CN105706819A - Simplified and efficient management method for soil in hill sloping field newly-built orchard - Google Patents

Simplified and efficient management method for soil in hill sloping field newly-built orchard Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105706819A
CN105706819A CN201610065964.3A CN201610065964A CN105706819A CN 105706819 A CN105706819 A CN 105706819A CN 201610065964 A CN201610065964 A CN 201610065964A CN 105706819 A CN105706819 A CN 105706819A
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soil
ditch
planting
backfill
fertilizer
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CN105706819B (en
Inventor
吴代东
吴艳艳
黄伟华
刘洁云
黄永才
苏祖祥
牟海飞
韦绍龙
杨行海
史国英
黄雁飞
覃柳燕
王艳
姚宁
吴宗立
李乃流
吴剑波
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Biotechnology Research Institute Guangxi Academy Of Agricultural Sciences
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Biotechnology Research Institute Guangxi Academy Of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of fruit tree growing and particularly relates to a simplified and efficient management method for soil in a hill sloping field newly-built orchard.The simplified and efficient management method for the soil in the hill sloping field newly-built orchard includes the following steps of field selection, field planning, fruit tree planting, ridging and water and fertilizer management.According to the method, green manure is applied between lines of a sloping field to activate surface soil, ridging is conducted multiple times, and in cooperation with incising root inducing treatment of a trunk base portion, the number of root systems is remarkably increased, and the quality of the root systems is remarkably improved; meanwhile, the labor intensity of soil fertilization management is remarkably relieved, investment of labor force and production management is reduced, the quality of products of fruit trees is improved, the yield of the products of the fruit trees is increased, and the successive-year high-quality high and stable yield is achieved; the method is suitable for production of fruits in hilly land and plays a reference role in flat land orchard production.

Description

A kind of method of hilly upland Newly built orchard soil gently letter high-efficiency management
Technical field
The invention belongs to fruit tree cultivation technical field, the method particularly relating to a kind of hilly upland Newly built orchard soil gently letter high-efficiency management.
Background technology
During existing hilly upland fruit cultivation produces, it is typically with mechanically or manually digging plantation trench along domatic equal pitch contour, or fish-scale pit, the step of operation is that middle level, the top layer loam of plantation groove face and pitted surface is placed in domatic upside, the bottom raw-soil in ditch or hole is placed in domatic downside, dig the degree of depth required, width, after length, use the chemical fertilizer of Soil building as required, organic, Calx, disposable or gradation is sprinkling upon to be needed to be backfilling into the soil surface that ditch (or hole) is inner, stir while backfill, not enough part is in the upper side draw topsoil backfill of groove face (or pitted surface), disposable groove face of making preparation for ploughing and sowing (or pitted surface) soil puts in place, last mound 15-20cm above ground level, usual ditch depth is 60-80cm, wide 80-100cm, ditch length is determined according to terrain, 30-50cm drops in every 10000cm ratio.Building garden by normal cultivation, every mu needs farm manure 3000-5000Kg;Plantation go into operation after every year or next year according to target output, execute farm manure 1000-2000Kg, compound fertilizer 100-200Kg for every mu, centered by trunk, dig zanjon (usual 30-50cm) fertilising in tree crown drip periphery.Labor intensive is big, and is awkward.BC soil (about 15-30cm region) without weathering, activation directly when building garden in mixture table earthen backfill ditch (hole), thus root region soil fertility uneven (Chen Jiezhong " pomology is respectively discussed " (south is originally) course teaching materials third edition geared to the 21st century 452 pages).
Prior art have the disadvantages that (1) build garden labor intensity and growth management during soil management labour force have high input;(2) soil fertility is uneven;(3) the root system number of plies is few, and the amount of taking root is few, and anti-(resistance to) drought power declines;(4) building garden initial stage input amount of organic fertilizer big, utilization rate is low.
Rural Areas at Present labour force flows into cities and towns in a large number and is engaged in the tertiary industry, and traditional agriculture soil cultivation is fostered and apply fertilizer and managed the needs being not suitable with production development.Therefore, seeking the gently letter high-efficiency management measure of research orchard soil, reduce production cost, the benefit improving planting fruit trees is the subject matter of agricultural sustainable development.
It is disclosed in the information of this background section and is merely intended to increase the understanding of the general background to the present invention, and be not construed as admitting or imply in any form that this information structure is for prior art that persons skilled in the art are known.
Summary of the invention
For the deficiencies in the prior art, the method that it is an object of the invention to provide a kind of hilly upland Newly built orchard soil gently letter high-efficiency management.
