CN105660102B - A kind of nest broadcasts the rapeseed cultivation method for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose - Google Patents

A kind of nest broadcasts the rapeseed cultivation method for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose Download PDF

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CN105660102B
CN105660102B CN201610021084.6A CN201610021084A CN105660102B CN 105660102 B CN105660102 B CN 105660102B CN 201610021084 A CN201610021084 A CN 201610021084A CN 105660102 B CN105660102 B CN 105660102B
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nest
rape
acre
ditch
broadcasts
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CN105660102A (en
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余治国
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Chongqing Fengjie County Multipurpose Agricultural Development Co., Ltd.
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余治国
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of nests to broadcast the rapeseed cultivation method for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose, includes the following steps:1) selection of land is carried out before nest is broadcast, shines ground, site preparation and weeding processing;2) nest broadcasts culturing and transplanting seedlings rape;3) field management is carried out to the rape after transplanting;4) it harvests.Rape nest of the present invention, which is broadcast, stays the dual-purpose technology of transplantation of seedlings, is not only improved to rape per unit area yield, also reduces Rape-seed production process, reduce production cost, improves cultivation technique level, saves labour, promote Rape-seed production cost-saving synergistic.Rape nest broadcasts the shortcomings that staying the dual-purpose technology of transplantation of seedlings, effectively overcoming live streaming, and sowing quantity is reduced, and does not need even seedling, final singling process, and field growing way is neat, can improve yield, realizes increasing both production and income.

Description

A kind of nest broadcasts the rapeseed cultivation method for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of plant growing technology, and in particular to nest broadcasts the rapeseed cultivation method for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose.
Background technology
Rape is one of main oil crops in China, and in the Yangtze river basin, plantation is very extensive, is that part peasant is important One of source of finance.Rape is mainly cultivated in winter, does not strive ground with other oil crops, while also there is extensive production to adapt to Property;Rape can carry out spring sowing and autumn sowing in different climate zones, change crops with various shift of crops, intercropping is being harvested for one time each year System or shortening area can plant more than a year carries out that rice, rape two be ripe or three ripe cultivations especially in Subtropic of China rice workspace Training, can make full use of light, heat and soil resource.
In the mountain area that Mechanization sowing difficulty is larger, rape cultivation mode mainly takes seedbed culturing and transplanting seedlings and direct sowing culture Two kinds, all respectively have advantage and disadvantage.Rape direct sowing culture advantage is easy to operate, production skills that need not be very high, and general peasant is It can apply;The disadvantage is that with low content of technology, cultivation is extensive, needs the operational sequences such as Uniform seedlings, thinning, final singling in seedling stage, comparatively laborious, And field growing, there are prosperous seedling, weak seedling, growth is not readily reachable by neat, it is difficult to improve yield, not carry out the place of machine sowing Substantially it is eliminated.Since the seventies in last century, seedbed seedling transplanting technique is promoted, has been enhanced in yield, In one period, rape seedbed culturing and transplanting seedlings have become important yield-increasing technology, are broadcast live substantially instead of rape.According to investigations, weight The Fengjie Countys Qing Shi rape seedbed culturing and transplanting seedlings have accounted for 80% or more of rape seed area.Its advantage is that can realize full stand, Robust seedling improves yield, can solve " rice-rape ", " sweet potato-rape " yields two crops a year the crops for rotation contradiction of farming processed;The disadvantage is that seedling Bed density is big, and young plant is of poor quality, and the seedling age phase is short, and process is more, of high cost.With a large amount of transfers of rural laborer, between twenty and fifty agriculture China Association for Promoting Democracy works in city, the substantially old man for farming of being in, and is powerlessly engaged in cumbersome operational sequence, and present situation requires technically to use up Possible application simple and laborsaving cultivation technology, there is an urgent need to find one kind to improve yield, and being capable of saving of labor, laborsaving, reduction behaviour Make program, saves the cultivation technique of production cost.
Invention content
Can either improve yield the object of the present invention is to provide one kind, but can saving of labor, laborsaving, reduce operation sequence, section The about rape cultivation technology of production cost solves rape seedbed existing in the prior art culturing and transplanting seedlings and needs special seedbed The problem of ground, production cost is high and rape Seed Quantity for Direct Sowing is big, and farming is extensive, low output.
