CN106233949A - A kind of alfalfa drip irrigation high yield cultivating method - Google Patents

A kind of alfalfa drip irrigation high yield cultivating method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106233949A
CN106233949A CN201610295676.7A CN201610295676A CN106233949A CN 106233949 A CN106233949 A CN 106233949A CN 201610295676 A CN201610295676 A CN 201610295676A CN 106233949 A CN106233949 A CN 106233949A
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alfalfa
drip irrigation
sowing
water
kilogram
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张前兵
于磊
鲁为华
马春晖
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Shihezi University
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Shihezi University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of alfalfa drip irrigation high yield cultivating method, and step is as follows: (1) Fruit variety;(2) seed treatment: after screening seed, use legume inoculation;(3) front preparation is broadcast: prepare seedbed, field and whole;(4) sowing;(5) drip irrigation system configuration;(6) water and fertilizer management;(7) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: using chemical control or cradling in time occur in pest and disease damage;(8) results: annual results 4 batches;Water content in harvest is that field Medicago sativa is bloomed and gathered within 5%, the stubble staying height to be 5 centimetres when cradling.The method of the application present invention can increase substantially the annual production of alfalfa, and alfalfa hay yield reaches annual 1000 1300 kilograms every mu, irrigates WUEL and improves 35% 45%, and output increased and water-saving result are notable.

Description

A kind of alfalfa drip irrigation high yield cultivating method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of alfalfa drip irrigation high yield cultivating method.
Background technology
Xinjiang is the most important arid biogeographic zone of China, belongs to typical continental arid climate, and light application time is long, short of rain, and annual precipitation South Sinkiang is only 20-100 millimeter, and North SinKiang is 100-500 millimeter.Agricultural production relies primarily on snow water and subsoil water is irrigated, and in recent years, causes moving on snow line owing to global temperatures raises, and level of ground water declines and salination is heavier, causes water resource the shortest.Agricultural production in the past relies primarily on the mode of broad irrigation and irrigates, not only cause surface water runoff and evaporation loss serious, and be easily caused soil compaction and affect the growth of crop normal growth, meanwhile, the WUEL of broad irrigation is relatively low and causes a large amount of of irrigating water quality to waste.
Alfalfa is a kind of perennial high-quality legume forage, there is the features such as grass yield high, nutritious, strong adaptability, good palatability, it is referred to as " King of Pasture ", in the world by extensive cultivating and growing, the artificial grass that Ye Shi China cultivated area is maximum, plays extremely important effect in the farming and animal husbandry industry restructuring of NORTHWEST CHINA area and Improvement of Ecological Environment.In the past, alfalfa produced the main mode using broad irrigation and irrigated, and within 1 year, cradled 2-3 stubble, and hay yield is 600-800 kg/acre.In recent years, drip irrigation technique is applied in alfalfa production, while improving alfalfa output, owing to drip irrigation technique can carry out localized irrigation according to the Root Distribution of alfalfa, and effectively keep soil aggregate, prevent moisture deep percolation and rainwash loss, and the utilization ratio of irrigation water can be significantly improved.But, during large-area alfalfa field produces, the application of drip irrigation technique, still in the experience exploration stage, is formed without the most unified alfalfa drip irrigation High Yield Technique System of Cultivating.Therefore, explore and propose to improve the drip irrigation high yield cultivating method of Alfalfa Output, improve alfalfa hay yield further, the large scale application of alfalfa and the intensive fast development of animal husbandry are had very important significance.
Summary of the invention
In order to solve problems of the prior art, the invention provides a kind of alfalfa drip irrigation high yield cultivating method.