Technical scheme provided by the invention is:
The method of a kind of hilly upland Newly built orchard soil gently letter high-efficiency management, comprises the following steps:
(1) selection in field: select gradient 10-25 °, domatic for south orientation, southwest to or the southeast to towards, be suitable for treating that region that planting fruit-trees kind plants is as field;
(2) planning in orchard: measure the Article 1 equal pitch contour of production community, hillside fields by the line-spacing of variety requirement, after being adjusted planning, by every 10000cm ditch long ratio, 30-50cm, excavation Article 1 plantation ditch drop, plantation ditch depth 80cm × wide 100cm, line-spacing 300-500cm;First the soil of field planting ditch top layer 0-20cm is first removed upwards domatic position, then the raw-soil at the middle part of field planting ditch, bottom 20-80cm is dug out the Caused by Sloping Surfaces being placed on plantation ditch;Again the table soil of groove face is backfilling in ditch with 0-20cm topsoil in the ranks;During backfill, the soil block of top layer agglomerate, turf, plant, dry branches and fallen leaves, rhizome residuum, less stone are positioned over the bottom planting ditch, before backfill table soil, soil acidity or alkalinity are transferred to 6.0-6.5;During backfill, the height 1/2-2/3 place deep to ditch center of table soil, and in outside groove face height, the inclined-plane that inner side groove face is low, within before field planting 30-45 days, complete to make preparation for ploughing and sowing and wait to plant;Successively from the bottom of slope upwards one by one excavation and filling plantation ditch;
(3) field planting fruit tree: field planting point is located at the center of plantation ditch, and it is square that planting pit digs 20-30cm, spacing in the rows 300-500cm;Own-rooted tree fruit tree can directly be planted on request;Grafting fruit tree need to first be planted stock variety and grow into beyond carrying out grafting after groove face 10-20cm again or selecting to carry out in nursery the direct field planting of fruit nursery stock of stock high level cadre's grafting;
(4) plantation ditch divides 2-3 backfill activation topsoil in the ranks and green manure weeds: the 1st year spring and summer can broadcast sowing leguminous green manure of the short season such as fertilizer Semen phaseoli radiati in the ranks with on ladder wall, and the florescence cradles green manure and combines and backfill 5-10cm top layer air slaking mellow soil in the ranks and be covered in and plant in ditch;Start to broadcast sowing Brassica campestris L or Vicia dasycarpa Winter-Spring green manure in late fall simultaneously, when spring, green manure Biomass was maximum, cradle green manuring, backfill 5-10cm top layer air slaking mellow soil in the ranks in conjunction with using soil acid-base conditioning fertilizer and biological organic fertilizer;When backfilling every time, first carve and hinder trunk base portion, smear disinfectant solution of taking root then blinding carving position, traumatic part;Such samsara repeatedly, by 2-3 repeatedly many batches of green manure and ripening table earthen backfill;After being backfilling into groove face sizing, begin to rehearse water water-retention ring ditch in the inner side of ditch, in the ranks replants butch clover or the perennial green manure plant of Vicia sativa with on ladder wall, and the florescence cradles, and is covered in groove face tree dish;Utilizing sharp sword to carve and hinder basal part of stem surrounding longitudinal direction 3-5 bar, every 1-2cm, as deep as phloem top layer;
(5) other liquid manure conventionally carries out.
As preferably, the disinfectant solution of taking root described in step (4) is NAA500-1000mg/L+ mould spirit 100-200mg/L.
Compared with prior art, there is advantages that
1. the method for the present invention is in the ranks planted green manure activation table soil, several times ridging, is coordinated injure the operations such as short root process the quarter of trunk base portion mainly through hillside fields, significantly improve the quality and quantity of root system, significantly reduce the labor intensity of soil application management simultaneously, decrease the input of labour force and production management, improve the product quality of fruit tree, yield, and realize good year production year after year, it is the main innovation of the present invention.
2. the present invention is applicable not only to the production of hillside fruit such as Citrus, downy grape, pears, Fructus actinidiae chinensis etc., and the production of Flat Ground Orchard is also had reference function.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of the method plantation Citrus chachiensis Hort. of hilly upland Newly built orchard soil gently letter high-efficiency management of the present invention, Huanghua Pear;
Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram of the method plantation downy grape of hilly upland Newly built orchard soil gently letter high-efficiency management of the present invention, Fructus actinidiae chinensis;
Explanation about accompanying drawing labelling:
1 is the 1st Nian Jian garden backfill groove face and table soil of in the ranks living;2 backfill air slaking active soil stratum green manure+fertilizer+chemical fertilizer in the ranks year fraction of the year of being 2-3;3 for bank up plantation Gou Zhong lower floor treat air slaking subsoil hold concurrently retaining wall shelves soil;4 is that original soil layer gully detention is anti-erosion;5 is fruit tree trunk (grafting mouth);6 plant perennial green manure kind for replanting after backfill sizing;7 is irrigation water band;8 is root system;9 is water-permeable and air permeable layer;10-is back the inner side draining water-retention ditch after soil sizing.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with embodiment, the specific embodiment of the present invention is described in detail, it is to be understood that protection scope of the present invention is not by the restriction of detailed description of the invention.
Explicitly indicate that unless otherwise other, otherwise in entire disclosure and claims, term " includes " or its conversion will be understood to comprise the element or ingredient stated at such as " comprising " or " including " etc., and does not get rid of other element or other ingredient.