The present invention provides a kind of nests to broadcast the rapeseed cultivation method for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose, includes the following steps:
1) selection of land is carried out before nest is broadcast, shines ground, site preparation and weeding processing;
2) nest broadcasts culturing and transplanting seedlings rape, and the kind of the rape is that content of erucic acid is less than 1%, and sulfur content is less than 30mol/g, Rapeseed oil content is higher than 40%, the cross-bred rape kind that yield is high and resistance is strong;
3) to after transplanting rape carry out field management, the field management include look into seedling fill a vacancy, weeding, fertilising, drought resisting, Early a kind of sedge early blossoming processing, ditch cleaning drainage and prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control processing;
4) when rape main inflorescence silique is whole, complete stool and full field silique are up to the existing Huangs of 70%-80%, main inflorescence lower part silique is in Yellow, seed harvest when being in inherent colour.
Preferably, the selection of land is:Select soil fertility good, the preceding soil for not planting crop in cruciferae;
Preferably, the solarization ground is:Ground is shone after preceding crop harvest, if preceding stubble plant is rice, the 7- before rice harvesting 10 days draining dry fields;
Preferably, the site preparation is:The block that harrows a field is turned over by mechanical rotary tillage or tradition, the rotary tillage or the depth for turning over rake are 20 Centimetre, divide compartment by 2.3 meters of packet ditches, open compartment ditch, thorough cut and enclose ditch, the compartment furrow width is 30 centimetres, and the ditch depth is 20 centimetres, institute It is 30 centimetres to state thorough cut and enclose the depth of ditch, and ditch ditch communicates, flat compartment surface;
Preferably, 0.5 mu of Gao Bangtian or terrace land are less than to field area, does not open compartment ditch, only open ditch and encloses ditch;
Preferably, the weeding is chemical weed control, the weeding chemical herbicide be selected from the spirit of pyrrole fluorine second grass, glyphosate and One or more of fluazifop.
Preferably, the step 2) median fovea broadcasts culturing and transplanting seedlings rape and is specially:
2.1) nurturing staff:It carries out nest and broadcasts preparation, sowing and follow-up management.
2.2) Honda applies base manure:Farmyard manure that the amount of application of the base manure is 1000 kgs/acre, 40-50 kgs/acre 45% composite fertilizer and 0.5~1 kg/acre of borax or 0.2 kg/acre of 15% holding force boron are transplanted after fully mixing thoroughly in rape Before impose on transplantation clutch periphery;
2.3) it transplants;
2.4) seedling is stayed:1~2 plant of qualified healthy seedling is stayed when lifting, in nest, extra young plant, which is extracted, loses, and adds fertilizer.
Preferably, the nest in the step 2.1) in nurturing staff, which is broadcast, is prepared as:Selection prepares the plot one of plantation rape Nursery is broadcast in part as nest, and it is 1 that nest, which broadcasts area with area of field ratio,:10, according to 1500-2000 kilograms of burnt dust-ashes or farmyard manure/ 5-6 kgs/acre of mu, 1000-1500 kgs/acre of dung polluted water, 25 kgs/acre of phosphate fertilizer and potassium chloride mixing stack retting make base after 7-10 days Fertilizer;It ditches by 2.3 meters of points of compartments, the whole broken leveling in compartment face;
Preferably, the seedtime sowed in the step 2.1) is determined that high altitude localities is first broadcast, low sea by height above sea level Rise sheer from level ground Qu Houbo, the place of 600 meters of height above sea level or more, is sowed within 5-15 days in September, 600 meters of places below of height above sea level, in September 15-25 Day sowing, application rate is that rape seed application rate is 100 grams/acre.
