CN103355150B - Flue-cured tobacco floating breeding cultivation method - Google Patents

Flue-cured tobacco floating breeding cultivation method Download PDF

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CN103355150B
CN103355150B CN201310336706.0A CN201310336706A CN103355150B CN 103355150 B CN103355150 B CN 103355150B CN 201310336706 A CN201310336706 A CN 201310336706A CN 103355150 B CN103355150 B CN 103355150B
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seedling
cured tobacco
flue
cigarette
film
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CN103355150A (en
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郭明全
张宗锦
胡建新
潘兴兵
闫芳芳
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SICHUAN TOBACOO Corp PANZHIHUA BRANCH
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SICHUAN TOBACOO Corp PANZHIHUA BRANCH
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Abstract

The invention discloses a flue-cured tobacco floating breeding cultivation method and belongs to the technical field of flue-cured tobacco breeding cultivation. The method comprises the steps of loading and sowing seeds, managing seedling, previously preparing land and transplanting. The seedling managing step takes control measures for temperature and humidity in a seedling growing greenhouse, management measures for fertilizing flue-cured tobacco seedlings, measures for thinning and singling the flue-cured tobacco seedlings and measures for pruning roots and exercising the seedlings. The seedling managing step doesn't comprise the measures for cutting leaves of the flue-cured tobacco seedlings. In the transplanting step, the transplanting time is that the seedling age is 45 days. The transplanting step takes measures of nesting in fixed points, fertilizing organic fertilizers, sufficiently watering bottom water, fertilizing inorganic fertilizers, preventing and curing crop smothering, preventing and curing insect pest and covering mulch films. The mulch film covering measure is that the flue-cured tobacco seedlings are covered by black films. The method can reduce cost, reduces plant diseases and insect pests, reduces resource destruction and environmental pollution and improves economical benefits of flue-cured tobacco breeding cultivation.

Description

Floating seedling cultivation of fire-cured tobacco cultivation method
Technical field
The floating seedling cultivation of fire-cured tobacco cultivation method that the invention belongs to the seedling cultivation field of flue-cured tobacco, be specifically related to a kind ofly to reduce costs, reduce damage by disease and insect, reduce the destruction Of resources and environmental pollution, increase economic efficiency.
Background technology
From nineteen ninety, at tobacco planting region spread floating seedling cultivation of fire-cured tobacco and the corresponding cultivation techniques of China, the present invention is called floating seedling cultivation of fire-cured tobacco cultivation method, and this technology or method are acknowledged as the state-of-the-art flue-cured tobacco seedling-cultivating of China and corresponding cultivation techniques.So-called floating seedlings namely by relevant mineral matters such as peat composed of rotten mosses class straw class expanded perlite, vermiculites through the special seedling medium that is processed into, matrix is contained in polystyrene foam plastics seedling-cultivating tray pore chamber, after cigarette kind is sown into matrix, seedling-cultivating tray is swum in the nursery pond that pancebrin and bactericide are housed, controllable greenhouse or plastic tunnel temperature, allow seed germination, growth, seedling.Floating seedling cultivation of fire-cured tobacco and corresponding cultivation techniques are divided into two aspects.
One, floating seedling cultivation of fire-cured tobacco
1, place is built.One is select canopy location.Canopy location should select leeward on the sunny side, physical features is smooth, pollution-free, traffic smooth and easy near source of clean water, draining be than conveniently local.Two is build canopy.Seedling canopy bow member can build with bamboo cane, reinforcing bar or coating steel pipe, and the every furrow of seedling canopy press double plate arrangement.The long limit of dish is parallel with the long limit of seedling canopy, so that management and humiture control, it is best that canopy builds up south-north direction.Three is build nutrition pond.Nutrition pond generally adopts hollow brick or wooden frame etc. to enclose and builds.The length in general pond than the total length putting into seedling-cultivating tray grow 5-8 centimetre proper, width wider than the overall width putting into seedling-cultivating tray go out 2-4 centimetre proper, ensure that a nursery pond lays 144 drift dishes.Nutrition pond to be built in strict accordance with the specification of seedling-cultivating tray, after guaranteeing to put into seedling-cultivating tray, without large gap between seedling-cultivating tray and nutrition pond, otherwise easily grow blue-green alge.The degree of depth in nutrition pond is 20 centimetres.Must through meticulously smooth at the bottom of pond, pressing makes real, and guarantees level.After handling well at the bottom of pond, for preventing soil insect to break by the teeth film, cause film to leak, trichlorphon 500 ~ 800 times of liquid or 50% phoxim, 1000 times of liquid of available 90% spray, and kill soil insect.Four is that plastic film mulch is poured water.After nutrition pond is built up, at the bottom of pond, spread the sealed polyethylene plastic of bilayer thickness more than 0.08 millimeter, first can spread the old film of one deck, repave the new film of one deck.Be careful during plastic film mulch, prevent from scratching film, produce drainage.
2, the preparation before sowing.One is that seedling medium prepares.The seedling medium used normally is filled a prescription as the matrix of " 60% peat composed of rotten mosses+20% vermiculite+20% fine perlite ".Two is that seedling-cultivating tray prepares.Seedling-cultivating tray adopts polystyrene plastics foam to make, and quality is light, and resistance to bubble is corrosion-resistant, has certain mechanical strength, specification normally 160 caves/.
Clear and definite in tobacco floating seed rearing technical regulation (DB5104/T097-2009) in tobacco seedling basic fundamental code (YC/T143-1998) and Panzhihua City high-quality tobacco provincial standard in 2009 in tobacco business standards in 1998: (1) seedling-cultivating tray foamed plastics is made, long 0.55 meter, wide 0.34 meter, high 60 millimeters of dish, often coils 160 caves; (2) seedling medium is by 60-70%(V/V) peat composed of rotten mosses+15-20%(V/V) fine perlite makes.By the combination of matrix, nursery drift dish and nutrient solution, the tobacco seedling growth that the cigarette seedling that floating seedlings is brought out brings out compared with conventional seedbed system is more healthy and stronger, regularity is high, well developed root system, disease-free, be convenient to transplant, survival rate is high.
