CN105409553A - Underground dip irrigation and water and fertilizer integration planting method for potatoes - Google Patents

Underground dip irrigation and water and fertilizer integration planting method for potatoes Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105409553A
CN105409553A CN201510881177.1A CN201510881177A CN105409553A CN 105409553 A CN105409553 A CN 105409553A CN 201510881177 A CN201510881177 A CN 201510881177A CN 105409553 A CN105409553 A CN 105409553A
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Prior art keywords
fertilizer
water
potato
time
soil
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CN201510881177.1A
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Inventor
韩昕君
战国隆
牛少卿
赵丽娜
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Dayu Water Saving Tianjin Co Ltd
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Dayu Water Saving Tianjin Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201510881177.1A priority Critical patent/CN105409553A/en
Publication of CN105409553A publication Critical patent/CN105409553A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C23/00Distributing devices specially adapted for liquid manure or other fertilising liquid, including ammonia, e.g. transport tanks, sprinkling wagons
    • A01C23/04Distributing under pressure; Distributing mud; Adaptation of watering systems for fertilising-liquids
    • A01C23/042Adding fertiliser to watering systems
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The present invention provides an underground dip irrigation and water and fertilizer integration planting method for potatoes. The method comprises the following steps: (1) seed selection and seed treatment; (2) land selection and soil preparation; (3) seeding; (4) pavement of drip irrigation belts; (5) field management; and (6) water and fertilizer integration. Application of the method in planting of the potatoes has proved that the per unit area yield of potatoes can be greatly improved, the per mu yield is increased to 5000 jin/mu from 2000 jin/mu, meanwhile the amounts of the water, the fertilizer and the pesticide are saved by 40-50%, and a large number of manual work is also saved, so that potato numbers of each potato plant and the net weight of each potato are effectively increased, and the comprehensive cost of the potatoes is lowered. The method is good in water and energy conservation effect, and has remarkable economic benefits.

Description

The underground drip irrigation water-fertilizer integral implantation methods of potato
Technical field
The invention belongs to fertigation method field, especially relate to the underground drip irrigation water-fertilizer integral implantation methods of a kind of potato.
Background technology
Potato is a kind of high-yield crop, and fertilizer requirement is comparatively large, and applying fertilizers scientifically is the key obtaining High Yield Potato stable yields.According to the regulation of fertilizer requirement of potato, determine rational fertilizing method, clearly suitable uses fertile ratio, could realize potato high-quality, high yield, obtain maximum economic benefit.So how to design the problem that a kind of rational potato fertilization method becomes those skilled in the art's research.
Summary of the invention
In view of this, the present invention is intended to propose a kind of raising output, saves the underground drip irrigation water-fertilizer integral implantation methods of the potato of fertilizer.
For achieving the above object, technical scheme of the present invention is achieved in that
A underground drip irrigation water-fertilizer integral implantation methods for potato, comprises the steps:
(1) seed selection and seed treatment
Select the detoxification kind of high yield improved seeds, the potato seed selected is placed on the indoor with scattered light condition, 12-15 DEG C of vernalization, stripping and slicing sowing is carried out as the long 1-1.5cm of bud, carry out disinfection with the alcohol of 75% or 0.5% potassium permanganate disinfection solution during potato seed stripping and slicing, ensure that each potato block has 1-2 eye, potato block weight is not less than 30g;
(2) selection of land and whole
Select that physical features is smooth, soil layer is deep, the soil is porous, permeability is good, the content of organic matter is enriched, facilitate near water source, irrigation and drainage and be conducive to faintly acid light loam or the sand soil of mechanical work, whole ground tilling depth 30-35cm, turn over rear fertilising to rake, accomplish Horizon, soil is thin, excess in the upper and deficiency in the lower, loose soil moisture conservation, ridge height 20cm;
(3) sow
The line-spacing of drip irrigation plantation adopts large and small row cropping pattern, and wide row space is 0.7 meter, and little line-spacing is 0.4-0.5 rice.
