soil moisture content that suits a period to group that comes up is about 60%; The tiller phase is 75% to tying suitable soil moisture content of potato phase, and the knot potato later stage, suitable soil moisture content was 60%; The under-film drip irrigation potato is generally poured water and be advisable for 8 times the time of infertility, can be controlled in irrigation frequency about 7 days, and irrigation quantity is 150 m 3/ 667m 2, enter Routine Management and results at last.
Embodiment 2:
(1) potato seed is selected and is handled: select kind breeding time about 75~90 days, and strong stress resistance, potato shape is good, and eye is shallow, the virus-free seed potato of the improved seeds that commodity rate is high.Potato seed is handled broadcasting preceding 2~3 days and will carry out greater than the potato piece of 75g stripping and slicing, and each stripping and slicing should contain 2 eyes, and the potato kind after the stripping and slicing adds agricultural streptomycin with land plaster and adds carbendazim, three's ratio is: 90:5:5, and evenly seed dressing, the Mexician scammony ratio is 1.5:100, and carry out airing, cicatrize a wound;
(2) at the beginning of 1 month, finish sowing, adopt the large-ridge double-row pattern during sowing, but the also animal power trench digging of can manually ditching, row spacing is 1.1m wide row space 70cm, little line-spacing 40cm, and plantation 2 row potatos on the ridge, spacing in the rows is 30cm.After then potato seed is put farmyard manure and urea, superphosphate, compound potassium sulfate fertilizer are applied as base manure is disposable, wherein the farmyard manure consumption is 1500Kg/667m 2, urea 25 Kg/667m 2, superphosphate 75 Kg/667m 2, compound potassium sulfate fertilizer 50 Kg/667m 2, boron fertilizer 2 Kg/667m 2Play the high ridge about 30cm behind the seeding and fertilizing, make the ridge face be shallow U-shaped.
(3) drip irrigation equipment is laid and plastic mulching: lay drip irrigation equipment and mulch film afterwards, lay successively that water delivery is responsible for, is in charge of, the irrigate band; Water delivery is responsible for and is arranged in the middle of the drip irrigation system, is in charge of cloth on the face of ridge, is in charge of to connect the irrigate band, extend to both sides along the ridge body irrigate band, and the dropper band is laid on the centre of each ridge face, and water dropper is corresponding one by one with potato plant, the irrigate band is stretching, can not give a discount, and water dropper down, arrangement the irrigate band time on the face of ridge covering with plastic film, before the overlay film, herbicide spraying, mulch film is selected the plastic film of 100cm fabric width for use, carry out artificial overlay film, accomplish that the face earthing is tight, evenly;
(4) the preceding field management of emerging: after planting 10~15 days drip irrigations water of emerging, open the dropper system and irrigated 2~3 hours, the water dropper flow velocity is controlled to be 3L/h, reaches 65% to soil relative water content, be beneficial to potato early emerge, emerge neat, emergence rate is high.
(5) the back field management of emerging: 1. the potato seeding stage will in time be carried out rupture of membranes and drawn seedling, is burnt by high temperature to avoid seedling, requires seedling stage to put seedling every day, all sprouts up to seedling; 2. pour water: because kind law of needing the water, the soil texture, weather difference between breeding time, irrigation quantity is also different with the blanking time of pouring water in good time.The soil moisture content that suits a period to group that comes up is about 65%; The tiller phase is 80% to tying suitable soil moisture content of potato phase, and the knot potato later stage, suitable soil moisture content was 65%; The under-film drip irrigation potato is generally poured water and be advisable for 10 times the time of infertility, can be controlled in irrigation frequency about 10 days, and irrigation quantity is 180 m 3/ 667m 2, enter Routine Management and results at last.

