CN106941903A - A kind of sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivating and growing method - Google Patents

A kind of sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivating and growing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106941903A
CN106941903A CN201710123595.3A CN201710123595A CN106941903A CN 106941903 A CN106941903 A CN 106941903A CN 201710123595 A CN201710123595 A CN 201710123595A CN 106941903 A CN106941903 A CN 106941903A
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China
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irrigation
sweet potato
water
drip irrigation
potato
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Inventor
李仁崑
周继华
王立征
徐向东
赵娇娜
张莉
窦硕
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BEIJING CITY AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGY SPREADING STATION
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BEIJING CITY AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGY SPREADING STATION
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like
    • A01G25/02Watering arrangements located above the soil which make use of perforated pipe-lines or pipe-lines with dispensing fittings, e.g. for drip irrigation
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C23/00Distributing devices specially adapted for liquid manure or other fertilising liquid, including ammonia, e.g. transport tanks or sprinkling wagons
    • A01C23/04Distributing under pressure; Distributing mud; Adaptation of watering systems for fertilising-liquids
    • A01C23/042Adding fertiliser to watering systems
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivating and growing method, irrigation method is drip irrigation, and irrigation program is:According to sweet potato crop water habit and local many annual rainfall rules, keep a full stand of seedings by early stage moisture creating, the middle and later periods, total irrigation volume was normal irrigation amount (60 70m because of moisture in the soil moisturizing irrigation principle3/ mu) 1/3 2/3.The present invention is than the local normal irrigation (70m of total amount 603/ mu) every mu of 30 40m of reduction3Irrigation quantity so that 0 20cm soil layer maintains higher soil moisture content, and field is substantially suitable with normal irrigation with respect to water-holding capacity, but water consumption is considerably less than normal irrigation.The inventive method sweet potato stem length, number, per mu yield and the commodity potato yield divided significantly are superior to normal irrigation.The inventive method economic benefit and water resource utilization efficiency, which are obtained for, significantly to be improved, and is made and is widelyd popularize application.

Description

A kind of sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivating and growing method
Technical field
The invention belongs to proportion of crop planting technical field, and in particular to a kind of sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivating and growing method.
Background technology
Sweet potato is both cereal crops, is again industrial crops, is generally planted all over the world.Soil moisture and growth of sweet potato Relation is extremely close, especially influence of the early stage soil drought (soil relative water content is less than 60%) to tuber yield and commodity Become apparent.North China Plain area rainfall is concentrated mainly on July, August, accounts for the 80% of annual rainfall, winter in spring easily holds Continuous arid.Traditional sweet potato plantation spring irrigation canals and ditches flood irrigation mode, water resource waste is larger, and the development for being not suitable with sweet potato producing region will Ask.This is accomplished by carrying out manual control to the water environment in sweet potato production process, being capable of maximum journey on the premise of yield is ensured The water saving of degree, therefore, seeking new water-saving cropping pattern turns into the water saving of development this area, highly efficient and productive agriculture technology on the way One of footpath.
Drip irrigation technique is a kind of efficient water-saving irrigation technology.Drip irrigation is supplied water using pipe-line system, is made irrigation water into drop-wise, is delayed Slowly, uniformly, regularly, quantitatively infiltration crop root development region, make the main root system area of crop soil remain at it is optimal Saturation state.
When drip irrigation system works, after the purified filtration facility filter " clear " of current of pressurization or certainly pressure, into delivery main (often Be embedded in underground), branch pipe, hollow billet --- be laid on the drip irrigation pipe (band) on sweet potato ridge, then by the douche (water dropper) on hollow billet Instill in root of the crop layer soil, be made for thing Root Absorption.Tradition is replaced to fill it was verified that the development of drip irrigation is modern irrigation technique The process of technology is irrigate, the process of major transformation occurs for even more mode of agriculture.Irrigated using drip irrigation technique, with traditional ground Irrigation technique is compared, the obvious advantage for having following 8 aspects:
(1) water-saving:Drip irrigation is a kind of controllable localized irrigation, can timely and appropriate discovery pour water.Water droplet is seeped into root of the crop layer Around soil in, be made for needed for thing grows in itself.Drip irrigation system uses pipeline water delivery again, reduces filter loss.So, In crop growth period, than Surface irrigation water-saving:The side's water of 60 side -70 and water saving 40%~50%.Advocated in " capital, Tianjin, Ji " with developing On the premise of water-saving agriculture, change mode of agriculture, popularize sweet potato drip irrigation economize irrigation method, be conducive to it is ecological with can Sustainable agriculture develops.