(4) irrigate band is laid
Irrigate band is embedded in little interline, the spacing of irrigate band is 1.1-1.2 rice, to hilly country drip irrigation below the surface engineering, the shallow embedding degree of depth is 5-10cm, can select irrigate band type according to the character of soil, flow is at about 1.38L--3L, and the one-sided length in irrigate band is 60-100 meters, for guaranteeing irrigation uniformity, hydraulic pressure must at 40-100kpa;
(5) field management
Look into seedling after seedling all sprouts in time to fill the gaps with seedlings, 3 intertillages are carried out in whole breeding time, cultivation and banking time first time is at height of seedling 6cm, this phase sobole is not yet formed, can rationally deeply uproot, second time cultivation and banking is carried out after 10 days, third time carried out in conjunction with ridging in squaring period, reasonable shallow plowing, in order to avoid hinder stolon, and in conjunction with cultivation uproot, pull out disease plant, cultivation and banking is carried out when watering, not on hollow billet under earth culture to film, potato only executes a base manure whole breeding time, when fertilization mode is rotary tillage, base is executed, tuber expansion period sprays foliage fertilizer again, and note the control to potato virus disease.
(6) water-fertilizer integral
Drip-irrigation water will reach substantially: profit, wet, saturating, guarantor, and implement drip irrigation according to potato ground soil moisture content, soil moisture content is less than namely irrigating of field capacity 60%, and it is saturated that soil moisture content reaches field capacity 85% i.e. drip irrigation; And according to potato growth situation, in conjunction with weather rain fall, monthly basic irrigation 4-5 time, each drip irrigation water yield 6-8m 3/ mu.
Internally-inlaid or column type irrigate band are selected in described irrigate band.
Irrigate band, when mechanical plastic film mulch plantation, is together completed laying by described irrigate band.
The nitrogen phosphoris and potassium fertilizer ratio of described base manure is the composite fertilizer 1500kg/hm of 15:10:20 2with potassium sulfate 600kg/hm 2.
Seedling Stage needs fertile less, and account for that the time of infertility needs fertile total amount about 25%, now Spraying nitrogen can Quick seedling, and strong sprout is urged on envelope ridge in time, has positive role to suppression weeds, opposing disease; Tuber character is at most fertile to stem tuber rise period need, accounts for more than 50% of the fertile total amount of need in the time of infertility; The starch accumulation phase needs fertilizer to reduce again, accounts for about 25% of the fertile total amount of need in the time of infertility.
Good in soil fertility, under the condition of base fertilizer abundance, generally do not need to topdress; But have topdress if desired, can topdress in 6 leaf phases, topdress too early, do not have the effect of topdressing, late effect of increasing production of topdressing is poor, and even remaining green when it is due to become yellow and ripe excessive growth, causes the underproduction.
10% of nitrogenous fertilizer was used in seedling stage, and 80% uses buddingging to full-bloom stage gradation, and 10% spends use latter stage in Sheng; Phosphate fertilizer is all used as seed manure; Potash fertilizer graded is used, and compared with the nitrogen application time, moves suitably.Take the fertilizer that water-fertilizer integral mode is used, dissolubility will be got well, and avoids and uses chloride fertilizer variety.
Impose chemical fertilizer and first will water clear water 1 hours, start to topdress after ground moistening.
The chemical fertilizer putting fertilizer spreading tank does not exceed 2/3rds of fertilizer spreading tank volume, and will pay close attention to the dissolving of chemical fertilizer, and 0.07 hectare imposes 15-20 kilogram of chemical fertilizer and is no more than 2 hours.
1 hour clear water is watered again after fertilising terminates.
Relative to prior art, the underground drip irrigation water-fertilizer integral implantation methods of potato of the present invention and method have following advantage:
The application attestation of the present invention on potato planting, potato per unit area yield can be increased substantially, potato per mu yield is increased to about 5000 pounds/acre by original 2000 pounds/acre, simultaneously can also will save water, fertilizer, agricultural chemicals up to 40% ~ 50% and a large amount of artificial, effectively improve the extension quantum count of potato every plant, and single nt wt net weight, make the integrated cost of potato significantly be declined to become reality; Effect of saving water and energy is all good, remarkable in economical benefits.