The present invention provides a kind of alfalfa drip irrigation high yield cultivating method, and step is as follows:
(1) Fruit variety;
(2) seed treatment: after screening seed, use legume inoculation;
(3) front preparation is broadcast: prepare seedbed, field and whole;
(4) sowing;
(5) drip irrigation system configuration:
A, construction cistern, and be connected with Trunk Line;
B, by buried for Trunk Line at 1.4 meters, underground, every a segment distance stay one dew pipe, ground be in charge of with reveal pipe be connected;Ground is in charge of perpendicular with Trunk Line, behind embedment ground, equal with earth's surface or less than 2-3 centimetre of earth's surface, is in charge of on line and arranges a joint little with the drip irrigation zone that ground drip irrigation band connects every a segment distance;
C, drip irrigation zone are arranged: drip irrigation zone is arranged as a machine 6 and manages, a pipe 3 row alfalfa, and drip irrigation zone spacing 45-60 centimetre buries deep 6-8 centimetre, can not see drip irrigation zone as standard reaching ground;It is provided with a water dropping openings every 20-30 centimetre in Guan;Drip irrigation zone used is internally-inlaid drip irrigation zone;
(6) water and fertilizer management
A, irrigation: alfalfa is poured water 9 times in a Growing season, 2 water of every batch of alfalfa drip irrigation, total irrigation volume controls at every mu of 450-500 cubic meter;
B, fertilising;
(7) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: using chemical control or cradling in time occur in pest and disease damage;
(8) results: annual results 4 batches;Water content in harvest is that field Medicago sativa is bloomed and gathered within 5%, stays the stubble that height is 5-6 centimetre when cradling.
As preferably, Fruit variety described in step (1) is selection adaptation local climate condition, tolerance to diseases is strong, leafy, great Ye, colory alfalfa cultivars, and such as WL series or three is got profit.
As preferably, it is that per kilogram nitragin mixes 10 kilograms of alfalfa seeds with legume inoculation described in step (2).
As preferably, the preceding crop in seedbed, field described in step (3) is non-Herba Medicaginis crop.
As preferably, sowing described in step (4) particularly as follows:
A, sowing time select: select autumn sowing or spring sowing;As preferably, described autumn sowing, for sow in late August to mid-September, carries out the single sowing of Herba Medicaginis;As preferably, described spring sowing is for sow at late March to the first tenday period of a month in May, it is necessary to carrying out screening crop sowing, shielding crop is cereal crop, broadcasts cereal crop 10-15 kilogram for every mu;It is highly preferred that when shielding crop is Semen Tritici aestivi, broadcast 12-15 kilogram for every mu;
B, seeding method: drilling, line-spacing is 15-20cm;
C, application rate: when edaphic condition is general, alfalfa application rate is every mu and broadcasts 1.0-1.2 kilogram, and edaphic condition can suitably reduce well application rate, but is not less than 0.8 kilogram every mu, poor then suitably increase application rate, but not higher than 1.5 kilograms every mu;
D, depth of planting: alfalfa seed depth of planting is 1.5-2cm;
E, broadcast after suppress.
As preferably, being responsible for internal diameter described in step (5) is 250 millimeters, and thickness of pipe wall 70 millimeters, every 50 Meter Liu Yi dew pipe;As preferably, the internal diameter of described dew pipe is 160 millimeters, thickness of pipe wall 30 millimeters;As preferably, described ground distributor bore is 75 millimeters, thickness of pipe wall 1 millimeter;As preferably, the specification of described internally-inlaid drip irrigation zone is: width 16 millimeters, wall thickness 0.3 millimeter, water dropping openings spacing 30 centimetres, and flow is 3 liters per hour, and maximum working pressure (MWP) is 0.1 MPa.
As preferably, the concrete time irrigated described in step (6) is: every batch of alfalfa cradles first 10 days, cradle latter 5-6 days in irrigate respectively, annual alfalfa is irrigated once at band fertilizer again of pregnant flower bud phase after turning green.
As preferably, fertilising described in step (6) includes applying seed manure and topdressing;Described seed manure, based on phosphorus, potassium mixing fertilizer, dose every mu 15-20 kilogram, applies field with seed after mixing;Described topdressing based on nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer, use the mode of " executing with water droplet ", execute 5 kilograms every mu of carbamide, MAP 3-5 kilogram every mu with water droplet when irrigating for the first time between alfalfa two batches time, second time is irrigated and is not applied fertilizer;In whole Growing season, total fertilization amount is 20 kilograms of every mu of carbamide, MAP every mu 15-20 kilogram.