(2) agricultural chemicals is saved:Water closes conveying in the duct, it is to avoid propagation of the water to insect pest.In addition, being entered using drip irrigation technique Row is irrigated, and earth's surface is without ponding, and field level humidity is small, is unfavorable for growing germ and insect pest.Thus herbicide, insecticide consumption are bright It is aobvious to reduce, agricultural chemicals more than 10~20%, and good disinsection effect can be saved.
(3) save ground:Because field all uses pipeline water delivery, the field ditch and field pipe-net needed during surface irrigation instead of Sublateral canal and ridge, can save soil 5%~7%.
(4) saving of labor and energy-conservation:During Surface irrigation, shoveling is blocked up, and is worked under hard conditions, and labor intensity is big, after drip irrigation, mainly Work is observing apparatus, operation valve, good operation conditions;Drip irrigation energy Fertigation, dispenser, due to being localized irrigation, crop row Almost anhydrous away from, under film and side weeds are difficult to grow, and soil is not hardened, field manual work (including hoe up weeds, apply fertilizer, Xiu Qu, Ping Geng, disease management etc.) etc. greatly reduce, labor management quota also increase substantially.
(5) be conducive to utilizing salt-soda soil:Drip irrigation can make to form less salt area around crop root, be survived beneficial to seedling and crop Growth.
(6) there is stronger anti-disaster ability:Crop just obtains in good time, appropriate water and nutrient supply, all kinds of growths from transplanting Index is excellent, and resistance is strong.Beijing and Hebei Province, are in 1 year in growth of sweet potato early stage and transplanting time to root of hair seedling-slowing stage The rainfall less time, it can be increased by a relatively large margin using surface irrigation yield of sweet potato.
(7) increase production:Due to Scientific Regulation liquid manure, loosing soil, permeability is good, and often keeps moistening, plant growth bar Part is superior, and crop can generally increase production 15%~30%, low-yield land can increase production 50% with.
(8) Quality advance:Under-film drip irrigation has built better growing conditions, thus, not only yield is high, and quality better, Regularity is high, gloss appearance is good.
The content of the invention
In order to solve the above technical problems, the present invention provides a kind of sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivating and growing method, with saving water, resisting drought, High-yield and high-efficiency is target, using saving water, resisting drought equipment, changes irrigation method, by experimental study, improves water, utilization rate of fertilizer, It is final to realize that high-quality eats the integral high-yield high-efficiency cultivation technology mode of sweet potato liquid manure raw.
Technical solution of the present invention is as follows:
A kind of sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivating and growing method, its irrigation method is drip irrigation, and its irrigation program is:Made according to sweet potato Thing needs water habit and local many annual rainfall rules (annual rainfall >=400-500mm), keep a full stand of seedings by early stage moisture creating, the middle and later periods because moisture in the soil mend Water irrigation principle, total irrigation volume is the 1/3-2/3 of normal irrigation amount, and the normal irrigation amount is 60-70m3/ mu.
Under above-mentioned irrigation principle, drip-irrigation water amount can combine local soil moisture content and be adjusted.
Usually, total irrigation volume can be respectively 45,40,35,30,25,20m3/ mu.
Further, total irrigation volume is 25-40m3/ mu.
In an embodiment of the invention, with irrigation volume 25m3Exemplified by/mu water consumption, wherein (covered before ridging Film), root of hair seedling-slowing stage, the water consumption of branch knot three critical periods of potato be respectively 10m3/ mu, 7.5m3/ mu, 7.5m3/ mu.
Local normal irrigation amount (i.e. traditional total irrigation volume) is generally 60-70m3/ mu, the total irrigation volume of the inventive method is about For the 1/3-2/3 of local normal irrigation amount.
Further, the sweet potato is eats sweet potato raw, and specific kind includes business's potato 19, loses word 138 etc..