Embodiment 1:
A kind of newly-built Citrus chachiensis Hort. Orchard Soil of hilly upland gently letter efficient management, the method mainly comprises the steps that
1. the selection in field, orchard
(1) region of the illumination of suitable planting Citrus chachiensis Hort. kind, temperature conditions is selected;
(2) select suitable edaphic condition and moisture condition, the gradient 10~20 °, domatic for south orientation or southwest to or the southeast to;The indexs such as the detection acid-base value of soil plough horizon, organic matter, N, P, K, Ca, Mg;
2. carry out the planning in orchard: include the reasonable arrangement planning of the orchard kind of plantation, orchard traffic, road network, irrigating facility, shelter-forest, storehouse;
3. hilly and mountainous land orchard soil gently letter management
(1) according to composite factors such as kind, the gradient, slope aspects, it is determined that producing plot area is 20~30 mu, long trapezoidal bottom inclined slope aspect;
(2) measure the Article 1 equal pitch contour of production community, hillside fields by the line-spacing of variety requirement, after being adjusted planning, drop 30~40cm, excavation Article 1 plantation ditch, usual ditch depth 80cm, furrow width 100cm, line-spacing 300~400cm by the long ratio of every 10000cm ditch;
(3) the 0-20cm table soil of field planting ditch is first removed upwards domatic position, then the raw-soil at the middle part of field planting ditch, bottom 20-80cm is dug out the Caused by Sloping Surfaces stacking ripening placing ditch;
(4) again the table soil of groove face is backfilling in ditch with 0-20cm topsoil in the ranks;During backfill, the residuum such as the soil block of top layer agglomerate, turf, plant, less dry branches and fallen leaves, rhizome, less stone place the bottom of plantation ditch as ventilated layer, before backfill table soil, soil acidity or alkalinity is nursed one's health to 6.0~6.5, the material needing to adjust soil acidity or alkalinity, (acid soil executes stone powder or Calx, alkaline soil executes calcium superphosphate or Gypsum Fibrosum etc.) and fertilizer, chemical fertilizer etc. uniformly spread fertilizer over the fields on backfill table soil, dig and mix thoroughly while backfill;
(5) 1/2 place that the height of backfill table soil is deep to ditch center, and high in outside groove face, the inclined-plane that inner side groove face is low, it is desirable to field planting has been made preparation for ploughing and sowing and waited to plant for first more than 30 days;Successively from the bottom of slope upwards one by one excavation and filling plantation ditch;
(6) field planting fruit tree: by the distance between rows and hills of planning, field planting point should in ditch center, it is square that planting pit digs 20cm, in conjunction with using decomposed manure, spacing in the rows 300cm, can first plant the stock varieties such as phytic acid Fructus Citri tangerinae and grow into beyond carrying out grafting after ground (groove face) 10cm again, it is possible to select to carry out in nursery the direct field planting of nursery stock of stock high level cadre's grafting (i.e. stock grafting open height 50cm);It is managed by normal fruit tree after field planting;Remove the evil bud of stock in time;
(7) season of growth plantation groove face can epiphragma take precautions against drought heat promotion growth;In the ranks with ladder wall on can annual green manuring vegetable soil, it is suppressed that weed growth;Plantation ditch divides the activation topsoil and green manure weeds that backfill in the ranks 2~3 years;First Year spring and summer can broadcast sowing leguminous green manure of the short season such as fertilizer Semen phaseoli radiati etc. in the ranks with on ladder wall, and the florescence cradles green manure and combines backfill 5~10cm top layer air slaking mellow soil in the ranks and be covered in plant and do green manuring culture fertility in ditch;Start to broadcast sowing the Winter-Spring such as Brassica campestris L or Vicia dasycarpa green manure in late fall simultaneously, when spring, green manure Biomass was maximum, cradle green manuring, in conjunction with using soil acid-base conditioning fertilizer and biological organic fertilizer backfill 5~10cm top layer air slaking mellow soil in the ranks, promote that base portion produces new root zone;When backfilling every time, first carve and hinder trunk base portion, smear and carve position, traumatic part hestening rooting and disinfection liquid medicine, then blinding, promote generation and the growth of new root system;Such samsara repeatedly, by 2~3 years repeatedly many batches short season green manure and ripening table earthen backfill, build good soil environment for fruit tree root system;After being backfilling into groove face sizing, begin to rehearse water water-retention ring ditch in the inner side of ditch, in the ranks replants butch clover or the perennial green manure plant of Vicia sativa with on ladder wall, and the florescence cradles, and is covered in groove face tree dish, increases organic matter, promotes water and soil conservation;
4. rationally impose fertilizer and supply moisture, meet fruit tree good year production growth needs
(1) treelet phase fertilising: after planting first 1 year, increases the number of times of fertilising, reduces each dose;
(2) base manure: according to fruit tree root growth peak period and nutrient uptake feature, in conjunction with the work in green manure, in the ranks ripening table earthen backfill ditch, every mu of each use high-quality farmers' heap makes compost 1000-2000Kg or organic commercial fertilizer 400-500Kg, NPK compound fertilizer 20-30Kg, calcium and magnesium boron zinc-iron medium trace element fertilizer 2-4Kg, mix homogeneously is sprinkled into backfill table soil, carries out, without hindering root ditch soil dressing fertilising, promoting generation and the growth of root system;
(3) root topdresses: by the nutrient uptake feature of different growth stage fruit tree and the feeder capability of soil, fertilization mode and productive target comprehensive consideration, point 3~25 supply fertilizer;
(4) foliage-spray: utilize fruit tree young sprout, blade, fruit can directly absorb the feature of Fertilizer nutrient, point 3 periods spray fertilizer;
(5) water management:
1. dam water-retention: the pool or cistern are dug in hilly upland source, make up the deficiency of iirigation water source during arid;
2. the period irrigated and effect: carry out water management according to the fruit variety water-requiring property of plantation;
3. draining: when causing easily flood continuously rainy season, timely ditch cleaning draining;
4. soil moisture conservation: arid season, cradles green manure weeds and covers groove face or groove face epiphragma, and with good conditionsi as far as possible installation drips band or spray irrigation band, carries out water-fertilizer integral management.
In (2) of described step 1 detection soil acidity or alkalinity, organic matter, N, P, K, Ca, Mg index, be for nursing one's health soil acid-base and fostering and apply fertilizer basis.