3, sabot sowing.One is sabot.Before sabot, first to adjust the moisture of matrix, generally can be agglomerating to hold matrix, naturally can scatter after unclamping, illustrate that the moisture of matrix is more suitable.During sabot, first pile up in card by loose for matrix, push in dish cave with scraper plate, then, dish is raised slightly, on level land gently pier several under, matrix in hole is enriched naturally, then fills and leads up card by matrix, two to three times so repeatedly, when the matrix in hole no longer falls, scrape off matrix unnecessary in card with scraper plate just passable.Two is sowings.The beginning of spring (the beginning of February) of farming season is most regional Suitable Sowing Period, and High aititude (more than the 1800 meters) area that temperature is on the low side can suitably shift to an earlier date.High-quality capsuled seed is selected to sow.Every bunch planting 2 ~ 3 seeds, after finishing a dish, gently press seedling-cultivating tray surface with plank, make seed be absorbed in matrix, fully contact with matrix.Then, spray clear water with sprayer to card, impel seed pelleting evenly cracking in time.After finishing, card sprinkles the matrix that one deck prepares, suitably covers kind, thickness is suitable just can't see seed.Finally, the seedling-cultivating tray having broadcast seed is put into nutrition pond.Finally seedling-cultivating tray is put into nutrition pond, buckle Small plastic shed, spread film.
4, seedling management.
One is temperature and humidity management.Temp. and humidity in seedling growth greenhouse is regulated and controled by taking off lid canopy film.Nursery temperature in early stage is low, emerging, take strict Insulation, the temperature on seedling-cultivating tray surface being remained between 20 degrees Celsius ~ 25 degrees Celsius, could obtain maximum emergence rate like this from being seeded into.After planting 20 ~ 40 days, first and second sheet true leaf of cigarette seedling and cotyledon crisscross, just entered the little cross phase.From emerging to the little cross phase, still based on insulation, but, when noon, temperature was high for fine day, ventilation dewetting, cooling, prevent disease from occurring, sooner or later will the insulation of lid upper greenhouse.The little cross phase to the seedling stage, to avoid extreme temperature.Along with the rise of temperature, pay special attention to ventilate, temperature of shed is the highest can not more than 30 degrees Celsius, prevent high temperature from burning seedling, during the fine heat of weather, the canopy film of both sides can be rolled, stronger ventilation amount.With canopy wall, the moisture management of seedling growth greenhouse does not occur that water droplet is suitable.If canopy wall has water droplet, illustrate that canopy humidity is excessive, at this moment, just need to open part canopy film hydrofuge.
Two is fertilizing managements.During fertilising, the consumption of fertilizer to be determined according to the capacity of the water of Miao Chizhong.Fertilizing method is, tobacco seedling special fertilizer and the micro fertilizer special containing appropriate middle and trace element are put in bucket, first fully stir with water, after dissolving completely in fertilizer, evenly pour in pond along seedling pond trend, agitation as appropriate, makes fertilizer nutrient be uniformly distributed in nutrition pond, prevents local fertilizer concentration too high and produces precipitation.Generally execute twice fertile nutritional need that just can meet cigarette seedling whole seedling stage.First time applies when seed germination, after applying fertilizer, in nutrient solution, nitrogenous fertilizer concentration is 100 mg/litre, after emerging, each was to two days, and available pool Middle nutrition liquid carries out foliage spray and topdresses, and sprays two to three times, second time fertilising is carried out for about 20 days after emerging, and in nutrient solution, nitrogenous fertilizer concentration is still 100 mg/litre.Before and after the cigarette seedling grand cross phase, every 5 ~ 7 days should at seedling panel surface spray clear water, the downward leaching of the salinity that stromal surface is accumulated.
Three is thinning final singling management.When seedling grows to the little cross phase, start thinning, final singling, take out cigarette seedling unnecessary in seedling cave, mend to plant simultaneously on hole and be short of seedling.When filling the gaps with seedlings, gently cigarette seedling is taken out from matrix with small bamboo spike or other instruments, be transplanted to and need, in the dish cave of filling the gaps with seedlings, to ensure every cave one seedling.
Four is that root management is cut in leaf-cutting.When cigarette seedling grows to four to five leaves, carry out leaf-cutting and cut root work, object suppresses seedlings growth, promotes that seedling is long soon, can make tobacco seedling growth neat and consistent, increase stem thick, can also strengthen the resistance of cigarette seedling simultaneously, improve cigarette shoot survival percent.Strict grasp leaf-cutting standard, must cigarette seedling grow to 6 ~ 8 centimetres high, cigarette seedling erect wing time, start first time leaf-cutting, leaf-cutting can not be too early, otherwise cane can be made excessively short, is unfavorable for nurturing staff.Cutting range rests in and exceeds growing point 3 ~ 4 centimeters, and each Clipping proportion is 50% ~ 60% of monolithic area, while leaf-cutting, extracts strong yellow leaf.From first time after leaf-cutting, leaf-cutting in every four to six days once, is total to leaf-cutting three to four times to becoming seedling stage.Leaf-cutting is the main path of disease spread in floating seedlings, and operating personnel should with washing powder or washing hand with soap.Also the disinfection will carrying out leaves cutting tools is in addition the key link ensureing to cultivate anosis healthy and strong cigarette seedling.Leaves cutting tools before leaf-cutting and in leaf-cutting process, through conventional 5% washing powder solution or soap cleaning and sterilizing, the fragment cut can not remain on cauline leaf, will clean out canopy in time, prevents disease from occurring.When cigarette seedling grows four to five true leaves, need to carry out cutting root, to promote lateral root growth, cultivate flourishing root system.Before cutting root, instrument also carries out disinfection with soap, and shearing root tips technique repeatedly scrapes on the bottom surface of dish with the bamboo chip of skiving, wiped out by the main root coring be exposed at outside dish.