As preferably, in step (8), last batch of harvest time is that soil freezes the previous moon, and when cradling, the height for the stubble left is 7-8 centimetre.
The present invention uses drip irrigation technique; by the shallow embedding of internally-inlaid drip irrigation zone in depths, 6-8 centimetre of earth's surface; Medicago sativa root system is made to absorb irrigation moisture well; it is effectively improved WUEL; while saving irrigating water quality, substantially increase alfalfa hay yield, simultaneously; the shallow embedding of internally-inlaid drip irrigation zone is conducive to when machinery cradles protection drip irrigation zone do not cut off, and drip irrigation zone is changed when being broken by the teeth by mouse etc. more convenient and easy.
The method of the application present invention can increase substantially the annual production of alfalfa, and alfalfa hay yield reaches annual every mu 1000-1300 kilogram, irrigates WUEL and improves 35%-45%, and output increased and water-saving result are notable.
Detailed description of the invention
Below example facilitates a better understanding of the present invention, but does not limit the present invention.Experimental technique in following embodiment, if no special instructions, is conventional method.Test material used in following embodiment, if no special instructions, is commercially available.
Embodiment 1
A kind of alfalfa drip irrigation high yield cultivating method step of the present invention is as follows: (1) adapted varieties selects
Selection adaptation local climate condition, tolerance to diseases are strong, leafy, great Ye, colory alfalfa cultivars, as selected WL series or three to get profit.
(2) seed treatment
1) purification of seeds
Remove impurity, not plump seed etc., reach more than 90% through cleaning physical purity of seed, germination percentage more than 85%.
2) legume inoculation
Per kilogram nitragin mixes 10 kilograms of alfalfa seeds, and the seed mixed finished on the same day.
(3) front preparation is broadcast
1) sow seedbed, front field to prepare
The alfalfa sowing requirement to seedbed, field, be suitably dried in physical features, smooth, soil layer deep loose, drainage condition is good, neutral or alkalescence sandy loam or loam, degree of salinity are low, traffic convenience and management and utilization area plantation easily.And the preceding crop of soil is non-Herba Medicaginis crop, can be such as other legumes.
2) wholely
After ploughing, harrow soil crushing, remove weeds and residual mulching film, grade, make soil become fine particulate rather than powder bulk, in order to make seed contact closely with soil, do not pressed by large clod after emerging, it is ensured that emerge neat, reach to sow requirement.It is accurate that site preparation quality to reach " neat, flat, loose, broken, clean " five sign.
(4) sowing
1) select sowing time
Optional two seedtimes, i.e. autumn sowing and spring sowing.
Autumn sowing: sow to mid-September in late August, carries out the single sowing of Herba Medicaginis;
Sow in spring: sow to the first tenday period of a month in May at late March; must carry out screening crop sowing, shielding crop is based on Cereal (Semen Tritici aestivi etc.), and Herba Medicaginis mixes and sows; Cereal application rate is every mu 10-15 kilogram, and wheat cultivation amount is then every mu 12-15 kilogram.
2) seeding method
Using machinery to carry out drilling, line-spacing is 15-20 centimetre.
3) application rate
When edaphic condition is general, alfalfa application rate is every mu and broadcasts 1.0-1.2 kilogram, and edaphic condition can suitably reduce well application rate, but is not less than 0.8 kilogram every mu, poor then suitably increase application rate, but not higher than 1.5 kilograms every mu.
4) depth of planting
Alfalfa seed depth of planting is 1.5-2 centimetre.
5) suppress after broadcasting
Alfalfa seed is less, and after broadcasting, suppression makes seed be in close contact with soil, is beneficial to alfalfa seed imbibition and germinates.