(7) of described step 3 utilize sharp sword carve and hinder basal part of stem surrounding longitudinally 3, every 1cm, as deep as phloem top layer, it is coated with growth-promoting root medicinal liquid NAA500mg/L+ mould spirit 100mg/L.
Base manure in (2) of described step 4, treelet phase and test manufacture phase take the middle low value of recommended fertilizer, take middle high level operation period.
Point 25 supply fertilizer in (3) of described step 4, for adopting spray drop band water-fertilizer integral, the whole year is amounted to every 667m in operation high yield garden2Execute purity nitrogen 40Kg, pure phosphorus 15Kg, pure potassium 15Kg.
In (4) of described step 4, foliage-spray refers to according on soil nutrient, plant nutrition detection basis, supplements and sprays nutrient.
Embodiment 2
A kind of newly-built downy grape Orchard Soil of hilly upland gently letter efficient management, the method mainly comprises the steps that
1. the selection in field, orchard
(1) region of suitable planting downy grape kind illumination, temperature conditions is selected;
(2) select suitable edaphic condition and moisture condition, the gradient 10~25 °, domatic for south orientation or southwest to or the southeast to;The indexs such as the detection acid-base value of soil plough horizon, organic matter, N, P, K, Ca, Mg.
2. carry out the planning in orchard: include the reasonable arrangement planning of the orchard kind of plantation, orchard traffic, road network, irrigating facility, shelter-forest, storehouse.
3. the concrete steps of hilly and mountainous land downy grape orchard soil gently letter management:
(1) according to composite factors such as kind, the gradient, slope aspects, it is determined that producing plot area is 20~30 mu, and bottom inclined slope aspect, length is trapezoidal as well;
(2) measure the Article 1 equal pitch contour of production community, hillside fields by the line-spacing of downy grape demand, after being adjusted planning, drop 30~40cm, excavation Article 1 plantation ditch, usual ditch depth 80cm, furrow width 100cm, line-spacing 450~500cm by the long ratio of every 10000cm ditch;
(3) the 0-20cm table soil of field planting ditch is first removed upwards domatic position, then the raw-soil at the middle part of field planting ditch, bottom 20-80cm is dug out the Caused by Sloping Surfaces stacking ripening placing ditch, also serve as and fill ladder wall weathering;
(4) again the table soil of groove face is backfilling in ditch with 0-20cm topsoil in the ranks.During backfill, the soil block of top layer agglomerate, turf, plant, less dry branches and fallen leaves, rhizome residuum, less stone place bottom of trench as ventilated layer as far as possible, before backfill table soil, according to sampling Detection soil acidity or alkalinity, the material needing to adjust soil acidity or alkalinity, (acid soil executes stone powder or Calx, alkaline soil executes calcium superphosphate or Gypsum Fibrosum etc.) and fertilizer, chemical fertilizer etc. uniformly spread fertilizer over the fields on backfill table soil, dig and mix thoroughly while backfill;
(5) 1/2 place that the height of backfill table soil is deep to ditch center, and high in outside groove face, the inclined-plane that inner side groove face is low, it is desirable to field planting has been made preparation for ploughing and sowing and waited to plant for first more than 45 days;Successively from the bottom of slope upwards one by one excavation and filling plantation ditch;
(6) by suitable field planting in season fruit tree.By the distance between rows and hills of planning, field planting point should in ditch center, and it is square that planting pit digs 30cm, in conjunction with using decomposed manure, spacing in the rows 550~600cm;Own-rooted tree can directly be planted on request;It is managed by normal fruit tree after field planting;
(7) season of growth plantation groove face can epiphragma take precautions against drought heat promotion growth;In the ranks with ladder wall on can annual green manuring vegetable soil, it is suppressed that weed growth;Plantation ditch divides the activation topsoil and green manure weeds that backfill in the ranks 3 years.First Year spring and summer can broadcast sowing leguminous green manure of the short season such as fertilizer Semen phaseoli radiati etc. in the ranks with on ladder wall, and the florescence cradles green manure and combines and backfill 5-10cm top layer air slaking mellow soil in the ranks and be covered in plant and do green manuring culture fertility in ditch;Start to broadcast sowing the Winter-Spring such as Brassica campestris L or Vicia dasycarpa green manure in late fall simultaneously, when spring, green manure Biomass was maximum, cradle green manuring, in conjunction with using soil acid-base conditioning fertilizer and biological organic fertilizer to backfill 5-10cm top layer air slaking mellow soil in the ranks, promote that base portion produces new root zone;When backfilling every time, first carve and hinder trunk base portion, smear and carve position, traumatic part hestening rooting and disinfection liquid medicine, then blinding, promote generation and the growth of new root system.Such samsara repeatedly, by repeatedly many batches of green manure and ripening table earthen backfill in 3 years, builds good soil environment for fruit tree root system.After being backfilling into groove face sizing, begin to rehearse water water-retention ring ditch in the inner side of ditch, in the ranks replants the perennial green manure plant such as butch clover or Vicia sativa with on ladder wall, and the florescence cradles, and is covered in groove face tree dish, increases organic matter, promotes water and soil conservation;
4. rationally impose fertilizer and supply moisture, meet fruit tree good year production growth needs
(1) treelet phase fertilising: after planting first 2 years, increases the number of times of fertilising, reduces each dose;
(2) base manure: according to fruit tree root growth peak period and nutrient uptake feature, in conjunction with the work in green manure, in the ranks ripening table earthen backfill ditch, every mu of each use high-quality farmers' pile fermentation fertilizer 800-1600Kg or organic commercial fertilizer 300-500Kg, NPK compound fertilizer 10-30Kg, the medium trace element fertilizer 3-4Kg such as calcium and magnesium boron zinc-iron, mix homogeneously is sprinkled into backfill table soil, carries out, without hindering ridging fertilising in root ditch, promoting generation and the growth of root system;
(3) root topdresses: by the nutrient uptake feature of different growth stage fruit tree and the feeder capability of soil, fertilization mode and productive target comprehensive consideration, point 3 supply fertilizer;
(4) foliage-spray: utilize fruit tree young sprout, blade, fruit can directly absorb the feature of Fertilizer nutrient, point 5 periods spray fertilizer;
(5) water management:
1. dam water-retention: the pool or cistern are dug in hilly upland source, make up the deficiency of iirigation water source during arid;
2. the period irrigated and effect: carry out water management according to the fruit variety water-requiring property of plantation;
3. draining: when causing easily flood continuously rainy season, timely ditch cleaning draining;
4. soil moisture conservation: arid season, cradles green manure weeds and covers groove face or groove face epiphragma, and with good conditionsi as far as possible installation drips band or spray irrigation band, carries out water-fertilizer integral saving of labor's high-efficiency management.