Clear and definite in tobacco floating seed rearing technical regulation (DB5104/T097-2009) in tobacco seedling basic fundamental code (YC/T143-1998) and Panzhihua City high-quality tobacco provincial standard in 2009 in tobacco business standards in 1998: cigarette seedling five leaves wholeheartedly time, start leaf-cutting, each Clipping proportion is generally no more than SL A 50%, generally cut once every 5-7 days, cut 3-5 time to during seedling.Reduce tobacco stem height by leaf-cutting, and can postpone to transplant the early growth of rear cigarette seedling, make to budding and postpone flowering stage; Have adjusted the relation of tobacco root system and the growth of acrial part cauline leaf, strengthen cigarette seedling resistance against disadvantage.
Five is hardening management.The mode of hardening has two kinds, and one is take off film to ventilate, and two is carry out fertile process of cutting off the water supply.When after cigarette seedling seedling, when namely reaching 10 cm, hardening of just should ventilating in time, there is slight wilting with fine day cigarette at noon seedling in hardening degree, it is suitable for sooner or later recovering normally.Transplant front ten to ten five days, progressively stronger ventilation amount, runs into low temperature or rainy day, timely epiphragma, transplant first four to six days, film is all opened, transplant and within first two to four days, carry out disconnected fertile hardening of cutting off the water supply, make the high resilience of cigarette seedling leaf, dehydration tolerance, improve transplanting survival rate and resistance.
(2) floating seedling cultivation of fire-cured tobacco is transplanted
1, in advance wholely.Utilize season in winter slack, turned over by results preceding crop, green manure, Soil tillage, broken upturned soil of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up, to loosen the soil except stubble, trench digging manage the general name of a series of farming activities such as railway carriage or compartment planting before cigarette.By in advance whole, can effective chesson, increase ground temperature, improve soil activation, promote that beneficial microbe is movable, thicken the native degree of depth of living, improve the growth and development environment of tobacco-growing soil.Pre-whole ground must be accomplished: one is complete before planting the cigarette previous moon in advance wholely, the arrangement of every farming of retrodicting with this.First, the preceding crop kind that the breeding time of choosing seeds is shorter is abundant to ensure pre-time of site preparation.Secondly, to turn in time after front stubble harvesting and shine soil, rake fine earth block, level land.Remove upper season and be detained the residue such as tobacco rod, cigarette root.3rd, by culturable standard requirement, bracing wire ridging; Ridging direction, is convenient to draining with level land, downwind ridging; Hillside fields is beneficial to soil moisture conservation, by contour ridging.4th, ridge body accomplishes that ditch is straight, soil is thin, draining unobstructed ridge body is even, full, and width, the depth are consistent, to pick up on the body of clean ridge the foreign matters such as wheat stake.Deep plough 30 centimetres and be advisable, whole good ground will accomplish that Tian Ping, soil are thin, uniformity.Two is excavated drain ditch.Must first at cigarette ground surrounding excavation gutter before ridging, larger field also will excavate waist ditch, and ditch depth more than 40 centimetres, is conducive to draining and lowering of watertable.Hillside fields cigarette will excavate anti-Great Gulch, the plot of rice field and hypsography low-lying, pay attention to especially deep-cutting drain ditch, and gutter is than waist ditch depth more than 10 centimetres.Three is grasp ridging specification.Ridging: by the requirement of unified direction, uniform height, unified specification, line-spacing 120 centimetres, spacing in the rows 50 centimetres; Mu plants the strain of cigarette number 1100.First ridging is high more than 20 centimetres, and ridging reaches more than 30 centimetres behind railway carriage or compartment; Accomplish that envelope is full, in " trapezoidal "; Hold drain ditch successfully, gutter is deeper than waist ditch simultaneously, and waist ditch is deeper than railway carriage or compartment ditch, and groove face is straight, and ditch ditch communicates.
2, transplant.Transplant and totally take large nest foot depth of water hydroponics.
One is that stay cord fixed point beats nest, 25 ~ 30 centimetres, nest footpath, dark 18 ~ 20 centimetres of nest.
Two is fertilizers.Fertilizer (oil cake after becoming thoroughly decomposed, use microbial inoculum urge the farmyard manure after corruption, the phosphate fertilizer become thoroughly decomposed, organic commercial fertilizer) is applied in nest, mixes with soil.
Three is water vola water.Be no less than the standard of 5 kilograms by every nest, water foot and water water of revealing the exact details, and after treating that (generally 30 minutes, after tough soil waters 1 hour) water oozes fully down, then plant cigarette.
Four is plant cigarette.First by cigarette seedling implantation fossa, dark cultivation, only reveals lobus cardiacus, fixes with soil as far as possible, and cigarette nest is in " tea tray is strengthened ".Clear and definite in tobacco floating seed rearing technical regulation (DB5104/T097-2009) in tobacco seedling basic fundamental code (YC/T143-1998) and Panzhihua City high-quality tobacco provincial standard in 2009 in tobacco business standards in 1998: (1) cigarette seedling seedling age 60-65 days; (2) seedling standard: the individual plant number of sheets 6 ~ 8, high 8 ~ 12 ㎝ of stem, diameter stem >5mm, well developed root system, fibrous root is many and white, overall delicate and pretty.Seedling age is defined as 60-65 days, ensure that cigarette seedling acrial part and under ground portion growth are coordinated, also meets the needs of field-transplanting simultaneously.
Five is execute inorganic fertilizer.With measuring cup by the circulating application of the fertilizer such as composite fertilizer, micro-fertilizer in cigarette seedling (apart from cigarette strain 8 ~ 10 centimetres) around, then water normal root water, 2.0 kilograms/strain, then with fine earth, fertilizer covered.
Six is prevention and control of weeds.With the weed killer herbicide such as " land for growing field crops is clean ", " clomazone ", spray table soil around cigarette strain, forbid liquid medicine to be got on cigarette seedling.
Seven is pest controls.Adopt 9,0%0,000 clever pulvis, 3000 times of liquid or 2.5% cream of decamethrin, 2000 times of liquid, 90% 500 ~ 800 times, chlorophos liquid irrigating root, or the medicament administration such as 50% phoxim emulsifiable concentrate is around cigarette strain.
