CN111631100A - Water-saving irrigation technology for early-maturing potatoes - Google Patents

Water-saving irrigation technology for early-maturing potatoes Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111631100A
CN111631100A CN202010419412.4A CN202010419412A CN111631100A CN 111631100 A CN111631100 A CN 111631100A CN 202010419412 A CN202010419412 A CN 202010419412A CN 111631100 A CN111631100 A CN 111631100A
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watering
per
water
early
plants
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CN111631100B (en
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樊建英
张淑青
相丛超
封志明
李东玉
贾明飞
麻永红
王海山
高燕
底翠
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Shijiazhuang Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences
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Shijiazhuang Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/25Root crops, e.g. potatoes, yams, beet or wasabi

Abstract

The invention discloses a water-saving irrigation technology for early-maturing potatoes, wherein the watering amount in the whole growth period is controlled to be 110m3Each mu of land is watered in sections, specifically 16.5m when 50% of seedlings emerge3Per mu; watering for 22m when 50% of plants bud3Per mu; watering 27.5m when the plant begins to bloom3Per mu; 50% of plants were watered at 27.5m when they bloomed3Per mu; watering at 16.5m when 50% of plants fall3Per mu; the reasonable and proper irrigation is carried out according to the growth characteristics and water demand conditions of the early-maturing potatoes in each period, the irrigation process is improved, the irrigation frequency is controlled, the irrigation water has the maximum utilization rate and meets the growing period, the acre yield of the early-maturing potatoes is not reduced under the normal condition of other management, and the water saving per mu can reach more than 30% compared with the common furrow irrigation watering.