Preferably, the type of seeding of sowing is in the step 2.1):6000 nests are planted according to mu, nest broadcasts nursery 600-900 Nest beats nest, and 28 centimetres of nest spacing, 40 centimetres of line-spacing, density increases or diminution, adjusts corresponding nest line-spacing;Want that nest is shallow, bottom when beating nest It is flat, nest is big.The depth of the nest is 3-5 centimetres, a diameter of 20 centimetres of the nest, ensures that nest bottom is smooth, decomposed people and animals' cleaning up excrement Water leaching nest makees base fertilizer, is sowed after liquid dung is completely immersed in soil, and per nest, sub- 30-40 of sowing, is uniformly dispersed and is sown into nest bottom, then With the burnt dust-ashes or farmyard manure lid kind of sieving, lid kind thickness is degree to cover seed.
Preferably, the follow-up management in the step 2.1) in nurturing staff is:Sooner or later watering drought resisting, Qi Miao before emergence After extract overstocked weak seedling, 20 plants of qualified healthy seedling is retained per nest;After 3 leaf phases, transplants first 7~10 days, apply urea 5~7 per acre Kilogram or thin human excrement water make top dressing, anti-to eliminate aphis and cabbage caterpillar, urea is watered 1000~1500 kgs/acre and sprinkles when meeting day drought It pours.
Preferably, the step 2.3), which is transplanted, is specially:Brassica campestris L seedling 5-7 leaves carry out transplanting crop field, and seedling age was at 30 days;Height above sea level 600 meters or more of local early October is transplanted, and 600 meters of height above sea level local mid-October to late October below is moved It plants;By healthy seedling gradation lifting qualified in nest, the young plant plant is acted not overnight, after plant, root is determined in water drenching;
Preferably, the Transplanting Density is to plant 5000~8000 nests per acre;Nest spacing is 0.2~0.30 meter;The transplanting Mode is to be planted between a brood of single plant transplanting or Dan Shuan, and 2.3 meters are opened compartment plant, 5 rows of the wide 2 meters of cultivations in compartment face, 0.2-0.30 meters of nest spacing.
Preferably, field management is specially in the step 3):
3.1) seedling is looked into fill a vacancy:After transplanting is revival from transplanting, seedling is looked into time and is filled the gaps with seedlings;
3.2) weeding:Carry out a chemical weed control within 7~10 days after cultivation;
3.3) it applies fertilizer:It is applied in Tanaka and carries seed manure, cured fertilizer and boron fertilizer;
3.4) drought resisting:When suffering from a severe drought, rapeseed plants inferior leads are rubescent, and complete stool is watered in time when dark green matt, is watered When night soil is added in clear water;
3.5) early a kind of sedge early blossoming processing:Sowing is too early, and winter temperature is high, early a kind of sedge early blossoming easily occurs, after appearance, selects fine day high temperature When, early a kind of sedge early blossoming is cut off with knife, and add instant nitrogenousfertilizer;
3.6) ditch cleaning drainage:Ditch cleaning drainage is carried out after spring, it is ensured that field is without accumulated water;
3.7) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:The prevention of aphid:It is wrapped per acre with 10% imidacloprid 2, often wraps 400 grams, be watered two barrels of sprays Mist;The prevention of cabbage caterpillar:Per acre with 5% beta-cypermethrin EC, 2 liang of sprayings;The control measure of sclerotiniose:First, clear after the spring Three ditches are managed, mid or late March extracts sick strong yellow leaf in time;Second is that being watered 50 kilograms of sprayings with 2 liang of carbendazim per acre in initial bloom stage.
Preferably, fertilising is specially in the step 3.3):After cultivation after 10~15 days, 5~8 kilograms of mu urea is watered 30 ~40 load leaching apply to carry seed manure;It is overwintering before per acre with 10~15 kilograms of urea, 5~10 kilograms of potash fertilizer in fine day being close to without dew Evening spreads fertilizer over the fields as cured fertilizer;Before blooming, it is watered 50 kilograms with 50~100 grams of boraxs or 10 milliliters of happy boron of speed per acre and fine day is selected to carry out leaf Face is sprayed as boron fertilizer, such as uses borax, is diluted again after first being dissolved with 40 DEG C of warm water.
Preferably, the rape nest broadcasts the ground for the mountain area rapeseed cultivation for staying the dual-purpose method of transplantation of seedlings to be sowed in non_mechanical It applies in area.