Eight is overlay films.Clear and definite in flue-cured tobacco film-mulching technique code (DB5104/T100-2009) and flue-cured tobacco transplanting technical regulation (DB5104/T102-2009) in Panzhihua City high-quality tobacco provincial standards in 2009: flue-cured tobacco all carries out plastic mulching, ground film thickness is 0.006-0.007 millimeter, width 0.8-0.9 meter, mulch film color is colourless transparent film, photolyzed film or bilingual film are advisable; After cigarette transplantation of seedlings, covering with plastic film, mulch film punches and to be drawn out by cigarette seedling, ensures that core leaf bassets 20-30 millimeters, without high pin seedling.
Nine is impose to carry seed manure.Within 7-10 days after flue-cured tobacco field-transplanting, use potassium nitrate and carry seed manure (DB5104/T101-2009).
Ten is take off railway carriage or compartment on film.Within after field-transplanting 25-30 days, combine and take off railway carriage or compartment on film remaining potassium sulfate and Special compound fertilizer for tobacco are executed down (DB5104/T101-2009) in the lump; The selection of time of taking off film ridging was carried out in the afternoon of fine day, and ridging is carefully tight, ridging height 0.2-0.3 meter (DB5104/T104-2009).
11 is bud picking of pinching.The cigarette strain of cigarette ground growth has 50% the flowers are in blossom at first center when putting pinches.1-2 tops connecting inflorescence are beaten when pinching.Beat after determining and all remove bud (DB5104/T104-2009) with chemical Suckering agents.
12 to be that maturation is adopted roasting.Inferior leads is adopted roasting in 7-10 days after pinching, ripe leaf age 50-60 days; The leaf age of middle leaf maturation 60-80 days; The leaf age of upper leaf maturation 80-90 days.Collecting time is generally gathered as well with morning before direct sunlight, easily judges Maturity of Tobacco Leaf (DB5104/T112-2009).
Above-mentioned existing floating seedling cultivation of fire-cured tobacco cultivation method can think the state-of-the-art flue-cured tobacco seedling-cultivating of China and corresponding cultivation techniques method, but still there is following defect: one is that seedling cost remains high; Two is that the mosaic disease incidence of disease is higher; Three is that the consumption to resource and the pollution to environment are larger; Four is that nursery stage is long, and seedling quality is not high; Five be transplanting time on the occasion of the time in busy farming season, labour is nervous.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is to provide the floating seedling cultivation of fire-cured tobacco cultivation method a kind ofly reducing costs, reduce damage by disease and insect, reduce the destruction Of resources and environmental pollution, increase economic efficiency.
The method is specially adapted to that annual four May temperature are high, evaporation discharge is large, and the arid area that rainfall is few, as the dry-hot valley area etc. of Sichuan, Goats in Liangshan Prefecture.
The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is: floating seedling cultivation of fire-cured tobacco cultivation method, comprise sabot sowing, seedling management, in advance whole the step with transplanting, seedling management step comprises to be taked the control measure to temperature and humidity in seedling growth greenhouse, the control measures of applying fertilizer to flue-cured tobacco seedling, flue-cured tobacco seedling is carried out to the measure of thinning and final singling and cut the measure of root and hardening, flue-cured tobacco seedling is not taked to the measure of leaf-cutting; In transplant step, the time of transplanting is seedling age 45 days, transplant step comprise take to fix a point to beat nest, organic fertilizer, water vola water, plant cigarette, execute inorganic fertilizer, prevention and control of weeds, pest control and overlay film measure; Described overlay film refers to and cover black film on flue-cured tobacco seedling, when temperature under film reaches more than 40 degree, aim at the perforate of cigarette seedling to ensure cigarette seedling normal growth under film, when after flue-cured tobacco seedling grows 15 days under film, (or during seedling distance from top black film 2 cm distance) draws seedling earthing again, black film tapping is covered tight, and imposes and carry seed manure.
Described seedling earthing of drawing refers to and draws on mulch film by the cigarette seedling close to mulch film from mulch film, the blade of cigarette strain is all emerging on mulch film, and mulch film contacts with the basal part of stem of cigarette strain, with fine earth, the perforate position of mulch film is covered tight, and make cigarette strain surrounding present tea tray shape.
Wherein, in said method, the seedling-cultivating tray specification adopted in sabot sowing step is 630 caves/dish, the long 665mm of seedling-cultivating tray, wide 355mm, high 35mm.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
Clear and definite in tobacco floating seed rearing technical regulation (DB5104/T097-2009) and flue-cured tobacco transplanting technical regulation (DB5104/T102-2009) in tobacco seedling basic fundamental code (YC/T143-1998), Panzhihua City high-quality tobacco provincial standard in 2009 in tobacco business standards in 1998: 1, seedling-cultivating tray foamed plastics is made, long 0.55 meter, wide 0.34 meter, high 60 millimeters of dish, often coils 160 caves.The time of 2, transplanting is cigarette seedling seedling age 60-65 days, ensure that cigarette seedling acrial part and under ground portion growth are coordinated, also meets the needs of field-transplanting simultaneously.If the seedling age of cigarette seedling was reduced to 45 days from 60-65 days, the toughness of cigarette seedling, highly, resistance all can not meet the requirement of grown in field, directly under being exposed to the sun of the sun, and will be directly dead.3, cigarette seedling five leaves wholeheartedly time, start leaf-cutting, each Clipping proportion is generally no more than SL A 50%, generally cuts once every 5-7 days, cuts 3-5 time to during seedling; Reduce tobacco stem height by leaf-cutting, and can postpone to transplant the early growth of rear cigarette seedling, make to budding and postpone flowering stage; Have adjusted the relation of tobacco root system and the growth of acrial part cauline leaf, strengthen cigarette seedling resistance against disadvantage.If cigarette seedling seedling age reaches 60-65 days do not carry out leaf-cutting, the growth of cigarette seedling entirety will be made irregular, and cigarette seedling cane is not sturdy, and root system is undeveloped, and resistance reduces greatly, and the survival rate being transplanted to land for growing field crops reduces greatly.4, flue-cured tobacco all carries out plastic mulching, and ground film thickness is 0.006-0.007 millimeter, width 0.8-0.9 meter, and mulch film color is colourless transparent film, photolyzed film or bilingual film are advisable; After cigarette transplantation of seedlings, covering with plastic film, mulch film punches and to be drawn out by cigarette seedling, ensures that core leaf bassets 20-30 millimeters, without high pin seedling.This kind of transplanting can ensure that after cigarette transplantation of seedlings, soil moisture can not run off, and ensure that the normal growth of cigarette seedling.