Description

Water-saving irrigation technology for early-maturing potatoes
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of agricultural planting, in particular to a water-saving irrigation technology for early-maturing potatoes.
Background
Global agriculture in the twenty-first century faces two major challenges: the method has the advantages that the grain yield is required to be increased continuously to meet the increase of population, and the problem that water resources are reduced gradually is solved while the grain yield is increased continuously. The potato is favored and regarded by people in the world due to the characteristics of high yield, high efficiency, wide adaptability, full and rich nutrient components, long industrial chain and the like. In recent years, the potato planting area of China also tends to rise continuously, and is the country with the largest potato planting area in the world.
However, as the population grows, cities and towns and industry develop, global climate changes and environmental pollution worsen, water resources for crop irrigation become more and more deficient, and water-saving irrigation is highly regarded. The early-maturing potatoes have short growth period after seedling emergence, water resource waste is easily caused by improper watering, the growth potential of the potato seedlings is weak or overgrown, the yield is low, and the quality of the commercial potatoes is poor.
Therefore, it is important to know the watering period, the watering amount and the irrigation method for the early-maturing potatoes in order to obtain high-quality commercial potatoes, and how to provide a planting technology which can save water for irrigation and realize high yield of the potatoes due to the characteristics of the prior resources in the art is a problem to be solved by technical personnel in the field.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above, the invention provides a water-saving irrigation technology for early-maturing potatoes, which combines the characteristics of the potatoes in each growth period to control irrigation and achieves the purposes of water saving and high yield.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a water-saving irrigation technique for early-maturing potato features that the water quantity in whole growing period is controlled to 110m3Watering in sections per mu, which comprises the following steps:
and (3) seedling stage: watering is started when 50% of seedlings emerge, and the watering amount is 16.5m3Per mu;
in the bud stage: watering is started when 50 percent of the plants bud, and the watering amount is 22m3Per mu;
at the initial flowering stage: watering when the plants begin to bloom, wherein the watering amount is 27.5m3Per mu;
full-bloom stage: 50% of plants begin to be watered when they bloom, and the watering amount is 27.5m3Per mu;
and (3) a flowering period: watering is started when 50% of plants fall, and the watering amount is 16.5m3Per mu.
Further, watering in the seedling stage is specifically watering for the first time when 50% of seedlings emerge, wherein the watering amount is 8m3Watering for the second time at intervals of 5-7 days for 8.5m per mu3Per mu.
The beneficial effects of the further technical scheme are as follows: when the seedlings emerge to the pregnant buds and the 6 th or 8 th leaves are unfolded, the roots, stems and leaves are used as the center, the formation and the elongation of stolons and the differentiation of flower buds are accompanied, the foundation for forming strong seedlings lasts for about 10 to 15 days, and the water requirement of the period accounts for 10 to 15 percent of the whole growth period; preferably, the maximum water capacity of the field is kept about 60% in a soil layer of 40cm, and when the soil moisture is lower than 40%, the stem leaves grow badly.
Further, watering in the bud stage is carried out for the first time when 50% of buds of plants appear, wherein the watering amount is 10m3Watering for the second time at an interval of 7 days for 12m per mu3Per mu.
The beneficial effects of the further technical scheme are as follows: starting to form tubers from bud pregnancy to the beginning of flowering, enabling plants to enter vegetative growth and reproductive growth and enter the stage, turning from overground stem and leaf growth to overground stem and leaf growth and underground tuber formation to be carried out simultaneously, determining the key period of potato bearing for about 15-20 days; the water consumption in the tuber forming period accounts for 20-23% of the whole growth period in the period; the soil layer of 60cm is preferably kept with the water capacity of about 75 percent of the field water capacity, so that the stem and leaf are promoted to grow vigorously and tuber in advance; the signs of severe water shortage in this stage are early bud abscission, slow plant growth, dark green leaf color, thickened leaves, etc.
Further, the watering in the initial flowering stage is specifically the first watering when the plants start to flower, and the watering amount is 9m3Watering for the second time at intervals of 5 days for 9m per mu3Watering for the third time at intervals of 3-5 days for each mu, wherein the watering amount is 9.5m3Per mu.
The beneficial effects of the further technical scheme are as follows: the tubers begin to expand at this stage, which is the key stage for determining the potato rate of the tubers; tubers begin to expand, and the water consumption accounts for about 25 percent of the whole growth period; the soil layer of 60cm is preferably kept with 80-85% of the field water capacity, the stem and leaf of the overground part grow rapidly, the water demand is large, and the yield is reduced due to water shortage.
Further, watering in the full-bloom stage is specifically to water for the first time when 50% of plants bloom, wherein the watering amount is 13.5m3Watering for the second time at intervals of 3-5 days for each mu, wherein the watering amount is 13m3Per mu.
The beneficial effects of the further technical scheme are as follows: the period is the period of the highest vigorous growth of overground stem leaves, and is also the period taking the growth of the volume and the weight of tubers as the center, the expansion speed of the tubers is very high, the tubers are the most important period for determining the rate and the yield of the large potatoes, and the water consumption accounts for more than 25 percent of the whole growth period; the soil layer of 60cm is preferably kept with 80-85% of the field water capacity, the stem and leaf growth of the overground part reaches the peak, the water demand is large, and the yield is greatly reduced due to water shortage.
Further, watering in the flowering period is specifically to carry out first watering when 50% of plants fall, wherein the watering amount is 9m3Watering for the second time at intervals of 5-7 days for 7.5m per mu3Per mu.