(5) drip irrigation system configuration
1) drip irrigation system stem
" general headquarters " for drip irrigation facility (cistern, water pump, transformator, gravel filter).Build length 30 meters, wide 8 meters, the cistern one of deep 1.4 meters, be then connected with Trunk Line.
2) Trunk Line (buried pipe)
Carry out in the fall and complete, with planting season then and the sowing that is not delayed next spring of staggering.The ditch paralleled long with ground is dug in the soil central authorities planned, for burying Trunk Line underground, (concrete furrow width is with the scoop of excavator as standard for furrow width 0.6 meter, it is easy to workmen's operation), buried at 1.4 meters, underground (this pipe uses for many years aborning, prevents from freezing the remaining water inside buried pipe in winter), supervisor's internal diameter is 250 millimeters, thickness of pipe wall 70 millimeters (to avoid booster phenomenon), stays dew pipe (floor outlet of water, ground plane is effective) every 50 meters.The caliber of dew pipe is less than the caliber (being easy to form pressure differential) of supervisor, and bore is 160 millimeters, thickness of pipe wall 30 millimeters.Connect a ball valve at dew tube head, it is simple to be in charge of with ground and be connected simultaneously.
3) (ground line) it is in charge of
The ground distributor pipeline being connected with dew pipe, bore is 75 millimeters, thickness of pipe wall 1 millimeter, for quality softness, toughness by force, the hose strap being not easily broken.This line is perpendicular with Main Underground pipeline, opens the ditch of deep 10-15 centimetre and will be in charge of embedment wherein so that it is equal with earth's surface or less than 2-3 centimetre of earth's surface after embedment, is in charge of in order to avoid cutting when Herba Medicaginis cradles.On pipeline, one little joint in drip irrigation zone is set every 60 centimeters, in order to connect with ground drip irrigation band.
4) drip irrigation zone is arranged
Drip irrigation zone is arranged as a machine 6 and manages, a pipe 3 row alfalfa, and drip irrigation zone spacing 45-60 centimetre buries deep 6-8 centimetre, can not see drip irrigation zone as standard (if basseting in drip irrigation zone, easily cut off drip irrigation zone when alfalfa cradles) reaching ground.It is provided with a water dropping openings every 20-30 centimeters in Guan.Drip irrigation zone used is internally-inlaid drip irrigation zone, and its specification is: width 16 millimeters, wall thickness 0.3 millimeter, water dropping openings spacing 30 centimetres, and flow is 3 liters per hour, and maximum working pressure (MWP) is 0.1 MPa.
(6) water and fertilizer management
1) irrigate
Under condition of drip irrigation, alfalfa pours water 9 times (within 1 year, cradling 4 batches) in a Growing season, 2 water of every batch of alfalfa drip irrigation (first batch Herba Medicaginis drip irrigation 3 times), total irrigation volume controls at every mu of 450-500 cubic meter, concrete irrigation time be every batch of alfalfa cradle first 10 days, cradle latter 5-6 days in irrigate respectively, annual alfalfa is irrigated once at pregnant flower bud phase (on April about 20) band fertilizer again after turning green.
2) fertilising
Seed manure: based on phosphorus, potassium mixing fertilizer, dose every mu 15-20 kilogram, apply field with seed after mixing.
Topdressing: based on the preferable nitrogen of solubility, phosphate fertilizer, use the mode of " executing with water droplet ", execute 5 kilograms every mu of carbamide, MAP 3-5 kilogram every mu with water droplet when irrigating for the first time between alfalfa two batches time, second time is irrigated and is not applied fertilizer.In whole Growing season, total fertilization amount is 20 kilograms of every mu of carbamide, MAP every mu 15-20 kilogram.
(7) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
Alfalfa downy mildew is prevented and treated: the sprinkling that stirs that Bordeaux mixture 0.5:1:100 spraying or 400 times of liquid of 40% AL-PHOSETHYL aluminum tris(ethyl phosphite) wettable powder are sprayed or 70% Bravo wettable powder 150~250 grams every mu adds water 75 liters.Above-mentioned medicinal liquid 7~spray once in 10 days, sprays 2~3 times continuously according to field incidence.