The present invention, by taking the scheme of not leaf-cutting, by the time advance of transplanting to seedling age 45 days, uses black film instead, draws the aggregate measures of seedling earthing again overcome above-mentioned all problems after flue-cured tobacco seedling grows 15 days under film.Seedling age is shortened to 45 days, cigarette seedling has just grown into the four leaves stage wholeheartedly, when also not entering original nursery leaf-cutting stage, by cigarette seedling direct transplantation to land for growing field crops, make it originally directly move on to land for growing field crops in the time of seedling growth greenhouse growth to have come, but in order to ensure that cigarette seedling has normal, a similar growing environment with seedling growth greenhouse, change mulch film into black film, the temp. and humidity making its cigarette seedling grow under film is similar to the flue-cured tobacco seedling-cultivating canopy temp. and humidity of the 45 to 65 day substantially.Increase flue-cured tobacco growing stage by shortening seedling age, (namely nursery stage length, also seedling stage are long to solve " two length two are short " occurred in cured tobacco production; Prosperous for a long time short, the maturing stage is short) shortcoming.Not leaf-cutting makes the virus disease incidence of disease of cigarette seedling greatly reduce.Use black film, cigarette seedling is grown under black film, ensure that 45 days seedling age cigarette seedlings are dried up under not being exposed to the sun.
Then, the present invention changes seedling-cultivating tray specification into 630 caves/dish, the long 665mm of seedling-cultivating tray, wide 355mm, high 35mm, decreases nursery land used, decreases the peat composed of rotten mosses required for nursery, reduce the pollution to environment.
Due to the effect of above-mentioned aggregate measures, seedling cost reduced greatly, the mosaic disease incidence of disease significantly reduces, the destruction Of resources and environmental pollution reduce in a large number, become " two long two short " (namely nursery stage long, and also seedling stage long; Prosperous for a long time short, the maturing stage is short) be " two short two long " (namely nursery stage short, and also seedling stage short; Prosperous long-term length, maturing stage length), facilitate the abundant growth in flue-cured tobacco land for growing field crops, flue-cured tobacco economic benefit obviously increases.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is further illustrated.
1, floating seedling cultivation of fire-cured tobacco cultivation method of the present invention, comprise sabot sowing, seedling management, in advance whole the step with transplanting, seedling management step comprises to be taked the control measure to temperature and humidity in seedling growth greenhouse, the control measures of applying fertilizer to flue-cured tobacco seedling, flue-cured tobacco seedling is carried out to the measure of thinning and final singling and cut the measure of root and hardening, flue-cured tobacco seedling is not taked to the measure of leaf-cutting; In transplant step, the time of transplanting is seedling age 45 days, transplant step comprise take to fix a point to beat nest, organic fertilizer, water vola water, plant cigarette, execute inorganic fertilizer, prevention and control of weeds, pest control and overlay film measure; Described overlay film refers to and cover black film on flue-cured tobacco seedling, when temperature under film reaches more than 40 degree, aim at cigarette seedling perforate (diameter 5 centimetres) and ensure cigarette seedling normal growth under film, when after flue-cured tobacco seedling grows 15 days under film, (or during seedling distance from top black film 2 cm distance) draws seedling earthing again, black film tapping is covered tight, and imposes and carry seed manure.
Preferably, in said method, the seedling-cultivating tray specification adopted in sabot sowing step is 630 caves/dish, the long 665mm of seedling-cultivating tray, wide 355mm, high 35mm.
Be further described the specific embodiment of the invention below by embodiment, therefore protection scope of the present invention does not limit not in one embodiment by list.
Embodiment one adopts existing floating seedling cultivation of fire-cured tobacco cultivation method to carry out nursery and the cultivation of flue-cured tobacco
2011 time, Panzhihua City Miyi County, place, Yanbian County, Renhe District.
One, floating seedling cultivation of fire-cured tobacco
1, place is built.One is select canopy location.Canopy location should select leeward on the sunny side, physical features is smooth, pollution-free, traffic smooth and easy near source of clean water, draining be than conveniently local.Two is build canopy.Seedling canopy bow member bamboo cane, reinforcing bar or coating steel pipe build, seedling canopy specification, long 10 meters, width 3.7 meters.The long limit of dish is parallel with the long limit of seedling canopy, so that management and humiture control, canopy builds up south-north direction.Three is build nutrition pond.Nutrition pond adopts hollow brick or wooden frame etc. to enclose and builds.The length in pond grows 5-8 centimetre than the total length putting into seedling-cultivating tray, width wider than the overall width putting into seedling-cultivating tray go out 2-4 centimetre, ensure that a nursery pond lays 144 drift dishes.After guaranteeing to put into seedling-cultivating tray, without large gap between seedling-cultivating tray and nutrition pond.The degree of depth in nutrition pond is 20 centimetres.After handling well at the bottom of pond, 500 ~ 800 times of liquid of the trichlorphon with 90% or 50% phoxim, 1000 times of liquid spray, and kill soil insect.Four is that plastic film mulch is poured water.After nutrition pond is built up, at the bottom of pond, spread the sealed polyethylene plastic of bilayer thickness more than 0.08 millimeter, first spread the old film of one deck, repave the new film of one deck.
2, the preparation before sowing.One is that seedling medium prepares.The seedling medium formula used is the matrix of " 60% peat composed of rotten mosses+20% vermiculite+20% fine perlite ".Two is that seedling-cultivating tray prepares.Seedling-cultivating tray adopts polystyrene plastics foam to make, and quality is light, and resistance to bubble is corrosion-resistant, has certain mechanical strength, specification be 160 caves/.