The beneficial effects of the further technical scheme are as follows: when the flowering and fructification is nearly finished in the period of blooming, the growth of the stem leaves gradually slows down or stops, the lower leaves of the plants begin to age, turn yellow and wither, and enter a starch accumulation period, the nutrients stored in the stem leaves on the ground are continuously conveyed into the tubers, the volume of the tubers is basically not increased any more, but the weight of the tubers is continuously increased. Mainly accumulation of starch; in the tuber starch accumulation period, excessive water is not needed, and the water consumption accounts for 10 to 15 percent of the total growth period; the water holding capacity of the field is preferably kept about 60% in a 60cm soil layer, so that seedling rot caused by overlarge soil humidity is prevented, potato peel aging is not facilitated, and the potato peel is easy to damage during transportation.
Preferably, the irrigation is drip irrigation, and a drip irrigation technology under a film is adopted.
The beneficial effects of the preferred technical scheme are as follows: drip irrigation under the membrane to avoid the loss caused by excessive evaporation of water, and ensure that the irrigation water has the maximum utilization rate.
Through the technical scheme, compared with the prior art, the invention provides the water-saving irrigation technology for the early-maturing potatoes, reasonable and appropriate irrigation is carried out according to the growth characteristics and the water demand condition of the early-maturing potatoes in each period, the irrigation technology is improved, the irrigation frequency is controlled, the irrigation water has the maximum utilization rate and meets the growing period, the acre yield of the early-maturing potatoes is not reduced under the normal condition of other management, and the water saving per mu can be more than 30% compared with the common furrow irrigation watering.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings used in the description of the embodiments or the prior art will be briefly described below, it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only embodiments of the present invention, and for those skilled in the art, other drawings can be obtained according to the provided drawings without creative efforts.
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram showing the effect of water amount on potato yield-related traits in example 1 of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
The test is carried out in a test base of agricultural and forestry science research institutes in Shijiazhuang city in Zhao county in 2019 in 3-7 months, the soil moisture content is consistent before potato sowing, and the conditions of field fertilization and pest control are not different.
The experiment was set up with a total of 6 moisture treatments (table 1), a one-factor randomized block design, 3 replicates. Ditch irrigation is adopted as a contrast, drip irrigation is adopted for other treatment, and the water filling amount is measured by a water meter. Sowing in 13 months in 3, planting in two ridges, wherein the row spacing is 110cm, the row spacing is 20cm, the plant spacing is 25cm, and the density is 4300 plants/mu. 3 rows of cells, 63m row length, cell area 210.7m2
TABLE 1 irrigation quantity test design Table (m)3Mu/mu)
Treatment of Seedling stage Bud stage Early flowering stage Full bloom stage Late flowering phase Amount of irrigation
CK ditch irrigation 1/2 groove 2/3 groove 3/4 groove 3/4 groove 1/2 groove Water meter (170.3)
1 7.5 10 12.5 12.5 7.5 50
2 12 16 20 20 12 80
3 16.5 22 27.5 27.5 16.5 110
4 21 28 35 35 21 140
5 25.5 34 42.5 42.5 25.5 170
(remark: CK ditch irrigation water quantity statistics, irrigation water quantity is 170.3m3Mu/mu)
Field management: ditching, sowing, fertilizing, drip irrigation belt laying, ridging and film covering are completed by using a potato seeder at one time. The fertilizing amount is unified; 100kg of compound fertilizer (high potassium) is applied to each mu as base fertilizer for one-time application. Intertilling and earthing up once. Applying 8kg of excellent crown gold potassium along each mu of water in the seedling stage (4 months and 22 days); applying 5kg of water-soluble fertilizer along with each mu of water in the bud period (5 months and 6 days); 5kg of water-soluble fertilizer is applied to each mu in the full-bloom stage (5 months and 22 days). Disease prevention is carried out in 5 months and 15 days, and benziothiazolinone and Baifa are in hundred; and in 24 days after 5 months, the pesticide can be used for preventing and treating plant diseases and insect pests, namely benziothiazolinone, thiacloprid a kind of cicada mentioned in ancient books, beta-cypermethrin, imixian ethylicin and potassium dihydrogen phosphate.
The influence of different water amounts on the shape of the potato yield is shown in the attached figure 1, and the total yield is shown in the figure 1: the yields of treatment 2 and treatment 4 were 3409.9 kg/mu and 3243.2 kg/mu, respectively, which were significantly lower than the yield of CK of 4092.2 kg/mu. Treatment 1 yield was 3716.6 kg/acre, significantly lower than CK, but significantly higher than treatments 2 and 4. The yields of the treatment 3 and the treatment 5 are 4034.8 kg/mu and 4099.3 kg/mu respectively, are not different from CK, are obviously higher than other treatments, and save water by 35.4 percent and 0.2 percent respectively compared with CK.
And (3) in the aspect of the yield of the commercial potatoes: the commercial potato yields of treatment 1 and treatment 2 were 3210.7 kg/mu and 3212.8 kg/mu, respectively, which were both lower than CK, but the difference was not significant. The commercial potato yields of treatment 3 and treatment 5 were 3726.7kg/667m2And 3732.4 kg/acre, ranked 2 nd and 1 st, was not different from CK, significantly higher than other treatments. The yield of the commercial potatoes in the treatment 4 is 2962.7 kg/mu, which is obviously lower than that of each other treatment.
The commercial potato rate is as follows: the highest rate of the commercial potatoes in the treatment 2 is 94.4 percent; treatment 3 was then 92.4%. CK with the lowest commodity potato rate is 86.2%; the next is treatment 1 at 86.4%. The commercial potato yields were moderate for treatments 4 and 5, 91.4% and 91.1%, respectively.
And (4) conclusion: the water is saved by 35.4% compared with the control in the treatment 3, the yield is not different from the control, and the commodity potato rate is 6.2% higher than the control. Comprehensively evaluating the aspects of water saving, yield and potato commodity rate to process 3 irrigation quantity of 110m3The optimum choice is per mu.
The embodiments in the present description are described in a progressive manner, each embodiment focuses on differences from other embodiments, and the same and similar parts among the embodiments are referred to each other.
The previous description of the disclosed embodiments is provided to enable any person skilled in the art to make or use the present invention. Various modifications to these embodiments will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and the generic principles defined herein may be applied to other embodiments without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention. Thus, the present invention is not intended to be limited to the embodiments shown herein but is to be accorded the widest scope consistent with the principles and novel features disclosed herein.