Embodiment
It should be noted that, when not conflicting, the embodiment in the present invention and the feature in embodiment can combine mutually.
The present invention is described in detail below in conjunction with embodiment.
A underground drip irrigation water-fertilizer integral implantation methods for Guangxi potato, comprises the steps:
(1) seed selection and seed treatment
Select the detoxification kind of high yield improved seeds, the potato seed selected is placed on the indoor with scattered light condition, 12-15 DEG C of vernalization, stripping and slicing sowing is carried out as the long 1-1.5cm of bud, carry out disinfection with the alcohol of 75% or 0.5% potassium permanganate disinfection solution during potato seed stripping and slicing, ensure that each potato block has 1-2 eye, potato block weight is not less than 30g.
(2) selection of land and whole
Select that physical features is smooth, soil layer is deep, the soil is porous, permeability is good, the content of organic matter is enriched, facilitate near water source, irrigation and drainage and be conducive to faintly acid light loam or the sand soil of mechanical work, whole ground tilling depth 30-35cm, turn over rear fertilising to rake, accomplish Horizon, soil is thin, excess in the upper and deficiency in the lower, loose soil moisture conservation, ridge height 20cm.
(3) sow
The line-spacing of drip irrigation plantation adopts large and small row cropping pattern, and wide row space is 0.7 meter, and little line-spacing is 0.4-0.5 meter.
(4) irrigate band is laid
Drip irrigation pipe (band) is embedded in little interline, the spacing of drip irrigation pipe (band) is 1.1-1.2 meters, to hilly country drip irrigation below the surface engineering, irrigate band is generally selected as internally-inlaid, column type drip irrigation pipe (band), and the shallow embedding degree of depth is 5-10cm, can select irrigate band type according to the character of soil, flow is at about 1.38L--3L, the one-sided length in irrigate band is 60-100 meters, and for guaranteeing irrigation uniformity, hydraulic pressure must at 40-100kpa.When mechanical plastic film mulch plantation, irrigate band is together completed laying.
(5) field management
Look into seedling after seedling all sprouts in time to fill the gaps with seedlings, 3 intertillages are carried out in whole breeding time, cultivation and banking time first time is at height of seedling 6cm, this phase sobole is not yet formed, can rationally deeply uproot, second time cultivation and banking is carried out after 10 days, third time carried out in conjunction with ridging in squaring period, reasonable shallow plowing, in order to avoid hinder stolon, and in conjunction with cultivation uproot, pull out disease plant, carry out cultivation and banking when watering, not on hollow billet under earth culture to film, potato only executes a base manure whole breeding time, and (nitrogen phosphoris and potassium fertilizer ratio is the composite fertilizer 1500kg/hm of 15:10:20 2with potassium sulfate 600kg/hm 2), when fertilization mode is rotary tillage, base is executed, and tuber expansion period sprays foliage fertilizer again, and notes the control to potato virus disease.
(6) water-fertilizer integral
8, the water-fertilizer integral planting technology of potato according to any one of claim 1-7, its water-fertilizer integral is characterised in that:
Drip-irrigation water will reach substantially: profit, wet, saturating, guarantor, implement drip irrigation according to potato ground soil moisture content, soil moisture content is less than namely irrigating of field capacity 60%, and it is saturated that soil moisture content reaches field capacity 85% i.e. drip irrigation.And according to potato growth situation, in conjunction with weather rain fall, monthly basic irrigation 4-5 time, each drip irrigation water yield 6-8m 3/ mu.