Claims (5)

  1. One kind early spring in winter potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method, it is characterized in that this method may further comprise the steps:
    (1) potato seed is selected and is handled: select kind breeding time good in 75~90 days precocities, strong stress resistance, potato shape, eye is shallow, the virus-free seed potato of high yield, high-quality, broadcast preceding 2~3 days and will carry out the stripping and slicing processing greater than the potato piece of 75g, each stripping and slicing should contain 2 eyes, potato kind with medicament after the stripping and slicing is evenly dressed seed, and the Mexician scammony ratio is 1.5:100, and carries out airing, cicatrize a wound, medicament is that land plaster adds agricultural streptomycin and adds carbendazim three ratio and be: 90:5:5;
    (2) sowing: at the beginning of by the end of December to 1 month, finish sowing and ridging, adopt the mode of large-ridge double-row to sow, row spacing is 1.1m, wide row space 70cm, little line-spacing 40cm, plantation 2 row potatos on the ridge, spacing in the rows is 30cm, after potato seed is put with farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer as the disposable deep placement of base manure, after planting play high ridge, the high 25~30cm in ridge;
    (3) drip irrigation equipment is laid and plastic mulching: drip irrigation equipment is installed behind the ridging, the dropper band is laid in the middle of the face of ridge, and water dropper is corresponding one by one with potato plant, before the overlay film, herbicide spraying, and then overlay film,
    (4) the preceding field management of emerging: the water of emerging carried out drip irrigation at after planting 10~15 days, reached 60~65% to soil moisture content;
    (5) emerge the back field management: in time carry out rupture of membranes after 1. potato emerges and draw seedling, burnt by high temperature to avoid seedling; 2. pour water: back control irrigation frequency of emerging was at 7~10 days, and potato is poured water 8~10 times the time of infertility, and irrigation quantity is 150~180 m in good time 3/ 667m 2
  2. Early spring in winter according to claim 1 potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method, it is characterized in that: the chemical fertilizer in the described base manure of step (2) comprises four kinds in urea, superphosphate, compound potassium sulfate fertilizer, borax, and wherein the farmyard manure consumption is 1000~1500Kg/667m 2, urea 20~25 Kg/667m 2, superphosphate 75 Kg/667m 2, compound potassium sulfate fertilizer 40~50 Kg/667m 2, borax 2 Kg/667m 2
  3. Early spring in winter according to claim 1 potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method, it is characterized in that: the described water dropper of step (3) is corresponding one by one with potato plant, and dripper spacing and potato spacing in the rows are 30cm.
  4. Early spring in winter according to claim 1 potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method, it is characterized in that: the described potato of step (4) water of emerging carried out drip irrigation at after planting 10~15 days, and the water dropper flow velocity is controlled to be 3L/h.
  5. Early spring in winter according to claim 1 potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method, it is characterized in that: the suitable amount of dripping of each growing stage of the described potato of step (5) is: seedling phase to group's phase, suitable soil moisture content was 60~65%, the tiller phase is 75~80% to tying suitable soil moisture content of potato phase, and the knot potato later stage, suitable soil moisture content was 60~65%.
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CN103798051A (en) * 2014-02-28 2014-05-21 莫秀芳 Potato planting method
CN104186165A (en) * 2014-08-26 2014-12-10 山西省农业科学院高寒区作物研究所 High-yield cultivation method for north potatoes through drip irrigation under mulch
CN104350924A (en) * 2014-11-11 2015-02-18 云南省农业科学院经济作物研究所 Cultivation method for controlling late blight of potatoes for interplanting of early maturing variety and later maturing variety
CN104350930A (en) * 2014-11-26 2015-02-18 新疆农垦科学院 Water-saving high-yield water-fertilizer management method for use in drip irrigation of spring wheat
CN104396471A (en) * 2014-08-26 2015-03-11 山西省农业科学院高寒区作物研究所 Potato coverage fertilization drought-resisting mechanized cultivation method