Selecting adapted varieties in (1) of described step 1 is can autophilous hermaphrodite flower downy grape kind
In (4) of described step 3, soil acidity or alkalinity nurses one's health 6.0~6.5.
(7) of described step 3 utilize sharp sword carve and hinder basal part of stem surrounding longitudinally 4, every long 2cm, as deep as phloem top layer, it is coated with growth-promoting root medicinal liquid NAA1000mg/L+ mould spirit 200mg/L.
Points of 3 times supply fertilizer in (3) of described step 4, for adopting soil buriing, operation downy grape garden is amounted to every 667m2 and execute purity nitrogen 20Kg, pure phosphorus 10Kg, pure potassium 25Kg the whole year.
Foliage-spray in (4) of described step 4, refers to according on soil nutrient, plant nutrition detection basis, supplements and spray nutrient.
Embodiment 3:
A kind of newly-built Huanghua Pear Orchard soil of hilly upland gently letter efficient management, the method mainly comprises the steps that
1. the selection in field, orchard
(1) region of the illumination of suitable planting Huanghua Pear, temperature conditions is selected;
(2) select suitable edaphic condition and moisture condition, the gradient 12~20 °, domatic for south orientation or southwest to or the southeast to;The detection acid-base value of soil plough horizon, organic matter, N, P, K, Ca, Mg index;
2. carry out the planning in Huanghua Pear orchard: include the reasonable arrangement planning of the orchard kind of plantation, orchard traffic, road network, irrigating facility, shelter-forest, storehouse;
3. the concrete steps of the newly-built Huanghua Pear Orchard soil of hilly and mountainous land gently letter management:
(1) according to composite factors such as Huanghua Pear kind, the gradient, slope aspects, it is determined that producing plot area is 20~30 mu, long trapezoidal bottom inclined slope aspect;
(2) measure the Article 1 equal pitch contour of production community, hillside fields by the line-spacing of variety requirement, after being adjusted planning, drop 35~50cm, excavation Article 1 plantation ditch, usual ditch depth 80cm, furrow width 100cm, line-spacing 400~450cm by the long ratio of every 10000cm ditch;
(3) the 0-20cm table soil of field planting ditch is first removed upwards domatic position, then the raw-soil at the middle part of field planting ditch, bottom 20-80cm is dug out the Caused by Sloping Surfaces stacking ripening placing ditch;
(4) again the table soil of groove face is backfilling in ditch with 0-20cm topsoil in the ranks.During backfill, residuum, the less stone etc. such as the soil block of top layer agglomerate, turf, plant, less dry branches and fallen leaves, rhizome place bottom of trench as ventilated layer as far as possible, before backfill table soil, soil acidity or alkalinity are nursed one's health to 6.0~6.5;
(5) 2/3 place that the height of backfill table soil is deep to ditch center, and high in outside groove face, the inclined-plane that inner side groove face is low, it is desirable to field planting has been made preparation for ploughing and sowing and waited to plant for first more than 30 days;Successively from the bottom of slope upwards one by one excavation and filling plantation ditch.