Alfalfa rust is prevented and treated: spray systemic fungicide, sprays 500 times of liquid of 70% mancozeb wettable powder or Bordeaux mixture (copper sulfate: quick lime: water) uses 1:1:200 medicine liquid spray before rust occurs.Their early stage sprays 20% triadimefon cream 1100~1400 times of liquid, or 75% Bravo wettable powder 110 grams every mu, adds water 70 liters, even spraying.
Alfalfa powdery mildew is prevented and treated: with 40% folpet 800~1000 times of liquid sprayings or 20% triadimefon cream 3000~5000 times of liquid sprayings, spray 2~3 times continuously according to field incidence.
There is above disease or insect pest in alfalfa field, and in order to reduce pollution by pesticides, the most suitable prevention and controls is exactly to cradle in time, and the Medicago sativa cradled is transported field in time.
(8) results
Annual results 4 batches.Water content in harvest is that field Medicago sativa is bloomed and gathered in (when guarantee cradles, crude protein content is more than 20%, and Radix Glycyrrhizae bundle crude protein content is at 17-18%) within 5%.The stubble (the lowest growing point easily hurt on alfalfa rhizome dish of toothing) that height is 5-6 centimetre is stayed when cradling, cradle and Tong Bu with flattening operation disposably complete (it is beneficial to alfalfa stem stalk be dried with blade simultaneously, and then blade loss when reducing alfalfa bundling).Field dry in the sun 1 day after cradling, carry out one-time mechanical at morning and ted that (morning is moister, blade difficult drop-off when machinery teds), within 3rd day, at dusk or carry out field bundling operation and by grass field dry in the sun 0.5-1 days the 4th day morning, and the same day or second day, Alfalfa was transported field according to mechanical transport ability.Last batch of harvest time is that soil freezes the previous moon, and when cradling, the height for the stubble left is 7-8 centimetre, in order to forms enough photosynthates beneficially Second Year and turns green.
(9) Planting Years
The rotation of crops should be updated after Alfalfa Growing 4-5.
By the enforcement of said method, alfalfa planting 2-4 cradles 4 batches every year, and alfalfa hay yield reaches annual every mu 1000-1300 kilogram, irrigates WUEL and improves 35%-45%, and output increased and water-saving result are notable.
Last it is noted that the foregoing is only the preferred embodiments of the present invention, it is not limited to the present invention, although the present invention being described in detail with reference to previous embodiment, for a person skilled in the art, technical scheme described in foregoing embodiments still can be modified by it, or wherein portion of techniques feature is carried out equivalent.All within the spirit and principles in the present invention, any modification, equivalent substitution and improvement etc. made, should be included within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. an alfalfa drip irrigation high yield cultivating method, it is characterised in that: step is as follows:
(1) Fruit variety;
(2) seed treatment: after screening seed, use legume inoculation;
(3) front preparation is broadcast: prepare seedbed, field and whole;
(4) sowing;
(5) drip irrigation system configuration:
A, construction cistern, and be connected with Trunk Line;
B, by buried for Trunk Line at 1.4 meters, underground, every a segment distance stay one dew pipe, ground be in charge of with reveal pipe be connected;Ground is in charge of perpendicular with Trunk Line, behind embedment ground, equal with earth's surface or less than 2-3 centimetre of earth's surface, is in charge of on line and arranges a joint little with the drip irrigation zone that ground drip irrigation band connects every a segment distance;
C, drip irrigation zone are arranged: drip irrigation zone is arranged as a machine 6 and manages, a pipe 3 row alfalfa, and drip irrigation zone spacing 45-60 centimetre buries deep 6-8 centimetre, can not see drip irrigation zone as standard reaching ground;It is provided with a water dropping openings every 20-30 centimetre in Guan;Drip irrigation zone used is internally-inlaid drip irrigation zone;
(6) water and fertilizer management
A, irrigation: alfalfa is poured water 9 times in a Growing season, 2 water of every batch of alfalfa drip irrigation, total irrigation volume controls at every mu of 450-500 cubic meter;
B, fertilising;
(7) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: using chemical control or cradling in time occur in pest and disease damage;
(8) results: annual results 4 batches;Water content in harvest is that field Medicago sativa is bloomed and gathered within 5%, stays the stubble that height is 5-6 centimetre when cradling.