Claims (7)

1. A water-saving irrigation technique for early-maturing potato features that the water quantity in whole growing period is controlled to 110m3Watering in sections per mu, which comprises the following steps:
and (3) seedling stage: watering is started when 50% of seedlings emerge, and the watering amount is 16.5m3Per mu;
in the bud stage: watering is started when 50 percent of the plants bud, and the watering amount is 22m3Per mu;
at the initial flowering stage: watering when the plants begin to bloom, wherein the watering amount is 27.5m3Per mu;
full-bloom stage: 50% of plants begin to be watered when they bloom, and the watering amount is 27.5m3Per mu;
and (3) a flowering period: watering is started when 50% of plants fall, and the watering amount is 16.5m3Per mu.
2. The water-saving irrigation technology for early-maturing potatoes as claimed in claim 1, wherein the watering in the seedling stage is seedling emergenceWatering for the first time at 50% with water amount of 8m3Watering for the second time at intervals of 5-7 days for 8.5m per mu3Per mu.
3. The water-saving irrigation technique for precocious potatoes as claimed in claim 1, wherein the watering in bud stage is carried out for the first time when 50% of the plants have buds, and the watering amount is 10m3Watering for the second time at an interval of 7 days for 12m per mu3Per mu.
4. The water-saving irrigation technique for early-maturing potatoes as claimed in claim 1, wherein the watering in the initial stage is performed for the first time when the plants start to bloom, and the watering amount is 9m3Watering for the second time at intervals of 5 days for 9m per mu3Watering for the third time at intervals of 3-5 days for each mu, wherein the watering amount is 9.5m3Per mu.
5. The water-saving irrigation technique for early-maturing potatoes as claimed in claim 1, wherein the watering in full-bloom stage is the first watering when 50% of plants bloom, and the watering amount is 13.5m3Watering for the second time at intervals of 3-5 days for each mu, wherein the watering amount is 13m3Per mu.
6. The water-saving irrigation technique for early-maturing potatoes as claimed in claim 1, wherein the watering in the flowering stage is the first watering when 50% of plants fall, and the watering amount is 9m3Watering for the second time at intervals of 5-7 days for 7.5m per mu3Per mu.
7. The water-saving irrigation technology for the early-maturing potatoes as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the irrigation is drip irrigation and a sub-film drip irrigation technology is adopted.
CN202010419412.4A 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 Water-saving irrigation technology for early-maturing potatoes Active CN111631100B (en)

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Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040200363A1 (en) * 2003-04-08 2004-10-14 Andersen Brian L. Potato drip irrigation system and method
CN104521464A (en) * 2014-11-19 2015-04-22 大禹节水(天津)有限公司 Potato drip irrigation planting method
CN106941903A (en) * 2017-03-03 2017-07-14 北京市农业技术推广站 A kind of sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivating and growing method

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040200363A1 (en) * 2003-04-08 2004-10-14 Andersen Brian L. Potato drip irrigation system and method
CN104521464A (en) * 2014-11-19 2015-04-22 大禹节水(天津)有限公司 Potato drip irrigation planting method
CN106941903A (en) * 2017-03-03 2017-07-14 北京市农业技术推广站 A kind of sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivating and growing method

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
刘先芬等: "呼和浩特市马铃薯膜下滴灌栽培技术", 《内蒙古农业科技》 *
沈宝云等: "滴灌条件下不同基追肥比例对马铃薯生长发育、产量及经济效益的影响", 《中国马铃薯》 *

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