(6) by suitable field planting in season fruit tree: by the distance between rows and hills of planning, field planting point should in ditch center, and it is square that planting pit digs 30cm, in conjunction with using decomposed manure, spacing in the rows 400~450cm;Can first plant the stock varieties such as Nashi Pear and grow into beyond carrying out grafting after ground (groove face) 20cm again, it is possible to select to carry out in nursery the direct field planting of nursery stock of stock high level cadre's grafting (i.e. stock grafting mouth 50cm);It is managed by normal fruit tree after field planting;Remove the evil bud of stock in time;
(7) season of growth plantation groove face can epiphragma take precautions against drought heat promotion growth;In the ranks with ladder wall on can annual green manuring vegetable soil, it is suppressed that weed growth;Plantation ditch divides the activation topsoil and green manure weeds that backfill in the ranks 2 years;First Year spring and summer can broadcast sowing fertilizer Semen phaseoli radiati short season leguminous green manure etc. in the ranks with on ladder wall, and the florescence cradles green manure combination and backfills 10cm top layer air slaking mellow soil in the ranks and be covered in plant and do green manuring culture fertility in ditch;Start to broadcast sowing Brassica campestris L or Vicia dasycarpa Winter-Spring green manure in late fall simultaneously, when spring, green manure Biomass was maximum, cradle green manuring, backfill 10cm top layer air slaking mellow soil in the ranks in conjunction with using soil acid-base conditioning fertilizer and biological organic fertilizer;When backfilling every time, first carve and hinder trunk base portion, smear and carve position, traumatic part hestening rooting and disinfection liquid medicine, then blinding, promote generation and the growth of new root system;Such samsara repeatedly, by repeatedly many batches of green manure and ripening table earthen backfill in 2 years;After being backfilling into groove face sizing, begin to rehearse water water-retention ring ditch in the inner side of ditch, in the ranks replants the perennial green manure plant such as butch clover or Vicia sativa with on ladder wall, and the florescence cradles, and is covered in groove face tree dish, increases organic matter, promotes water and soil conservation;
4. rationally impose fertilizer and supply moisture, meet fruit tree good year production growth needs
(1) treelet phase fertilising: after planting first 2 years, increases the number of times of fertilising, reduces each dose.Childhood, pear tree was based on spring, fertilization in summer, base manure, topdresses and lays equal stress on;
(2) base manure: according to fruit tree root growth peak period and nutrient uptake feature, apply fertilizer base manure based on autumn, winter, in conjunction with the work in green manure, in the ranks ripening table earthen backfill ditch, every mu of each use high-quality farmers' pile fermentation fertilizer 1200-1800Kg or organic commercial fertilizer 400-500Kg, NPK compound fertilizer 30-40Kg, calcium and magnesium boron zinc-iron medium trace element fertilizer 5Kg, mix homogeneously is sprinkled into backfill table soil, carry out, without hindering ridging fertilising in root ditch, promoting generation and the growth of root system;
(3) root topdresses: by the nutrient uptake feature of different growth stage fruit tree and the feeder capability of soil, fertilization mode and productive target comprehensive consideration, point 15 supply fertilizer;
(4) foliage-spray: utilize fruit tree young sprout, blade, fruit can directly absorb the feature of Fertilizer nutrient, point 5 periods spray fertilizer;
(5) water management:
1. dam water-retention: the pool or cistern are dug in hilly upland source, make up the deficiency of iirigation water source during arid;
2. the period irrigated and effect: carry out water management according to the fruit variety water-requiring property of plantation;
3. draining: when causing easily flood continuously rainy season, timely ditch cleaning draining;
4. soil moisture conservation: arid season, cradles green manure weeds and covers groove face or groove face epiphragma, and with good conditionsi as far as possible installation drips band or spray irrigation band, carries out water-fertilizer integral management.
In (2) of described step 1 detection soil acidity or alkalinity, organic matter, N, P, K, Ca, Mg index, be for nursing one's health soil acid-base and fostering and apply fertilizer basis.
In (4) of described step 3, soil acidity or alkalinity nurses one's health 6.5 is suitable.
(7) of described step 3 utilize sharp sword carve and hinder basal part of stem surrounding longitudinally 5, every 2cm, as deep as phloem top layer, it is coated with growth-promoting root medicinal liquid NAA800mg/L+ mould spirit 150mg/L.
Base manure in (2) of described step 4, treelet phase and test manufacture phase take the middle low value of recommended fertilizer, take middle high level operation period.
Points of 15 times supply fertilizer in (3) of described step 4, for adopting spray drop band water-fertilizer integral, nitrogen is executed in operation high yield garden, phosphorus, potassium proportioning are 1:0.5:0.75, amounts to every 667m the whole year2Execute purity nitrogen 30.0Kg, pure phosphorus 15.0Kg, pure potassium 22.5Kg.
In (4) of described step 4, foliage-spray refers to according on soil nutrient, plant nutrition detection basis, supplements and sprays nutrient.