Further, the planting patterns:Single ridge single file:Row spacing 90cm, 3600 plants/acre of planting density, hull bottom type is transplanted.
Further, the above method also includes the special Water soluble fertilizer of drip irrigation (the special Water soluble fertilizer of such as sweet potato), described special water-soluble N, P, K weight content proportioning are 1.5 in fertilizer:1:2, using 1/2~2/3 that total amount is traditional NPK dose (for example 35-45 kgs/acre), based on early stage nitrogenous fertilizer, mid-term N P and K balance fertilizing, the principle fertilising based on later stage potash fertilizer.It is different Area is adjusted according to native result is surveyed.
Traditional fertilization amount generally applies 70 kgs/acre of NPK.
Further, the above method be particularly suitable for use in Hebei and Beijing (suburb of Beijing) area.
Sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivating and growing method of the present invention, also including seedling process, selection of land and site preparation, sowing, drip irrigation zone Laying, field management etc. are operated.
Specifically, above-mentioned sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivating and growing method, comprises the following steps:
1) seedling process:It is short between stem slubbing from hundred plant weights >=350g, there are 3-4 piece healthy leaves, height of seedling >=25cm Sweet potato sprout;
2) selection of land and site preparation:Deep ploughed 25-30 centimetres during site preparation, ridging accomplishes that row spacing is equal, ridge shape is fat, furrow is deeply narrow, General 80-90 centimetres of row spacing, ridge is high 20-30 centimetres;
3) plantation is transplanted:Hebei and suburb of Beijing typically started to transplant at the beginning of 5 months;
4) drip irrigation zone is laid:
Drip irrigation system design structure is:Water source (water in a canal), pressurization water lift equipment (water pump), stem device (including filter, Apply fertilizer facility etc.), main pipe, point main, thin-walled branch pipe, Three-way pipe with snap fastener, hollow billet (dropper band);
Drip irrigation pattern:For the row of one pipe of a film six, Planting Row Distance configuration 100cm, spacing in the rows is 20cm;
Pipe installing:Installed by dry, branch, hollow billet order, and pipeline is kept flat in tube seat, vacantly and must not be distorted Plastic tube, which must not be thrown, to be fallen, draw and is exposed to the sun, and the installation phase preferably concentrates;Plastic conduit is no less than 70cm with buried depth at intersection, And protection pipe should be added;
5) field management:
Weed out the rank grass:Envelope has weeds to want timely weeding such as field behind ridge, and should be tried one's best when weeding out the rank grass avoids to sweet potato leaves and stemses Damage, in order to avoid influence later stage photosynthetic efficiency raising;
Lifting up of vines is completely cured:In high temperature and rainy season, lift up of vines control cauline leaf excessive growth, dries ridge soil, improves soil permeability;
Prevent prosperous length:From 50~70 grams of the paclobutrazol of every mu of use 15% after envelope ridge, 50 kilograms of sprayings, general 2 are watered ~3 times, per the week of minor tick one;
Chase after and urge potato fertilizer:Impose potash fertilizer extension leaf age, moreover it is possible to improve Photosynthetic Efficiency, promote yield of sweet potato;General every mu of administration 10 kilograms of potassium sulfate, high potassium Water soluble fertilizer can be imposed with reference to drip irrigation;
Pest control:When growth of sweet potato mid-term occurs if any prodenia litura, leaf roller, palaearctic sweet potato, bridging worm etc., every mu Can be added water 50~60 kilograms of sprayings with 100 grams of 70 grams of 50% Phoxim emulsion or 25% dimehypo;Or 2.5% metrifonate powder, often 1.5~2 kilograms of preventing and treatings of dusting of mu;Every mu, with 800~1000 times of liquid foliar sprays of metrifonate emulsion, has preferable deinsectization to imitate Really.
Beneficial effect of the present invention:
The present invention is than local normal irrigation (total amount 60-70m3/ mu) every mu of reduction 30-40m3Irrigation quantity so that 0-20cm Soil layer maintain higher soil moisture content, field is substantially suitable with normal irrigation with respect to water-holding capacity, but water consumption considerably less than Normal irrigation.The inventive method sweet potato stem length, number, per mu yield and the commodity potato yield divided significantly are superior to normal irrigation.This hair Bright method economic benefit and water resource utilization efficiency are obtained for and significantly improved, and are made and widely popularize application.