Beneficial effects of the present invention:Nest broadcasts the rapeseed cultivation method for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose, is not only improved to rape per unit area yield, Rape-seed production process is also reduced, production cost is reduced, cultivation technique level is improved, saves labour, promote rape Produce cost-saving synergistic.Rape nest broadcasts the shortcomings that staying the dual-purpose technology of transplantation of seedlings, effectively overcoming live streaming, and sowing quantity is reduced, is not required to Even seedling, final singling process are wanted, field growing way is neat, can improve yield, realizes increasing both production and income.
Specific method of the present invention incorporates the advantages of culturing and transplanting seedlings and live streaming:Save seed dosage, mu kind It is down to 0.1 kilogram from 0.2-0.25 kilograms of live streaming;Extend vegetative growth phase, increase the accumulation of plant substance in vivo, is high yield It lays the first stone;It is managed concentratedly convenient for seedling stage, nurturing staff;Classification transplanting can guarantee that Honda grows neat and consistent, avoid big seedling Miscegenation and there are seedlings and take advantage of seedling phenomenon, be conducive to ensure full stand and seedling density;Season contradiction is mitigated, Honda multiple crop index is improved, Honda is set to have sufficient time harvest and sow upper and lower season crop;Convenient for management, dosage is reduced:It is small that nest broadcasts seedlings growing area, kind Sub- dosage is just few, can be with effectively preventing rape seedling disease pest and weed;Operational sequence is simple, need not prepare special seedbed Ground, to having saved preparing nursery bed recruitment;Production cost is reduced, cost-saving synergistic is realized.With saving seedbed, by seedbed Culturing and transplanting seedlings 1:10 ratio calculates, with can saving seedbed per acre 0.1 mu, is directly carried out in Honda to seedbed, saves seedling per acre Bed ground site preparation 0.5 work of recruitment, saves 2.5 yuan of the fertilizer of seedbed application, the fertilizer of application is directly used in Honda.Test result table Bright, rape nest, which is broadcast, stays the dual-purpose technology of transplantation of seedlings to save 32.5 yuan of production cost than culturing and transplanting seedlings mu.Than direct-sowing rape mu volume increase 7.6 Kilogram, mu increases income 41.8 yuan, increases income and economizes on spending per acre 74.3 yuan.
Specific implementation mode
The present invention is described in detail With reference to embodiment.
The present invention provides a kind of nests to broadcast the rapeseed cultivation method for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose, and the nest is rich to stay transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose It is low that method is suitable for mechanization degree, it is difficult to which the area for realizing the mountain area rapeseed cultivation of Mechanization sowing especially has seedbed to educate The planting habit area of transplantation of seedlings, specifically includes the following steps:
1) selection of land is carried out before nest is broadcast, shines ground, site preparation and weeding processing.
The selection of land, specifically optional soil fertility is good, suitable for rapeseed cultivation, is not planting Cruciferae before The soil of crop.
Refer to the solarization shining ground after preceding crop harvest, if preceding stubble plant is rice, the 7-10 before rice harvesting It is drained, dry field after draining.
The site preparation refers to that the method for turning over rake by mechanical rotary tillage or tradition carries out, and depth is 20 centimetres, is wrapped by 2.3 meters Ditch divides compartment, opens compartment ditch, thorough cut and encloses ditch, 30 centimetres of compartment furrow width, 20 centimetres of ditch depth, and thorough cut and the depth for enclosing ditch are 30 centimetres, Ensure that ditch ditch communicates when packet ditch point compartment, flat compartment surface;It is less than 0.5 mu of Gao Bangtian or terrace land to field area, does not open compartment Ditch only opens ditch and encloses ditch.
Chemical herbicide is generally selected in the weeding, specific to select in the careless spirit of pyrrole fluorine second, glyphosate, fluazifop It is one or more of carry out weedings, according to product operation instruction Normalization rule when use.
2) nest broadcasts culturing and transplanting seedlings rape.
Careful cross-bred rape kind is preferably examined by state or saved to the kind of the rape;It is preferred that the kind that yield is high, yield The higher the better;It is preferred that the kind that resistance is strong, kind of the preferred oil vegetable seed oil content 40% or more, the higher the better for oil content; It is preferred that content of erucic acid is less than 1%, sulfur content is less than 30mol/g, and the lower the content of erucic acid and sulphur the better;If specifically in height above sea level 600 meters or more " rice-rape " and " sweet potato-rape " two ripe growing area selects maturity period rape variety earlier, alleviates crops for rotation Contradiction;The selection of rape variety constantly updates selected kind according to the progress of rapeseed breeding.