3, sabot sowing.One is sabot.Before sabot, first to adjust the moisture of matrix, generally can be agglomerating to hold matrix, naturally can scatter after unclamping, illustrate that the moisture of matrix is more suitable.During sabot, first pile up in card by loose for matrix, push in dish cave with scraper plate, then, dish is raised slightly, on level land gently pier several under, matrix in hole is enriched naturally, then fills and leads up card by matrix, two to three times so repeatedly, when the matrix in hole no longer falls, scrape off matrix unnecessary in card with scraper plate just passable.Two is sowings.February 20, high-quality capsuled seed is selected to sow.Every bunch planting 2 ~ 3 seeds, after finishing a dish, gently press seedling-cultivating tray surface with plank, make seed be absorbed in matrix, fully contact with matrix.Then, spray clear water with sprayer to card, impel seed pelleting evenly cracking in time.After finishing, card sprinkles the matrix that one deck prepares, suitably covers kind, thickness is suitable just can't see seed.Finally, the seedling-cultivating tray having broadcast seed is put into nutrition pond.Finally seedling-cultivating tray is put into nutrition pond, buckle Small plastic shed, spread film.
4, seedling management.
One is temperature and humidity management.Temp. and humidity in seedling growth greenhouse is regulated and controled by taking off lid canopy film.Nursery temperature in early stage is low, emerges, take strict Insulation, the temperature on seedling-cultivating tray surface is remained between 20 degrees Celsius ~ 25 degrees Celsius from being seeded into.After planting 20 ~ 40 days, first and second sheet true leaf of cigarette seedling and cotyledon crisscross, just entered the little cross phase.From emerging to the little cross phase, still based on insulation, but, when noon, temperature was high for fine day, ventilation dewetting, cooling, prevent disease from occurring, sooner or later will the insulation of lid upper greenhouse.The little cross phase to the seedling stage, to avoid extreme temperature.Along with the rise of temperature, pay special attention to ventilate, temperature of shed is the highest can not more than 30 degrees Celsius.With canopy wall, the moisture management of seedling growth greenhouse does not occur that water droplet is suitable.If canopy wall has water droplet, illustrate that canopy humidity is excessive, at this moment, just need to open part canopy film hydrofuge.
Two is fertilizing managements.During fertilising, the consumption of fertilizer to be determined according to the capacity of the water of Miao Chizhong.Fertilizing method is, tobacco seedling special fertilizer and the micro fertilizer special containing appropriate middle and trace element are put in bucket, first fully stir with water, after dissolving completely in fertilizer, evenly pour in pond along seedling pond trend, agitation as appropriate, makes fertilizer nutrient be uniformly distributed in nutrition pond, prevents local fertilizer concentration too high and produces precipitation.Execute twice fertile nutritional need that just can meet cigarette seedling whole seedling stage, first time applies when seed germination, after applying fertilizer, in nutrient solution, nitrogenous fertilizer concentration is 100 mg/litre, and after emerging, each was to two days, carry out foliage spray with pond Middle nutrition liquid to topdress, spray two to three times, second time fertilising is carried out for about 20 days after emerging, and in nutrient solution, nitrogenous fertilizer concentration is still 100 mg/litre.Before and after the cigarette seedling grand cross phase, within every 5 ~ 7 days, spray clear water in seedling panel surface, the downward leaching of the salinity that stromal surface is accumulated.
Three is thinning final singling management.When seedling grows to the little cross phase, start thinning, final singling, take out cigarette seedling unnecessary in seedling cave, mend to plant simultaneously on hole and be short of seedling.When filling the gaps with seedlings, gently cigarette seedling is taken out from matrix with small bamboo spike or other instruments, be transplanted to and need, in the dish cave of filling the gaps with seedlings, to ensure every cave one seedling.
Four is that root management is cut in leaf-cutting.When cigarette seedling grows to four to five leaves, carry out leaf-cutting and cut root work, suppressing seedlings growth, promoting that seedling is long soon, make tobacco seedling growth neat and consistent, increase stem thick, strengthen the resistance of cigarette seedling, improve cigarette shoot survival percent.Strict grasp leaf-cutting standard, must cigarette seedling grow to 6 ~ 8 centimetres high, cigarette seedling erect wing time, start first time leaf-cutting.Cutting range rests in and exceeds growing point 3 ~ 4 centimeters, and each Clipping proportion is 50% ~ 60% of monolithic area, while leaf-cutting, extracts strong yellow leaf.From first time after leaf-cutting, leaf-cutting in every four to six days once, is total to leaf-cutting three to four times to becoming seedling stage.Leaf-cutting is the main path of disease spread in floating seedlings, and operating personnel should with washing powder or washing hand with soap.Leaves cutting tools before leaf-cutting and in leaf-cutting process, through conventional 5% washing powder solution or soap cleaning and sterilizing, the fragment cut can not remain on cauline leaf, will clean out canopy in time, prevents disease from occurring.When cigarette seedling grows four to five true leaves, need to carry out cutting root, to promote lateral root growth, cultivate flourishing root system.Before cutting root, instrument also carries out disinfection with soap, and shearing root tips technique repeatedly scrapes on the bottom surface of dish with the bamboo chip of skiving, wiped out by the main root coring be exposed at outside dish.
Five is hardening management.The mode of hardening has two kinds, and one is take off film to ventilate, and two is carry out fertile process of cutting off the water supply.When after cigarette seedling seedling, when namely reaching 10 cm, hardening of just should ventilating in time, there is slight wilting with fine day cigarette at noon seedling in hardening degree, it is suitable for sooner or later recovering normally.Transplant front ten to ten five days, progressively stronger ventilation amount, runs into low temperature or rainy day, timely epiphragma, transplant first four to six days, film is all opened, transplant and within first two to four days, carry out disconnected fertile hardening of cutting off the water supply, make the high resilience of cigarette seedling leaf, dehydration tolerance, improve transplanting survival rate and resistance.