Embodiment
Following examples are used to illustrate the present invention, but are not limited to the scope of the present invention.It is unreceipted specific in embodiment Technology or condition person, are carried out according to the technology or condition described by document in the art, or according to product description.It is used Reagent or the unreceipted production firm person of instrument, are the conventional products that can be commercially available by regular distributor.
Using saving water, resisting drought, high-yield and high-efficiency as target, using saving water, resisting drought equipment, change irrigation method, by experimental study, Water, utilization rate of fertilizer are improved, finally realizes that high-quality eats the integral high-yield high-efficiency cultivation technology mode of sweet potato liquid manure raw.
Experiment in 2015 is main based on water, is progressively extended to efficient fertilizer practice research, finally realizes water and fertilizer coupling one Body cultivation technique.Experimental study direction in 2015:1st, according to crop habit, rainfall rule, establishes irrigation program year by year.2nd, compare Compared with irrigation method, irrigation equipment is selected, 3, to be irrigated because of moisture in the soil as principle, drip irrigation irrigation tests are designed, high-efficient irrigation technology is proposed Parameter.
First, high-quality eats sweet potato irrigation method comparative test raw
1st, experimental design:Private village is stayed experimental field by test site selection Daxing Pang Gezhuang.Experiment sets drip irrigation and spray irrigation, routine 3 processing are irrigated, great Qu designs do not set repetition.
2nd, experiment kind and planting patterns:Business's potato 19, planting patterns:Single ridge single file:Row spacing 90cm, planting density 3600 Plant/acre, hull bottom type is transplanted.
3rd, dose:Fertigation total nutrient amount is about the half for compareing normal irrigation.According to the native result of survey, half base fertilizer Half is topdressed, and mu applies 22 kilograms of NPK base fertilizer:Nutrient formula is 20:5:20, impose Water soluble fertilizer.Sprinkling irrigation and normal irrigation Mu applies 80 kilograms of NPKs.
The experimental field soil nutrient content table of table 1
4th, water consumption:Drip irrigation:The water consumption of normal irrigation 1/3, the critical period is given birth in sweet potato:Ridging transplanting time, root of hair delays Seedling stage, the feedwater of branch knot potato phase drip irrigation.Sprinkling irrigation:The water consumption of normal irrigation 2/3, the same drip irrigation of watering period;Normal irrigation:Each key Need water period broad irrigation.
5th, result and analysis:
In 5.1 irrigation method comparative tests, the lower plant of drip irrigation effect has more increment relative to other two ways, It is embodied in stem length and branch quantity, and comparatively ideal leaf area index value and overground part fresh weight and underground is shown before harvest Portion's fresh weight ratio (T/R).
5.2 drip irrigations have higher water-saving result with sprinkling irrigation compared with dry farming, economize on water respectively 63.7%, 45.7%, yield sprinkling irrigation Under the conditions of 3585.2 kgs/acre of highest, but commodity potato yield drip irrigation amount of increase in production most notable 86.6% such as advised with 50 mu of plantations 3 years equivalent irrigation costs of mould validity period, drip irrigation economic benefit shows the level of signifiance simultaneously.
The high-quality of table 2 eats sweet potato irrigation method economical character comparison sheet raw
The high-quality of table 3 eats sweet potato irrigation method yield and economic characters comparison sheet raw
2nd, high-quality eats sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivation technique research raw
Experiment in 2015 is mainly started with based on water in terms of two:1st, irrigation program, 2, because moisture in the soil irrigate.
1st, design principle:
1.1 irrigation programs:According to sweet potato crop water habit and local many annual rainfall rules, summarize drip irrigation and irrigate system Degree --- early stage moisture creating is kept a full stand of seedings, the middle and later periods, total irrigation volume was traditional 1/3 because of moisture in the soil moisturizing irrigation principle.
1.2 rates of fertilizer:Total amount is the 1/2~2/3 of traditional fertilization amount, based on early stage nitrogenous fertilizer, mid-term N P and K Balance fertilizing, the fertilization principle based on later stage potash fertilizer.