The nest is broadcast culturing and transplanting seedlings rape and is specifically included the following steps:Nurturing staff applies base manure, transplants and stay Seedling.
2.1) nurturing staff:It carries out nest and broadcasts preparation, sowing and follow-up management;
The nest broadcasts preparation and specifically includes following steps:The plot part that selection prepares plantation rape broadcasts nursery as nest Ground, it is 1 that nest, which broadcasts area with area of field ratio,:10, burnt dust-ashes or 1500-2000 kgs/acre of farmyard manure, dung polluted water 1000-1500 Kg/acre, 25 kgs/acre of phosphate fertilizer, 5-6 kgs/acre of potassium chloride mixing stack retting make base manure after 7-10 days;It ditches by 2.3 meters of points of compartments, The specification that the nest broadcasts nursery is consistent with crop field, the whole broken leveling in compartment face.
The sowing is specifically:The place of 600 meters of height above sea level or more is sowed in September between 5~15 days, 600 meters of height above sea level Place below is sowed in September between 15~25 days, and rape seed application rate is 100 grams/acre;It is advised according to rape planting density Lattice beat nest, and mu plants 6000 nests, and nest broadcasts nursery 600-900 nests, and 28 centimetres of nest spacing, 40 centimetres of line-spacing, density increases or diminution, adjustment Corresponding nest line-spacing;The depth of nest is 3-5 centimetres, a diameter of 20 centimetres, ensures that nest bottom is smooth, and decomposed people and animals' cleaning up excrement water leaching nest is made Base fertilizer is sowed after liquid dung is completely immersed in soil, and per nest, sub- 30-40 of sowing, is uniformly dispersed and is sown into nest bottom, then with sieving Burnt dust-ashes or farmyard manure lid kind, lid kind thickness are degree to cover seed;
The follow-up management is specifically:The preceding drought resisting of watering sooner or later of emergence, extracts overstocked weak seedling after neat seedling, retains per nest 20 plants of qualified healthy seedling;After 3 leaf phases, transplants first 7~10 days, apply 5~7 kilograms of urea per acre or thin human excrement water chases after Fertilizer, anti-to eliminate aphis and cabbage caterpillar, urea, which is watered 1000~1500 kgs/acre and sprinkles, when meeting day drought pours.
2.2) apply base manure:1000 kgs/acre of farmyard manures, 40-50 kilograms 45% of composite fertilizer and 0.5~1 kilogram of borax Or 0.2 kilogram of 15% holding force boron, after fully mixing thoroughly transplantation clutch periphery is imposed on before rape transplanting;
2.3) it transplants:The step 3.3) is transplanted:Brassica campestris L seedling grows to 5-7 leaves and carries out being transplanted to crop field, and seedling age exists 30 days;The local early October of 600 meters of height above sea level or more is transplanted, 600 meters of height above sea level local mid-October below to 10 below the moon Ten days is transplanted;Transplanting Density is to plant 5000~8000 nests per acre;Nest spacing is 0.2~0.30 meter;To ensure the density of transplanted seedling, The method planted between a brood of single plant transplanting or Dan Shuan is taken, 2.3 meters are opened compartment plant, 5 rows of the wide 2 meters of cultivations in compartment face, 0.2-0.30 meters of nest spacing; By healthy seedling gradation lifting qualified in the nest of nursery, acts the young plant plant not overnight, directly transplant, drenched in time after transplanting Water determines root.
2.4) seedling is stayed:When nursery lifting, 1~2 plant of qualified healthy seedling is stayed in nest, extra young plant, which is extracted, loses, to stay Healthy seedling in nest adds fertilizer.