Seedling Stage needs fertile less, and account for that the time of infertility needs fertile total amount about 25%, now Spraying nitrogen can Quick seedling, and strong sprout is urged on envelope ridge in time, has positive role to suppression weeds, opposing disease; Tuber character is at most fertile to stem tuber rise period need, accounts for more than 50% of the fertile total amount of need in the time of infertility; The starch accumulation phase needs fertilizer to reduce again, accounts for about 25% of the fertile total amount of need in the time of infertility.Good in soil fertility, under the condition of base fertilizer abundance, generally do not need to topdress.But have topdress if desired, can topdress in 6 leaf phases, topdress too early, do not have the effect of topdressing, late effect of increasing production of topdressing is poor, and even remaining green when it is due to become yellow and ripe excessive growth, causes the underproduction.
Adopt the plot of drip irrigation technique, 10% of nitrogenous fertilizer was used in seedling stage, and 80% uses buddingging to full-bloom stage gradation, and 10% spends use latter stage in Sheng; Phosphate fertilizer is all used as seed manure; Potash fertilizer graded is used, and compared with the nitrogen application time, moves suitably.Take the fertilizer that water-fertilizer integral mode is used, dissolubility will be got well, and avoids and uses chloride fertilizer variety.
Impose chemical fertilizer and first will water clear water 1 hours, start to topdress after ground moistening.(chemical fertilizer putting fertilizer spreading tank does not exceed 2/3rds of fertilizer spreading tank volume, and will pay close attention to the dissolving of chemical fertilizer) general mu imposes 15-20 kilogram of chemical fertilizer and is no more than 2 hours.1 hour clear water is watered again after fertilising terminates.
The foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present invention, not in order to limit the present invention, within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any amendment done, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a underground drip irrigation water-fertilizer integral implantation methods for potato, is characterized in that: comprise the steps:
(1) seed selection and seed treatment
Select the detoxification kind of high yield improved seeds, the potato seed selected is placed on the indoor with scattered light condition, 12-15 DEG C of vernalization, stripping and slicing sowing is carried out as the long 1-1.5cm of bud, carry out disinfection with the alcohol of 75% or 0.5% potassium permanganate disinfection solution during potato seed stripping and slicing, ensure that each potato block has 1-2 eye, potato block weight is not less than 30g;
(2) selection of land and whole
Select that physical features is smooth, soil layer is deep, the soil is porous, permeability is good, the content of organic matter is enriched, facilitate near water source, irrigation and drainage and be conducive to faintly acid light loam or the sand soil of mechanical work, whole ground tilling depth 30-35cm, turn over rear fertilising to rake, accomplish Horizon, soil is thin, excess in the upper and deficiency in the lower, loose soil moisture conservation, ridge height 20cm;
(3) sow
The line-spacing of drip irrigation plantation adopts large and small row cropping pattern, and wide row space is 0.7 meter, and little line-spacing is 0.4-0.5 rice.
(4) irrigate band is laid
Irrigate band is embedded in little interline, the spacing of irrigate band is 1.1-1.2 rice, to hilly country drip irrigation below the surface engineering, the shallow embedding degree of depth is 5-10cm, can select irrigate band type according to the character of soil, flow is at about 1.38L--3L, and the one-sided length in irrigate band is 60-100 meters, for guaranteeing irrigation uniformity, hydraulic pressure must at 40-100kpa;
(5) field management
Look into seedling after seedling all sprouts in time to fill the gaps with seedlings, 3 intertillages are carried out in whole breeding time, cultivation and banking time first time is at height of seedling 6cm, this phase sobole is not yet formed, can rationally deeply uproot, second time cultivation and banking is carried out after 10 days, third time carried out in conjunction with ridging in squaring period, reasonable shallow plowing, in order to avoid hinder stolon, and in conjunction with cultivation uproot, pull out disease plant, cultivation and banking is carried out when watering, not on hollow billet under earth culture to film, potato only executes a base manure whole breeding time, when fertilization mode is rotary tillage, base is executed, tuber expansion period sprays foliage fertilizer again, and note the control to potato virus disease.