2nd, testing site and varieties of plant:Miyun Grand Tutor collects:Lose word 138.Go in in a big way Pang Gezhuang:Business's potato 19
3rd, planting patterns:Single ridge single file:Row spacing 90cm, 3600 plants/acre of planting density, hull bottom type is transplanted.
4th, experimental design:
4.1 controls:Conventional process, normal irrigation, fertilizer whole base fertilizer.Time of infertility sprinkling irrigation 40~50 sides/mu or so.Apply Fertilizer is with reference to the consumption of medium soil fertility, Miyun:Mu applies 65 kilograms of NPK.Daxing:Mu applies 80 kilograms of NPK.
Influence of the 4.2 Different Irrigation amounts to yield of sweet potato:(Miyun Grand Tutor village)
Handle 1-6:The side of irrigation volume 40,35 sides, 30 sides, 25 sides, 20 sides, 15 side's water, irrigation volume is according to soil moisture content and goes through Year meteorological data considers, every time general 5-8 side/mu.Grasp in principle:Transplant to root of hair branch knot potato phase field capacity 60%~70% is advisable, and climing, potato is simultaneously long-term by 70%~80%, and potato wedge is contained long-term with 60%~70%.(referring to table 4)
Dose:Water soluble fertilizer consumption is converted into according to the pure nutrient content of soil measurement formula (referring to table 9)
Each irrigation in growing period lower limit tables of the drip irrigation of table 4
The experimental field soil nutrient content table of table 5
The high-quality of table 6 eats the different water consumption drip irrigation processing of sweet potato raw
Note:Base fertilizer is from conventional NPK, and nutrient formula is 15:10:17, amount of application is 19.4 kgs/acre.Chase after The Water soluble fertilizer that fertilizer is commonly used from the market, N, P, K proportioning high nitrogen fertilizer 30:10:10;Balance fertilizer 20:20:20;High potash fertilizer 17:9: 34。
Influence of the 4.3 Different Irrigation amount Different Irrigation periods to yield of sweet potato:(Daxing Pang Gezhuang).
For sweet potato primary growth stage, 1-2 province's water process is taken.Refer to table 10
5th, detection project:
5.1 soil basic shapes:5, soil basis
5.2 soil moistures:Before key developmental stages are poured water every time and after pouring water, soil sampling surveys 0~20cm, calculates sweet potato not With growthdevelopmental stage field capacity.
5.3 growth traits:Plant leaf area, individual plant branch amount, big-and-middle potato rate, above and below ground portion fresh weight, T/R values;Yield Benefit:Per mu yield, economic benefit.
The high-quality of table 7 eats the different water consumption drip irrigation processing of sweet potato different times raw
5th, result and analysis
5.1 high-quality eat the different water consumption drip irrigation processing test data analyzers of sweet potato raw
5.1.1 high-quality eats the different water consumption drip irrigation processing of sweet potato and the relation of economical character raw
Different water consumptions are taken to irrigate, closing season for irrigaton, respectively to handle field substantially suitable with normal irrigation with respect to water-holding capacity, But water consumption is considerably less than normal irrigation.The climing length of growth increment stem and branch amount are more than normal irrigation, big-and-middle potato during harvest 5 processing are higher than control in six processing of rate, and peak 92.3%, 4 small middle potato rates of processing are up to 75%.Overground part and underground Portion's fresh weight processing 4 tends to ideal value 1.2.
5.1.2 high-quality eats the different water consumption drip irrigation processing of sweet potato and yield and the relation of economic characters raw
Drip irrigation is cultivated, and yield of sweet potato processing 4, processing 1 exceed control, wherein 4 increase yield significantlies are handled, commodity potato yield and warp Ji benefit processing 4, the relatively control of processing 2 are significantly increased production or increased income, i.e., water consumption is maintained at 25m3/ mu, sweet potato per mu yield and economic effect Benefit relatively control is dramatically increased.