Method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: Fruit variety described in step (1) is selection adaptation local climate condition, tolerance to diseases is strong, leafy, great Ye, colory alfalfa cultivars, and such as WL series or three is got profit.
Method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: it is that per kilogram nitragin mixes 10 kilograms of alfalfa seeds with legume inoculation described in step (2).
Method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the preceding crop in seedbed, field described in step (3) is non-Herba Medicaginis crop.
Method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described in step (4) sowing particularly as follows:
A, sowing time select: select autumn sowing or spring sowing;As preferably, described autumn sowing, for sow in late August to mid-September, carries out the single sowing of Herba Medicaginis;As preferably, described spring sowing is for sow at late March to the first tenday period of a month in May, it is necessary to carrying out screening crop sowing, shielding crop is cereal crop, broadcasts cereal crop 10-15 kilogram for every mu;It is highly preferred that when shielding crop is Semen Tritici aestivi, broadcast 12-15 kilogram for every mu;
B, seeding method: drilling, line-spacing is 15-20cm;
C, application rate: when edaphic condition is general, alfalfa application rate is every mu and broadcasts 1.0-1.2 kilogram, and edaphic condition can suitably reduce well application rate, but is not less than 0.8 kilogram every mu, poor then suitably increase application rate, but not higher than 1.5 kilograms every mu;
D, depth of planting: alfalfa seed depth of planting is 1.5-2cm;
E, broadcast after suppress.
Method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: being responsible for internal diameter described in step (5) is 250 millimeters, thickness of pipe wall 70 millimeters, stays a dew pipe every 50 meters;As preferably, the internal diameter of described dew pipe is 160 millimeters, thickness of pipe wall 30 millimeters;As preferably, described ground distributor bore is 75 millimeters, thickness of pipe wall 1 millimeter;As preferably, the specification of described internally-inlaid drip irrigation zone is: width 16 millimeters, wall thickness 0.3 millimeter, water dropping openings spacing 30 centimetres, and flow is 3 liters per hour, and maximum working pressure (MWP) is 0.1 MPa.
Method the most according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the concrete time irrigated described in step (6) is: every batch of alfalfa cradles first 10 days, cradle latter 5-6 days in irrigate respectively, annual alfalfa is irrigated once at band fertilizer again of pregnant flower bud phase after turning green.
Method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: fertilising described in step (6) includes applying seed manure and topdressing;Described seed manure, based on phosphorus, potassium mixing fertilizer, dose every mu 15-20 kilogram, applies field with seed after mixing;Described topdressing based on nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer, use the mode of " executing with water droplet ", execute 5 kilograms every mu of carbamide, MAP 3-5 kilogram every mu with water droplet when irrigating for the first time between alfalfa two batches time, second time is irrigated and is not applied fertilizer;In whole Growing season, total fertilization amount is 20 kilograms of every mu of carbamide, MAP every mu 15-20 kilogram.
Method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: in step (8), last batch of harvest time is that soil freezes the previous moon, and when cradling, the height for the stubble left is 7-8 centimetre.
CN201610295676.7A 2016-05-06 2016-05-06 A kind of alfalfa drip irrigation high yield cultivating method Pending CN106233949A (en)

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CN107231931A (en) * 2017-07-13 2017-10-10 大禹节水(天津)有限公司 A kind of alfalfa center pivot formula sprinkling irrigation comprehensive water-saving pattern
CN107950155A (en) * 2017-10-31 2018-04-24 马鞍山市心洲葡萄专业合作社 A kind of grape water and fertilizer irrigation management method
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