(6) water-fertilizer integral
Drip-irrigation water will reach substantially: profit, wet, saturating, guarantor, and implement drip irrigation according to potato ground soil moisture content, soil moisture content is less than namely irrigating of field capacity 60%, and it is saturated that soil moisture content reaches field capacity 85% i.e. drip irrigation; And according to potato growth situation, in conjunction with weather rain fall, monthly basic irrigation 4-5 time, each drip irrigation water yield 6-8m 3/ mu.
2. the water-fertilizer integral implantation methods of potato according to claim 1, is characterized in that: internally-inlaid or column type irrigate band are selected in described irrigate band.
3. the water-fertilizer integral implantation methods of potato according to claim 1, is characterized in that: irrigate band, when mechanical plastic film mulch plantation, is together completed laying by described irrigate band.
4. the water-fertilizer integral implantation methods of potato according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the nitrogen phosphoris and potassium fertilizer ratio of described base manure is the composite fertilizer 1500kg/hm of 15:10:20 2with potassium sulfate 600kg/hm 2.
5. the water-fertilizer integral implantation methods of potato according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: Seedling Stage needs fertile less, account for that the time of infertility needs fertile total amount about 25%, now Spraying nitrogen can Quick seedling, strong sprout is urged on timely envelope ridge, has positive role to suppression weeds, opposing disease; Tuber character is at most fertile to stem tuber rise period need, accounts for more than 50% of the fertile total amount of need in the time of infertility; The starch accumulation phase needs fertilizer to reduce again, accounts for about 25% of the fertile total amount of need in the time of infertility.
6. the water-fertilizer integral implantation methods of potato according to claim 5, is characterized in that: good in soil fertility, under the condition of base fertilizer abundance, does not generally need to topdress; But have topdress if desired, can topdress in 6 leaf phases, topdress too early, do not have the effect of topdressing, late effect of increasing production of topdressing is poor, and even remaining green when it is due to become yellow and ripe excessive growth, causes the underproduction.
7. the water-fertilizer integral implantation methods of potato according to claim 1, is characterized in that: 10% of nitrogenous fertilizer was used in seedling stage, and 80% uses buddingging to full-bloom stage gradation, and 10% spends use latter stage in Sheng; Phosphate fertilizer is all used as seed manure; Potash fertilizer graded is used, and compared with the nitrogen application time, moves suitably.Take the fertilizer that water-fertilizer integral mode is used, dissolubility will be got well, and avoids and uses chloride fertilizer variety.
8. the water-fertilizer integral implantation methods of potato according to claim 1, is characterized in that: impose chemical fertilizer and first will water clear water 1 hours, start to topdress after ground moistening.
9. the water-fertilizer integral implantation methods of potato according to claim 8, it is characterized in that: the chemical fertilizer putting fertilizer spreading tank does not exceed 2/3rds of fertilizer spreading tank volume, and will pay close attention to the dissolving of chemical fertilizer, 0.07 hectare imposes 15-20 kilogram of chemical fertilizer and is no more than 2 hours.
10. the water-fertilizer integral implantation methods of potato according to any one of claim 1-8, is characterized in that: water 1 hour clear water again after fertilising terminates.