The high-quality of table 8 eats the different water consumption drip irrigation processing season for irrigaton fields of sweet potato raw with respect to water-holding capacity
The high-quality of table 9 eats the different water consumption drip irrigation processing Analysis of agronomic characters tables of sweet potato raw
The high-quality of table 10 eats the different water consumption drip irrigation processing Analysis of Yield tables of sweet potato raw
Note:Water consumption is defined according to actual used water amount between processing
5.2 high-quality eat the different water consumption drip irrigation processing test data analyzers of sweet potato different times raw
5.2.1 high-quality eats the different water consumption drip irrigation processing of sweet potato different times and the relation of economical character raw
The different water consumption drip irrigations of different times are taken to irrigate, each processing field is with respect to the basic phase of water-holding capacity and normal irrigation When, but water consumption is considerably less than normal irrigation.Stem length and the number processing 2 divided, processing 3 are superior to control.
5.2.2 high-quality eats the different water consumption drip irrigation processing of sweet potato different times and yield and the relation of economic benefit raw
Using 15~20m of irrigation volume3/ mu water consumption, water period is needed for sweet potato:Before ridging, root of hair seedling-slowing stage, branch knot Three critical periods of potato, take different water consumptions, data display:6 processing of per mu yield and commodity potato yield are all remarkably higher than control, With the side's water of mu irrigation volume 20, point the side's water of ridging overlay film 10, its big-and-middle potato rate of each 5 side water of root of hair seedling-slowing stage, branch knot potato and commodity Potato yield is dramatically increased compared with control.
The high-quality of table 11 eats the different water consumption drip irrigation processing season for irrigaton fields of sweet potato different times raw with respect to water-holding capacity
The high-quality of table 12 eats the different water consumption drip irrigation processing Analysis of agronomic characters tables of sweet potato different times raw
The high-quality of table 13 eats the different water consumption drip irrigation processing Analysis of Yield tables of sweet potato different times raw
3rd, the research of sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivation technique is discussed
1st, for cereal crops such as corns, there are discussion, dripping irrigation water the research forefathers of drip irrigation liquid manure integrated management measure more Fertile integration with significant water saving, saves fertilizer, saving of labor, raising as a comprehensive management technology measure of modern agricultural development The characteristics of crop yield and improving quality.
2nd, soil moisture and the relation of growth of sweet potato are extremely close, in soil moisture content below 10%, blade, cauline leaf growth By grievous injury.Especially influence of the early stage soil drought to tuber yield becomes apparent.There is irrigation conditions area to weigh It is that branch knot potato phase to cauline leaf contains long-term supplement soil moisture depending on early stage, relative moisture of the soil is reached 60%~70%, this is Obtain the key measures of Sweet Potato For High. yield Production.On this basis, with reference to nearly data of testing site rainfall in 10 years, summary and induction goes out sweet potato Sweet potato drip irrigation irrigation principle in experimental design.
3rd, under different confluent drip irrigation irrigation conditions, crop respectively handles water consumption considerably less than normal irrigation, but often Rule irrigate field capacity not considerably less than each processing, this with when annual rainfall is relevant more than former years, and sweet potato fertility early stage key Period is in the uncertain state of moisture.(Miyun testing site rainfall 508.8mm in 2015 goes in in a big way testing site 396.7mm, is more than Former years more than 20%), do not embody drip irrigation advantage preferably.
4 but experiment 1 processing 4 and experiment 2 respectively processing yield significantly beyond control.1-5 is handled with compareing business from experiment 1 Potato data comparative analysis is savored, especially medium and small potato rate data are also significantly higher than control, this explanation drip irrigation is supplied using pipe-line system Water, makes irrigation water into drop-wise, quantitatively slow, uniform, timing, infiltration crop root development region, makes the main root system area of crop Soil remain at more excellent saturation state, be conducive to each branch of sweet potato root can continual and steady development, so as to obtain Obtain preferable potato shape and weight.
5th, drip irrigation system utilizes piped water, and more other irrigation systems are more beneficial for realizing water-fertilizer integral, compared Irrigation quantity is saved, the utilization rate of water is improved;Fertilizer is saved, utilization rate of fertilizer is improved;Labour is saved, crop yield is improved.
6th, input cost of drip irrigation system is higher, is such as limited with 5 years, the basis of more than 50 mu large-scale plantings Last year economic benefit relatively compares significantly volume increase, while large-scale planting is more beneficial for do mechanization operation management, proposing by a larger margin High efficiency, saving labour cost.