(2) floating seedling cultivation of fire-cured tobacco is transplanted
1, in advance wholely.By in advance whole, can effective chesson, increase ground temperature, improve soil activation, promote that beneficial microbe is movable, thicken the native degree of depth of living, improve the growth and development environment of tobacco-growing soil.Accomplish: one is complete before planting the cigarette previous moon in advance wholely in advance wholely.First, the preceding crop kind that the breeding time of choosing seeds is shorter is abundant to ensure pre-time of site preparation.Secondly, to turn in time after front stubble harvesting and shine soil, rake fine earth block, level land.Remove upper season and be detained the residue such as tobacco rod, cigarette root.3rd, by culturable standard requirement, bracing wire ridging; Ridging direction, is convenient to draining with level land, downwind ridging; Hillside fields is beneficial to soil moisture conservation, by contour ridging.4th, ridge body accomplishes that ditch is straight, soil is thin, draining unobstructed ridge body is even, full, and width, the depth are consistent, to pick up on the body of clean ridge the foreign matters such as wheat stake.Deep plough 30 centimetres and be advisable, whole good ground will accomplish that Tian Ping, soil are thin, uniformity.Two is excavated drain ditch.Must first at cigarette ground surrounding excavation gutter before ridging, larger field also will excavate waist ditch, and ditch depth more than 40 centimetres, is conducive to draining and lowering of watertable.Hillside fields cigarette will excavate anti-Great Gulch, the plot of rice field and hypsography low-lying, pay attention to especially deep-cutting drain ditch, and gutter is than waist ditch depth more than 10 centimetres.Three is grasp ridging specification.Ridging: by the requirement of unified direction, uniform height, unified specification, line-spacing 120 centimetres, spacing in the rows 50 centimetres; Mu plants the strain of cigarette number 1100.First ridging is high more than 20 centimetres, and ridging reaches more than 30 centimetres behind railway carriage or compartment; Accomplish that envelope is full, in " trapezoidal "; Hold drain ditch successfully, gutter is deeper than waist ditch simultaneously, and waist ditch is deeper than railway carriage or compartment ditch, and groove face is straight, and ditch ditch communicates.
2, transplant.Transplant and totally take large nest foot depth of water hydroponics.
One is that stay cord fixed point beats nest, 25 ~ 30 centimetres, nest footpath, dark 18 ~ 20 centimetres of nest.
Two is fertilizers.Fertilizer (oil cake after becoming thoroughly decomposed, use microbial inoculum urge the farmyard manure after corruption, the phosphate fertilizer become thoroughly decomposed, organic commercial fertilizer) is applied in nest, mixes with soil.
Three is water vola water.Be no less than the standard of 5 kilograms by every nest, water foot and water water of revealing the exact details, and after treating that (generally 30 minutes, after tough soil waters 1 hour) water oozes fully down, then plant cigarette.
Four is plant cigarette.First by cigarette seedling implantation fossa, dark cultivation, only reveals lobus cardiacus, fixes with soil as far as possible, and cigarette nest is in " tea tray is strengthened ".
Five is execute inorganic fertilizer.With measuring cup by the circulating application of the fertilizer such as composite fertilizer, micro-fertilizer in cigarette seedling (apart from cigarette strain 8 ~ 10 centimetres) around, then water normal root water, 2.0 kilograms/strain, then with fine earth, fertilizer covered.
Six is prevention and control of weeds.With the weed killer herbicide such as " land for growing field crops is clean ", " clomazone ", spray table soil around cigarette strain, forbid liquid medicine to be got on cigarette seedling.
Seven is pest controls.Adopt 9,0%0,000 clever pulvis, 3000 times of liquid or 2.5% cream of decamethrin, 2000 times of liquid, 90% 500 ~ 800 times, chlorophos liquid irrigating root, or the medicament administration such as 50% phoxim emulsifiable concentrate is around cigarette strain.
Eight is overlay films.Flue-cured tobacco all carries out plastic mulching, and ground film thickness is 0.006-0.007 millimeter, width 0.8-0.9 meter, and mulch film color is colourless transparent film; After cigarette transplantation of seedlings, covering with plastic film, mulch film punches and to be drawn out by cigarette seedling, ensures that core leaf bassets 20-30 millimeters, without high pin seedling.
Nine is impose to carry seed manure.Within 7-10 days after flue-cured tobacco field-transplanting, use potassium nitrate and carry seed manure (DB5104/T101-2009).
Ten is take off railway carriage or compartment on film.Within after field-transplanting 25-30 days, combine and take off railway carriage or compartment on film remaining potassium sulfate and Special compound fertilizer for tobacco are executed down (DB5104/T101-2009) in the lump; The selection of time of taking off film ridging was carried out in the afternoon of fine day, and ridging is carefully tight, ridging height 0.2-0.3 meter (DB5104/T104-2009).
11 is bud picking of pinching.The cigarette strain of cigarette ground growth has 50% the flowers are in blossom at first center when putting pinches.1-2 tops connecting inflorescence are beaten when pinching.Beat after determining and all remove bud (DB5104/T104-2009) with chemical Suckering agents.
12 to be that maturation is adopted roasting.Inferior leads is adopted roasting in 7-10 days after pinching, ripe leaf age 50-60 days; The leaf age of middle leaf maturation 60-80 days; The leaf age of upper leaf maturation 80-90 days.Collecting time is generally gathered as well with morning before direct sunlight, easily judges Maturity of Tobacco Leaf (DB5104/T112-2009).
Embodiment two adopts the inventive method to carry out nursery and the cultivation of flue-cured tobacco
2012 time, Panzhihua City Miyi County, place, Yanbian County, Renhe District.
The growing nursery and culture method of embodiment two is with embodiment one, and different places is the following aspects:
One is original seedling-cultivating tray specification is changed into 630 cave/dishes (the wide * height of long * is 665mm × 355mm × 35mm).Thus realize following breakthrough: one is make the supporting area of the nursery of canopy in single nursery be increased to 60 mu by original 18 mu, and substrates quantity reduces to 3.56 bags/canopy by original 6 bags/canopy.Seedling growth greenhouse number reduces to 0.28 ten thousand canopy (containing seedling for subsequent use) by original 0.92 ten thousand canopy (containing seedling for subsequent use).Two is that seedling growth greenhouse number reduces to 0.28 ten thousand canopy (containing seedling for subsequent use) by original 0.92 ten thousand canopy (containing seedling for subsequent use), and nursery floor space reduces to 154 mu by original 506 mu, and rent of soil reduces to 2,240,000 yuan by original 7,360,000 yuan.Three is that seedling medium consumption reduces to 0.997 ten thousand bag by original 5.52 ten thousand bags, and namely matrix buying expenses decreases 235.38 ten thousand yuan, reduces 81.94%(reduce 1583 square metres to the destruction of the Ruoergai peat composed of rotten mosses).Four is that nursery drift dish consumption is reduced to 31.92 ten thousand (amounting to 35.11 ten thousand tons) by original 132.48 ten thousand (amounting to 145.73 ten thousand tons), decreases 75.91%(reduce 110.62 ten thousand tons to the white pollution of environment).Five is that nursery recruitment expense reduces to 302.4 ten thousand yuan by original 993.6 ten thousand yuan, decreases 70%.