CN201510881177.1A 2015-12-03 2015-12-03 Underground dip irrigation and water and fertilizer integration planting method for potatoes Pending CN105409553A (en)

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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106233967A (en) * 2016-08-01 2016-12-21 云南旭博农业科技有限公司 A kind of potato planting method
CN106233949A (en) * 2016-05-06 2016-12-21 石河子大学 A kind of alfalfa drip irrigation high yield cultivating method
CN106233961A (en) * 2016-07-26 2016-12-21 大禹节水(天津)有限公司 A kind of Citrullus vulgaris under-film drip irrigation water-saving planting method
CN106561196A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-04-19 安徽丰絮农业科技股份有限公司 Method of integration of water and fertilizer of potato greenhouse
CN107211681A (en) * 2017-05-27 2017-09-29 云南省农业科学院经济作物研究所 A kind of low efficient winter-planting potato water-fertilizer integral implantation methods
CN107223435A (en) * 2017-06-29 2017-10-03 江西省红壤研究所 A kind of Upland Red Soil corn water-fertilizer integral implantation methods
CN107950330A (en) * 2017-11-13 2018-04-24 中国农业大学 A kind of cold area potato drip irrigation economize efficient cultivation method
CN108184566A (en) * 2017-12-29 2018-06-22 芜湖飞高农业有限公司 A kind of water-fertilizer integral pepper planting method
CN108271643A (en) * 2018-01-24 2018-07-13 广西壮族自治区农业科学院 A kind of water-fertilizer-pesticide integrated cultivation method improving Winter potato disease resistance
CN108782084A (en) * 2018-06-25 2018-11-13 甘肃农业大学 Potato under-film drip irrigation implantation methods and potato
CN108990742A (en) * 2018-10-09 2018-12-14 山西省农业科学院农业资源与经济研究所 A kind of potato covering cultivation method
CN109429960A (en) * 2018-10-22 2019-03-08 青海省农林科学院 A kind of potato production integrated drop irrigation cultural method
CN109804876A (en) * 2019-03-19 2019-05-28 云南省农业科学院经济作物研究所 A kind of big spring sowing potato postponing nitrogen health care yield-increasing cultivation method
CN111869391A (en) * 2020-08-24 2020-11-03 内蒙古农业大学 Phosphate fertilizer decrement and synergy application method for chestnut calcium soil drip irrigation potato space-time regulation

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106233949A (en) * 2016-05-06 2016-12-21 石河子大学 A kind of alfalfa drip irrigation high yield cultivating method
CN106233961A (en) * 2016-07-26 2016-12-21 大禹节水(天津)有限公司 A kind of Citrullus vulgaris under-film drip irrigation water-saving planting method
CN106233967A (en) * 2016-08-01 2016-12-21 云南旭博农业科技有限公司 A kind of potato planting method
CN106561196A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-04-19 安徽丰絮农业科技股份有限公司 Method of integration of water and fertilizer of potato greenhouse
CN107211681A (en) * 2017-05-27 2017-09-29 云南省农业科学院经济作物研究所 A kind of low efficient winter-planting potato water-fertilizer integral implantation methods
CN107211681B (en) * 2017-05-27 2020-11-20 云南省农业科学院经济作物研究所 Low-cost and high-efficiency water-fertilizer integrated planting method for winter potatoes
CN107223435A (en) * 2017-06-29 2017-10-03 江西省红壤研究所 A kind of Upland Red Soil corn water-fertilizer integral implantation methods
CN107950330A (en) * 2017-11-13 2018-04-24 中国农业大学 A kind of cold area potato drip irrigation economize efficient cultivation method
CN107950330B (en) * 2017-11-13 2020-05-05 中国农业大学 Water-saving and efficient drop irrigation cultivation method for potatoes in cold regions
CN108184566A (en) * 2017-12-29 2018-06-22 芜湖飞高农业有限公司 A kind of water-fertilizer integral pepper planting method
CN108271643A (en) * 2018-01-24 2018-07-13 广西壮族自治区农业科学院 A kind of water-fertilizer-pesticide integrated cultivation method improving Winter potato disease resistance
CN108782084A (en) * 2018-06-25 2018-11-13 甘肃农业大学 Potato under-film drip irrigation implantation methods and potato
CN108990742A (en) * 2018-10-09 2018-12-14 山西省农业科学院农业资源与经济研究所 A kind of potato covering cultivation method
CN109429960A (en) * 2018-10-22 2019-03-08 青海省农林科学院 A kind of potato production integrated drop irrigation cultural method
CN109804876A (en) * 2019-03-19 2019-05-28 云南省农业科学院经济作物研究所 A kind of big spring sowing potato postponing nitrogen health care yield-increasing cultivation method
CN111869391A (en) * 2020-08-24 2020-11-03 内蒙古农业大学 Phosphate fertilizer decrement and synergy application method for chestnut calcium soil drip irrigation potato space-time regulation

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