4th, sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivation technique conclusion
1st, water habit is needed according to many annual rainfall data in testing site and growth of sweet potato, summary and induction goes out sweet potato water-saving irrigation water Irrigation program:Early stage moisture creating is kept a full stand of seedings, the middle and later periods, total irrigation volume was traditional 1/3~2/3 because of moisture in the soil moisturizing irrigation principle.
2nd, using drip irrigation irrigation method sweet potato planting, with mu irrigation volume:25 side's water, the side's water of ridging (overlay film) 10, root of hair delays Seedling stage, each 7.5 side water of branch knot potato, the later stage can irrigate because of moisture in the soil as the case may be, can relatively compare water saving 1/3-2/3 water consumptions,
3rd, big-and-middle potato rate (commodity potato rate) is significantly improved, and yield and commodity potato yield are dramatically increased compared with control, such as with 50 mu Scale is planted, and equipment was calculated with 5 years depreciable costs, and drip irrigation plantation economic benefit relatively compares notable.
Although above the present invention is described in detail with a general description of the specific embodiments, On the basis of the present invention, it can be made some modifications or improvements, this will be apparent to those skilled in the art.Cause This, these modifications or improvements, belong to the scope of protection of present invention without departing from theon the basis of the spirit of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivating and growing method, it is characterised in that irrigation method is drip irrigation, and irrigation program is:According to Sweet potato crop water habit and local many annual rainfall rules, keep a full stand of seedings by early stage moisture creating, the middle and later periods because of moisture in the soil moisturizing irrigation principle, it is total to fill The amount of irrigating is the 1/3-2/3 of normal irrigation amount, and the normal irrigation amount is 60-70m3/ mu.
2. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterised in that total irrigation volume is 25-40m3/ mu.
3. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterised in that total irrigation volume 25m3(overlay film) before/mu, wherein ridging, Root of hair seedling-slowing stage, the water consumption of branch knot three critical periods of potato are respectively 10m3/ mu, 7.5m3/ mu, 7.5m3/ mu.
4. the method according to claim any one of 1-3, it is characterised in that the sweet potato is to eat sweet potato, specific kind raw Including business's potato 19, lose word 138.
5. the method according to claim any one of 1-4, it is characterised in that the planting patterns:Single ridge single file, row spacing 90cm, 3600 plants/acre of planting density, hull bottom type is transplanted.
6. the method according to claim any one of 1-4, it is characterised in that also including the special Water soluble fertilizer of drip irrigation, described special It is 1.5 with N, P, K weight content proportioning in Water soluble fertilizer:1:2, it is 35-45 kgs/acre that the special Water soluble fertilizer, which applies total amount, is pressed Based on early stage nitrogenous fertilizer, mid-term N P and K balance fertilizing, the principle fertilising based on later stage potash fertilizer.
7. the method according to claim any one of 1-4, it is characterised in that plantation area is Hebei and Beijing area.
8. the method according to claim any one of 1-7, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
1) seedling process:It is short between stem slubbing from hundred plant weights >=350g, there are 3-4 piece healthy leaves, height of seedling >=25cm sweet potato Seedling;
2) selection of land and site preparation:Deep ploughed 25-30 centimetres during site preparation, ridging accomplishes that row spacing is equal, ridge shape is fat, furrow is deeply narrow, typically 80-90 centimetres of row spacing, ridge is high 20-30 centimetres;
3) plantation is transplanted:Hebei and suburb of Beijing typically started to transplant at the beginning of 5 months;
4) drip irrigation zone is laid:Wherein drip irrigation pattern is the row of one pipe of a film six, and Planting Row Distance configures 100cm, and spacing in the rows is 20cm;
5) field management:Weed out the rank grass;Lifting up of vines is completely cured;Prevent prosperous length:From envelope ridge after every mu of use 15% paclobutrazol 50~ 70 grams, it is watered 50 kilograms of sprayings, general 2~3 times, every week of minor tick one;Chase after and urge potato fertilizer:General every mu is applied potassium sulfate 10,000 Gram;Pest control.
CN201710123595.3A 2017-03-03 2017-03-03 A kind of sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivating and growing method Pending CN106941903A (en)

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Application publication date: 20170714