3) to after transplanting rape carry out field management, the field management include look into seedling fill a vacancy, weeding, fertilising, drought resisting, Early a kind of sedge early blossoming processing, ditch cleaning drainage and prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control processing;
Field management is specially in the step 3):Look into seedling fill a vacancy, weeding, fertilising, drought resisting, early a kind of sedge early blossoming processing, ditch cleaning Drainage and the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control;
It is of the present invention look into seedling fill a vacancy for transplanting be revival from transplanting after, look into seedling in time and fill the gaps with seedlings;
Weeding of the present invention is to carry out a chemical weed control in 7~10 days after planting;
Fertilising of the present invention is specifically 10~15 days after cultivation, and 5~8 kilograms of mu urea is watered 30~40 load leaching and applies As carrying seed manure;It is overwintering before use per acre 10~15 kilograms of urea, 5~10 kilograms of potash fertilizer dusk of the fine day without dew spread fertilizer over the fields as Cured fertilizer before blooming, is watered 50 kilograms and fine day is selected to carry out foliage-spray, such as with 50~100 grams of boraxs or 10 milliliters of happy boron of speed per acre Borax is selected, is first dissolved with 40 DEG C of warm water, sprays foliage dressing after dilution again.
Drought resisting of the present invention is to meet arid after transplanting to water, and night soil is added in when watering in clear water;
After morning a kind of sedge early blossoming processing of the present invention is early a kind of sedge early blossoming occurs, when selecting fine day high temperature, it is early to cut off early a kind of sedge with knife Flower, and add instant nitrogenousfertilizer;
It is of the present invention to carry out ditch cleaning drainage after the spring, it is ensured that field is without accumulated water;
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control of the present invention includes:The prevention of aphid:It is wrapped per acre with 10% imidacloprid 2, often wraps 400 Gram, it is watered two barrels of sprayings, the prevention of cabbage caterpillar:Mu 5% beta-cypermethrin EC, 2 liang of sprayings;The control measure of sclerotiniose: First, clearing up three ditches after the spring, mid or late March extracts sick strong yellow leaf in time;Second is that being watered 50 with 2 liang of carbendazim in initial bloom stage mu Kilogram spraying.
4) it harvests:When rape main inflorescence silique is whole, complete stool and full field silique reach the existing Huangs of 70%-80%, main inflorescence lower part Silique is in yellow, and seed harvests when being in inherent colour.
The rapeseed cultivation method for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose is broadcast to nest of the present invention with reference to specific embodiment to do into one Detailed introduction is walked, technical scheme of the present invention includes but not limited to following embodiment.
Embodiment 1
Nest is carried out on the soil of 0.91 ten thousand mu of Fengjie County of Chongqing City in 2012 broadcasts the method plantation rape for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose.Tool Body includes the following steps:
Select soil fertility good before nest is broadcast, suitable for rapeseed cultivation, in the soil for not planting crop in cruciferae before, After shining ground, mechanical rotary tillage soil-working is carried out, depth is 20 centimetres, divides compartment by 2.3 meters of packet ditches, opens compartment ditch, thorough cut and enclose ditch, compartment furrow width 30 centimetres, 20 centimetres of ditch depth, thorough cut and the depth for enclosing ditch are 30 centimetres, ensure that ditch ditch communicates when packet ditch point compartment, compartment face It is smooth;Weeding is carried out with the second grass spirit of pyrrole fluorine.