Two is change transplanting seedling age into 45 days from original 60-65 days.Thus realize following breakthrough: one is that flue-cured tobacco shortened to 179 days by original 206 days breeding time, but growing stage to increase by original 122 days be 135 days, (namely nursery stage is long, to go back seedling stage long thoroughly to become original " two long two short "; Prosperous for a long time short, the maturing stage is short) be " two short two long " (namely nursery stage short, and also seedling stage short; Prosperous long-term length, maturing stage length).Two is achieve the early growth and quick tiller of cigarette seedling at field period, shows stronger explosive force and growth potential.Three is that tobacco leaf planting benefit obviously increases, and individual plant increases the number of blade 1.9.Increase yield: 8.88g/ sheet * 1.9/strain * 1100 plants/acre=18.56kg/ mu.Average price 19.3 yuan/kg, mu increases tobacco leaf and takes in 358.2 yuan.Four is the field crop plantation takeover times that effectively staggered, and achieves transplanting of avoiding the peak hour, thoroughly solves the problem of flue-cured tobacco field-transplanting recruitment anxiety, make flue-cured tobacco transplanting recruitment cost have 130 yuan/man day to reduce to 80 yuan/man day.
Three is not leaf-cuttings when seedling management.Thus realize following breakthrough: one is that mosaic disease incidence is reduced to 2.54% by original 14.75%.Two is that damage by disease and insect prevention costs is reduced to 20.8 yuan/mu (3,120,000 yuan, whole cities) totally by original 118 yuan/mu (1,770 ten thousand yuan, whole cities) totally.Three is that nursery recruitment expense is reduced to zero by original 22.22 yuan/mu (totally 368 ten thousand yuan, whole cities).Four is that extermination of disease and insect pest recruitment expense in land for growing field crops is reduced to 320 yuan/mu (4,800 ten thousand yuan, whole cities) totally by original 720 yuan/mu (1.08 hundred million yuan, whole cities) totally.
Four is adopt black film, flue-cured tobacco seedling covers black film, after flue-cured tobacco seedling grows 15 days under film, draws seedling earthing again.One is that the insect pest of cigarette seedling is reduced to 0.4% by original 1.8%.Two is that tobacco seedling growth regularity is increased to 99% by original 80%.Three is that cigarette seedling also became from original 15 days without going back seedling stage seedling stage, realizes the early growth and quick tiller of cigarette seedling in land for growing field crops.
Employing the inventive method realizes following effect: one is that seedling cost reduces greatly after carrying out the growing nursery and culture of flue-cured tobacco generally.After new technology spread, seedling cost reduces to 60.64 yuan/mu by original 154.5 yuan/mu, and minimizing ratio reaches 60.8%.Two is that the mosaic disease incidence of disease significantly reduces.Drop to 2.544% from original 14.75%, decrease by 82.8%.Three is that the destruction Of resources and environmental pollution reduce in a large number.Peat composed of rotten mosses consumption reduces to 0.0078 cubic metre/mu by 0.033 cubic metre/mu, reduces substrates quantity 76.4%; Drift dish, by * 120 grams=860 grams, existing 8 dish, reduces to 2.5*182 gram/acre=455 grams, reduces ratio 52.6%.Four is that (namely nursery stage length, also seedling stage are long in change " two length two are short "; Prosperous for a long time short, the maturing stage is short) be " two short two long " (namely nursery stage short, and also seedling stage short; Prosperous long-term length, maturing stage length), facilitate the abundant growth in flue-cured tobacco land for growing field crops.Flue-cured tobacco shortened to 179 days by original 206 days breeding time, but the seedbed phase shortened to 45 days by original 84 days, and it is 135 days that growing stage increased by original 122 days.Five is that kind of a cigarette benefit obviously increases.Individual plant increases the number of blade 1.9, increase yield: 8.88g/ sheet * 1.9/strain * 1100 plants/acre=18.56kg/ mu.Average price 19.3 yuan/kg, mu increases tobacco leaf and takes in 358.2 yuan.Mu seedling cost decreases 158.2 yuan, and two add up to improve effects 516.4 yuan/mu.

Claims (2)

1. floating seedling cultivation of fire-cured tobacco cultivation method, comprise sabot sowing, seedling management, in advance whole the step with transplanting, it is characterized in that: seedling management step comprises to be taked the control measure to temperature and humidity in seedling growth greenhouse, the control measures of applying fertilizer to flue-cured tobacco seedling, flue-cured tobacco seedling carried out to the measure of thinning and final singling and cut the measure of root and hardening, flue-cured tobacco seedling is not taked to the measure of leaf-cutting; In transplant step, the time of transplanting is seedling age 45 days, transplant step comprise take to fix a point to beat nest, organic fertilizer, water vola water, plant cigarette, execute inorganic fertilizer, prevention and control of weeds, pest control and overlay film measure; Described overlay film refers to and cover black film on flue-cured tobacco seedling, when temperature under film reaches more than 40 degree, aim at the perforate of cigarette seedling to ensure cigarette seedling normal growth under film, after flue-cured tobacco seedling grows 15 days under film, draw seedling earthing again, black film tapping is covered tight, and imposes and carry seed manure.
2. floating seedling cultivation of fire-cured tobacco cultivation method according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the seedling-cultivating tray specification adopted in sabot sowing step is 630 caves/dish, the long 665mm of seedling-cultivating tray, wide 355mm, high 35mm.
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