Embodiment 4:
A kind of newly-built red kiwi fruit Orchard Soil of hilly upland gently letter efficient management, comprises the following steps:
1. the selection in field, orchard
(1) region of suitable planting fruit variety illumination, temperature conditions is selected;
(2) select suitable edaphic condition and moisture condition, the gradient 10~20 °, domatic for south orientation or southwest to or the southeast to;The acid-base value of detection soil plough horizon, organic matter, N, P, K, Ca, Mg index;
2. carry out the planning in orchard: include the reasonable arrangement planning of the orchard kind of plantation, orchard traffic, road network, irrigating facility, shelter-forest, storehouse;
3. hilly and mountainous land red kiwi fruit orchard soil gently letter management
(1) according to composite factors such as kind, the gradient, slope aspects, it is determined that producing plot area is 20~25 mu, and bottom inclined slope aspect, length is trapezoidal as well;
(2) measure the Article 1 equal pitch contour of production community, hillside fields by the line-spacing of variety requirement, after being adjusted planning, drop 35~45cm, excavation Article 1 plantation ditch, usual ditch depth 80cm, furrow width 100cm, line-spacing 350~450cm by the long ratio of every 10000cm ditch;
(3) the 0-20cm table soil of field planting ditch is first removed upwards domatic position, then the raw-soil at the middle part of field planting ditch, bottom 20-80cm is dug out the Caused by Sloping Surfaces stacking ripening placing ditch, also serve as and fill ladder wall weathering;
(4) again the table soil of groove face is backfilling in ditch with 0-20cm topsoil in the ranks;During backfill, residuum, the less stone etc. such as the soil block of top layer agglomerate, turf, plant, less dry branches and fallen leaves, rhizome place bottom of trench as ventilated layer as far as possible, before backfill table soil, soil acidity or alkalinity are adjusted to 6.1~6.4;
(5) 1/2~2/3 place that the height of backfill table soil is deep to ditch center, and high in outside groove face, the inclined-plane that inner side groove face is low, it is desirable to field planting has been made preparation for ploughing and sowing and waited to plant for first more than 30 days;Successively from the bottom of slope upwards one by one excavation and filling plantation ditch;
(6) by suitable field planting in season fruit tree: by the distance between rows and hills of planning, field planting point should in ditch center, and it is square that planting pit digs 25~30cm, in conjunction with using decomposed manure, spacing in the rows 300~350m;Can first plant the stock varieties such as long fruit Fructus actinidiae chinensis and grow into beyond carrying out grafting after ground (groove face) 10~15cm again, it is possible to select to carry out in nursery the direct field planting of nursery stock of stock high level cadre's grafting (i.e. the high 40~50cm of stock grafting mouth);Male and female plant presses 6:1-8:1 proportional arrangement;It is managed by normal fruit tree after field planting;Remove the evil bud of stock in time;
(7) season of growth plantation groove face can epiphragma take precautions against drought heat promotion growth;In the ranks with ladder wall on can annual green manuring vegetable soil, it is suppressed that weed growth;Plantation ditch divides the activation topsoil and green manure weeds that backfill in the ranks 3 years;First Year can broadcast sowing fertilizer Semen phaseoli radiati short season leguminous green manure in the ranks with on ladder wall spring and summer, and the florescence cradles green manure combination backfill 5~8cm top layer air slaking mellow soil in the ranks and is covered in plantation ditch and does green manuring culture fertility;Start to broadcast sowing Brassica campestris L or Vicia dasycarpa Winter-Spring green manure in late fall simultaneously, when spring, green manure Biomass was maximum, cradle green manuring, in conjunction with using soil acid-base conditioning fertilizer and biological organic fertilizer backfill 5~8cm top layer air slaking mellow soil in the ranks;When backfilling every time, first carve and hinder trunk base portion, smear and carve position, traumatic part hestening rooting and disinfection liquid medicine, then blinding;Such samsara repeatedly, by repeatedly many batches of green manure and ripening table earthen backfill in 3 years, builds good soil environment for fruit tree root system;After being backfilling into groove face sizing, begin to rehearse water water-retention ring ditch in the inner side of ditch, in the ranks replants the perennial green manure plant such as butch clover or Vicia sativa with on ladder wall, and the florescence cradles, and is covered in groove face tree dish, increases organic matter, promotes water and soil conservation;
4. rationally impose fertilizer and supply moisture, meet fruit tree good year production growth needs
(1) treelet phase fertilising: after planting first 2 years, increases the number of times of fertilising, reduces each dose;
(2) base manure: according to fruit tree root growth peak period and nutrient uptake feature, in conjunction with the work in green manure, in the ranks ripening table earthen backfill ditch, every mu of each use high-quality farmers' pile fermentation fertilizer 1400-2000Kg or organic commercial fertilizer 600-800Kg, NPK compound fertilizer 25Kg, the medium trace element fertilizer 3Kg such as calcium and magnesium boron zinc-iron, mix homogeneously is sprinkled into backfill table soil, carries out, without hindering ridging fertilising in root ditch, promoting generation and the growth of root system;
(3) root topdresses: by the nutrient uptake feature of different growth stage fruit tree and the feeder capability of soil, fertilization mode and productive target comprehensive consideration, point 10 supply fertilizer;
(4) foliage-spray: utilize fruit tree young sprout, blade, fruit can directly absorb the feature of Fertilizer nutrient, point 4 periods spray fertilizer;
(5) water management:
1. dam water-retention: the pool or cistern are dug in hilly upland source, make up the deficiency of iirigation water source during arid;
2. the period irrigated and effect: carry out water management according to the fruit variety water-requiring property of plantation;
3. draining: when causing easily flood continuously rainy season, timely ditch cleaning draining;
4. soil moisture conservation: arid season, cradles green manure weeds and covers groove face or groove face epiphragma, and with good conditionsi as far as possible installation drips band or spray irrigation band, carries out water-fertilizer integral management.
In (2) of described step 1 detection soil acidity or alkalinity, organic matter, N, P, K, Ca, Mg index be for nursing one's health soil acid-base and basis of fostering and apply fertilizer.
(7) of described step 3 utilize sharp sword carve and hinder basal part of stem surrounding longitudinally 4, every 1.5cm, as deep as phloem top layer, it is coated with growth-promoting root medicinal liquid NAA800mg/L+ mould spirit 180mg/L.
Base manure in (2) of described step 4, treelet phase and test manufacture phase take the middle low value of recommended fertilizer, take middle high level operation period.
Point 10 supply fertilizer in (3) of described step 4, for adopting spray drop band water-fertilizer integral, the whole year is amounted to every 667m in operation high yield garden2Execute purity nitrogen 13.0Kg, pure phosphorus 3.2Kg, pure potassium 5.8Kg.
In (4) of described step 4, foliage-spray refers to according on soil nutrient, plant nutrition detection basis, supplements and sprays nutrient.