The nest broadcasts preparation and specifically includes following steps:The plot part that selection prepares plantation rape broadcasts nursery as nest Ground, it is 1 that nest, which broadcasts area with area of field ratio,:10, burnt dust-ashes or 1800 kgs/acre of farmyard manure, 1200 kgs/acre of dung polluted water, phosphorus 6 kgs/acre of 25 kgs/acre of fertilizer, potassium chloride mixing stack rettings make base manure after 90 days;It is sowed within 20th in September, rape seed application rate is 100 grams/acre;Nest is beaten according to rape planting density specification, mu plants 6000 nests, and nest broadcasts nursery 600-900 nests, 28 centimetres of nest spacing, row Away from 40 centimetres, the depth of nest is 3-5 centimetres, a diameter of 20 centimetres, ensures that nest bottom is smooth, decomposed people and animals' cleaning up excrement water leaching nest makees bottom Fertilizer is sowed after liquid dung is completely immersed in soil, and per nest, sowing 35, is uniformly dispersed and is sown into nest bottom, then with the fire soil of sieving Ash or farmyard manure lid kind, lid kind thickness are degree to cover seed;The preceding drought resisting of watering sooner or later of emergence, overstocked weak seedling is extracted after neat seedling, Retain 20 plants of qualified healthy seedling per nest;After 3 leaf phases, transplants first 8 days, apply 6 kilograms of urea per acre or thin human excrement water chases after Fertilizer, anti-to eliminate aphis and cabbage caterpillar, urea, which is watered 1300 kgs/acre and sprinkles, when meeting day drought pours;Apply base manure:1000 kgs/acre of soil are miscellaneous Fertilizer, 45 kilogram 45% of composite fertilizer and 0.8 kilogram of borax impose on transplantation clutch periphery after fully mixing thoroughly before rape transplanting;
Brassica campestris L seedling grows to 5-7 leaves and carries out being transplanted to crop field, and seedling age was at 30 days;Mid-October is transplanted;Transplanting Density is 6500 nests are planted per acre;Nest spacing is 0.25 meter;To ensure the density of transplanted seedling, takes a brood of single plant to transplant 2.3 meters and open compartment plant, compartment 5 rows of the wide 2 meters of cultivations in face, 0.2-0.30 meters of nest spacing;By healthy seedling gradation lifting qualified in the nest of nursery, the young plant plant is acted Not overnight, directly plant, after transplanting timely water drenching determine root;Stay seedling:When nursery lifting ,~2 plants of qualified healthy seedlings are stayed in nest, it is more Remaining young plant, which is extracted, loses, and the healthy seedling to stay in nest adds fertilizer.
Field management is carried out to the rape after transplanting after transplanting is revival from transplanting to look into seedling in time and fill the gaps with seedlings;Carry out one within 9 days after cultivation Secondary chemical weed control;12 days after cultivation, 7 kilograms of mu urea is watered the leaching of 35 loads and applies to carry seed manure;It is urinated per acre with 13 kilograms before overwintering Element, 8 kilograms of potash fertilizer are spread fertilizer over the fields in dusk of the fine day without dew as cured fertilizer, before blooming, are watered 50 public affairs with 10 milliliters of happy boron of speed per acre Jin selects fine day to carry out foliage-spray;It meets arid after transplanting to water, night soil is added in when watering in clear water;It is early to there is early a kind of sedge Hua Hou when selecting fine day high temperature, cuts off early a kind of sedge early blossoming, and add instant nitrogenousfertilizer with knife;It is wrapped with 10% imidacloprid 2, is often wrapped per acre It 400 grams, is watered two barrels of sprayings and prevents eliminating aphis, mu prevents cabbage caterpillars with 5% beta-cypermethrin EC, 2 liang of sprayings, sclerotiniose It is three ditches of cleaning after the spring that control measure, which is one, and late March extracts sick strong yellow leaf in time;Second is that in initial bloom stage mu with bacterium more than 2 liang Spirit is watered 50 kilograms of sprayings;Ditch cleaning drainage is carried out after spring, it is ensured that field is without accumulated water;
When rape main inflorescence silique is whole, complete stool and full field silique are up to 75% existing Huang, main inflorescence lower part silique is in yellow, kind Son harvests when being in inherent colour.
Statistics nest in 2012 broadcasts the economic benefit for the method plantation rape for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose, the results are shown in Table 1.
Table 1:Nest in 2012 broadcasts the economic benefit statistics for the method plantation rape for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose
Embodiment 2
Nest is carried out on the soil of 2.86 ten thousand mu of Fengjie County of Chongqing City in 2013 broadcasts the method plantation rape for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose.Tool Body implantation methods step is in the same manner as in Example 1.
Statistics nest in 2013 broadcasts the economic benefit for the method plantation rape for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose, the results are shown in Table 2.