CN104521464A (en) * 2014-11-19 2015-04-22 大禹节水(天津)有限公司 Potato drip irrigation planting method
CN104541894A (en) * 2015-01-16 2015-04-29 四川省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所 Southwest hilly area dry land purple potato cultivation method
CN105052474A (en) * 2015-07-31 2015-11-18 大禹节水(天津)有限公司 A drip irrigation planting method for potatoes intercropped cottons
CN105103913A (en) * 2015-09-08 2015-12-02 大禹节水(天津)有限公司 Double-row staggered planting method for potato
CN105557275A (en) * 2015-08-06 2016-05-11 江苏农林职业技术学院 Potato riding, film-covering and planting method
CN105706690A (en) * 2016-02-14 2016-06-29 云南农业大学 Water and fertilizer integrated planting method for potatoes in Yunnan in winter
CN106070328A (en) * 2016-06-14 2016-11-09 广东省农业科学院作物研究所 A kind of Winter potato seed dressing and seed dressing method
CN107211681A (en) * 2017-05-27 2017-09-29 云南省农业科学院经济作物研究所 A kind of low efficient winter-planting potato water-fertilizer integral implantation methods
CN107950330A (en) * 2017-11-13 2018-04-24 中国农业大学 A kind of cold area potato drip irrigation economize efficient cultivation method
CN108782085A (en) * 2018-06-25 2018-11-13 甘肃农业大学 Potato trickle irrigation liquid manure integrated planting method and potato
CN108782084A (en) * 2018-06-25 2018-11-13 甘肃农业大学 Potato under-film drip irrigation implantation methods and potato
CN109429960A (en) * 2018-10-22 2019-03-08 青海省农林科学院 A kind of potato production integrated drop irrigation cultural method

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CN104186165A (en) * 2014-08-26 2014-12-10 山西省农业科学院高寒区作物研究所 High-yield cultivation method for north potatoes through drip irrigation under mulch
CN104396471A (en) * 2014-08-26 2015-03-11 山西省农业科学院高寒区作物研究所 Potato coverage fertilization drought-resisting mechanized cultivation method
CN104350924B (en) * 2014-11-11 2018-07-27 云南省农业科学院经济作物研究所 A kind of cultural method of the intercropping of early and late maturing varieties control late blight of potato
CN104350924A (en) * 2014-11-11 2015-02-18 云南省农业科学院经济作物研究所 Cultivation method for controlling late blight of potatoes for interplanting of early maturing variety and later maturing variety
CN104521464A (en) * 2014-11-19 2015-04-22 大禹节水(天津)有限公司 Potato drip irrigation planting method
CN104350930A (en) * 2014-11-26 2015-02-18 新疆农垦科学院 Water-saving high-yield water-fertilizer management method for use in drip irrigation of spring wheat
CN104541894A (en) * 2015-01-16 2015-04-29 四川省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所 Southwest hilly area dry land purple potato cultivation method
CN105052474A (en) * 2015-07-31 2015-11-18 大禹节水(天津)有限公司 A drip irrigation planting method for potatoes intercropped cottons
CN105557275A (en) * 2015-08-06 2016-05-11 江苏农林职业技术学院 Potato riding, film-covering and planting method
CN105103913A (en) * 2015-09-08 2015-12-02 大禹节水(天津)有限公司 Double-row staggered planting method for potato
CN105706690A (en) * 2016-02-14 2016-06-29 云南农业大学 Water and fertilizer integrated planting method for potatoes in Yunnan in winter
CN105706690B (en) * 2016-02-14 2019-03-29 云南农业大学 Winter in Yunnan Province potato production integrated planting method
CN106070328A (en) * 2016-06-14 2016-11-09 广东省农业科学院作物研究所 A kind of Winter potato seed dressing and seed dressing method
CN107211681A (en) * 2017-05-27 2017-09-29 云南省农业科学院经济作物研究所 A kind of low efficient winter-planting potato water-fertilizer integral implantation methods
CN107211681B (en) * 2017-05-27 2020-11-20 云南省农业科学院经济作物研究所 Low-cost and high-efficiency water-fertilizer integrated planting method for winter potatoes
CN107950330A (en) * 2017-11-13 2018-04-24 中国农业大学 A kind of cold area potato drip irrigation economize efficient cultivation method
CN107950330B (en) * 2017-11-13 2020-05-05 中国农业大学 Water-saving and efficient drop irrigation cultivation method for potatoes in cold regions
CN108782085A (en) * 2018-06-25 2018-11-13 甘肃农业大学 Potato trickle irrigation liquid manure integrated planting method and potato
CN108782084A (en) * 2018-06-25 2018-11-13 甘肃农业大学 Potato under-film drip irrigation implantation methods and potato
CN108782085B (en) * 2018-06-25 2020-09-11 甘肃农业大学 Potato drip irrigation water and fertilizer integrated planting method and potatoes
CN115226459A (en) * 2018-06-25 2022-10-25 甘肃农业大学 High-yield fertilization method for potatoes and under-mulch drip irrigation planting method for potatoes
CN109429960A (en) * 2018-10-22 2019-03-08 青海省农林科学院 A kind of potato production integrated drop irrigation cultural method

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