The test effect of the Citrus of management by methods adopted described in embodiment 1-4, downy grape, Huanghua Pear and Chinese gooseberry garden being investigated, added up, arranges the orchard compareed as conventional method management simultaneously, result is in Table 1.
Table 1 adopts the Citrus chachiensis Hort. of the management by methods of the present invention, downy grape, Huanghua Pear and Fructus actinidiae chinensis to abound with the effect in phase orchard
Note: data above is multiple orchards meansigma methodss.
The aforementioned description to the specific illustrative embodiment of the present invention illustrates that and the purpose of illustration.These describe and are not wishing to limit the invention to disclosed precise forms, and it will be apparent that according to above-mentioned instruction, it is possible to carry out much changing and change.Purpose exemplary embodiment selected and describe is in that to explain the certain principles of the present invention and practical application thereof, so that those skilled in the art is capable of and utilizes the various different exemplary of the present invention and various different selection and change.The scope of the present invention is intended to be limited by claims and equivalents thereof.

Claims (2)

1. the method for a hilly upland Newly built orchard soil gently letter high-efficiency management, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
(1) selection in field: select gradient 10-25 °, domatic for south orientation, southwest to or the southeast to towards, be suitable for treating that region that planting fruit-trees kind plants is as field;
(2) planning in orchard: measure the Article 1 equal pitch contour of production community, hillside fields by the line-spacing of variety requirement, after being adjusted planning, by every 10000cm ditch long ratio, 30-50cm, excavation Article 1 plantation ditch drop, plantation ditch depth 80cm × wide 100cm, line-spacing 300-500cm;First the soil of field planting ditch top layer 0-20cm is first removed upwards domatic position, then the raw-soil at the middle part of field planting ditch, bottom 20-80cm is dug out the Caused by Sloping Surfaces being placed on plantation ditch;Again the table soil of groove face is backfilling in ditch with 0-20cm topsoil in the ranks;During backfill, the soil block of top layer agglomerate, turf, plant, dry branches and fallen leaves, rhizome residuum, less stone are positioned over the bottom planting ditch, before backfill table soil, soil acidity or alkalinity are transferred to 6.0-6.5;During backfill, the height 1/2-2/3 place deep to ditch center of table soil, and in outside groove face height, the inclined-plane that inner side groove face is low, within before field planting 30-45 days, complete to make preparation for ploughing and sowing and wait to plant;Successively from the bottom of slope upwards one by one excavation and filling plantation ditch;
(3) field planting fruit tree: field planting point is located at the center of plantation ditch, and it is square that planting pit digs 20-30cm, spacing in the rows 300-500cm;Own-rooted tree fruit tree can directly be planted on request;Grafting fruit tree need to first be planted stock variety and grow into beyond carrying out grafting after groove face 10-20cm again or selecting to carry out in nursery the direct field planting of fruit nursery stock of stock high level cadre's grafting;
(4) plantation ditch divides 2-3 backfill activation topsoil in the ranks and green manure weeds: the 1st year spring and summer can broadcast sowing leguminous green manure of the short season such as fertilizer Semen phaseoli radiati in the ranks with on ladder wall, and the florescence cradles green manure and combines and backfill 5-10cm top layer air slaking mellow soil in the ranks and be covered in and plant in ditch;Start to broadcast sowing Brassica campestris L or Vicia dasycarpa Winter-Spring green manure in late fall simultaneously, when spring, green manure Biomass was maximum, cradle green manuring, backfill 5-10cm top layer air slaking mellow soil in the ranks in conjunction with using soil acid-base conditioning fertilizer and biological organic fertilizer;When backfilling every time, first carve and hinder trunk base portion, smear disinfectant solution of taking root then blinding carving position, traumatic part;Such samsara repeatedly, by 2-3 repeatedly many batches of green manure and ripening table earthen backfill;After being backfilling into groove face sizing, begin to rehearse water water-retention ring ditch in the inner side of ditch, in the ranks replants butch clover or the perennial green manure plant of Vicia sativa with on ladder wall, and the florescence cradles, and is covered in groove face tree dish;Utilizing sharp sword to carve and hinder basal part of stem surrounding longitudinal direction 3-5 bar, every 1-2cm, as deep as phloem top layer;
(5) other liquid manure conventionally carries out.
2. the method for hilly upland Newly built orchard soil according to claim 1 gently letter high-efficiency management, it is characterised in that the disinfectant solution of taking root described in step (4) is NAA500-1000mg/L+ mould spirit 100-200mg/L.
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CN107047214A (en) * 2017-06-06 2017-08-18 鲁甸县浩丰苹果专业合作社 Apple orchard sward trench digging collected manure implantation methods
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CN107047214A (en) * 2017-06-06 2017-08-18 鲁甸县浩丰苹果专业合作社 Apple orchard sward trench digging collected manure implantation methods
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CN109566250A (en) * 2019-01-22 2019-04-05 江西省科学院生物资源研究所 A kind of interplanting method of lupin and Kiwi berry
CN109566250B (en) * 2019-01-22 2021-10-01 江西省科学院生物资源研究所 Interplanting method of lupin and kiwi fruit
CN109601236A (en) * 2019-02-18 2019-04-12 云南省农业科学院热带亚热带经济作物研究所 Shan Di Mango implantation methods
CN110695082A (en) * 2019-11-06 2020-01-17 四川省内江市农业科学院 Soil ecological restoration method
CN110695082B (en) * 2019-11-06 2021-04-27 四川省内江市农业科学院 Soil ecological restoration method

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