Table 2:Nest in 2013 broadcasts the economic benefit statistics for the method plantation rape for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose
Year Unit 2013
Area Ten thousand mu 2.86
Per unit area yield Kg/acre 145.3
Total output Ten thousand kilograms 415.6
Unit price Member/kilogram 4.8
The gross output value Wan Yuan 1994.9
Newly-increased total output Ten thousand kilograms 21.736
The newly-increased gross output value Wan Yuan 104.33
Save the branch amount of money Wan Yuan 92.95
It increases income and economizes on spending Wan Yuan 197.28
Embodiment 3
Nest is carried out on the soil of 4.45 ten thousand mu of Fengjie County of Chongqing City in 2014 broadcasts the method plantation rape for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose.Tool Body includes the following steps:
Select soil fertility good before nest is broadcast, suitable for rapeseed cultivation, in the soil for not planting crop in cruciferae before, After shining ground, mechanical rotary tillage soil-working is carried out, depth is 20 centimetres, divides compartment by 2.3 meters of packet ditches, opens compartment ditch, thorough cut and enclose ditch, compartment furrow width 30 centimetres, 20 centimetres of ditch depth, thorough cut and the depth for enclosing ditch are 30 centimetres, ensure that ditch ditch communicates when packet ditch point compartment, compartment face It is smooth;Weeding is carried out with the second grass spirit of pyrrole fluorine.
The nest broadcasts preparation and specifically includes following steps:The plot part that selection prepares plantation rape broadcasts nursery as nest Ground, it is 1 that nest, which broadcasts area with area of field ratio,:10, burnt dust-ashes or 1700 kgs/acre of farmyard manure, 1350 kgs/acre of dung polluted water, phosphorus 5 kgs/acre of 28 kgs/acre of fertilizer, potassium chloride mixing stack rettings make base manure after 90 days;It is sowed within 20th in September, rape seed application rate is 100 grams/acre;Nest is beaten according to rape planting density specification, mu plants 6000 nests, and nest broadcasts nursery 600-900 nests, 28 centimetres of nest spacing, row Away from 40 centimetres, the depth of nest is 3-5 centimetres, a diameter of 20 centimetres, ensures that nest bottom is smooth, decomposed people and animals' cleaning up excrement water leaching nest makees bottom Fertilizer is sowed after liquid dung is completely immersed in soil, and per nest, sowing 33, is uniformly dispersed and is sown into nest bottom, then with the fire soil of sieving Ash or farmyard manure lid kind, lid kind thickness are degree to cover seed;The preceding drought resisting of watering sooner or later of emergence, overstocked weak seedling is extracted after neat seedling, Retain 20 plants of qualified healthy seedling per nest;After 3 leaf phases, transplants first 8 days, apply 6 kilograms of urea per acre or thin human excrement water chases after Fertilizer, anti-to eliminate aphis and cabbage caterpillar, urea, which is watered 1150 kgs/acre and sprinkles, when meeting day drought pours;Apply base manure:1000 kgs/acre of soil are miscellaneous Fertilizer, 45 kilogram 45% of composite fertilizer and 0.8 kilogram of borax impose on transplantation clutch periphery after fully mixing thoroughly before rape transplanting;
Brassica campestris L seedling grows to 5-7 leaves and carries out being transplanted to crop field, and seedling age was at 30 days;Late October is transplanted;Transplanting Density is 7000 nests are planted per acre;Nest spacing is 0.25 meter;To ensure the density of transplanted seedling, takes a brood of single plant to transplant 2.3 meters and open compartment plant, compartment 5 rows of the wide 2 meters of cultivations in face, 0.28 meter of nest spacing;By healthy seedling gradation lifting qualified in the nest of nursery, the young plant plant is acted only Night, directly transplant, after transplanting timely water drenching determine root;Stay seedling:When nursery lifting, 1 plant of qualified healthy seedling, extra seedling are stayed in nest Son, which is extracted, to be lost, and the healthy seedling to stay in nest adds fertilizer.
Field management is carried out to the rape after transplanting after transplanting is revival from transplanting to look into seedling in time and fill the gaps with seedlings;Carry out one within 8 days after cultivation Secondary chemical weed control;13 days after cultivation, 8 kilograms of mu urea is watered the leaching of 36 loads and applies to carry seed manure;It is urinated per acre with 12 kilograms before overwintering Element, 7 kilograms of potash fertilizer spread fertilizer over the fields as cured fertilizer in dusk of the fine day without dew, before blooming, per acre 75 grams of boraxs be watered 50 kilograms select it is fine It carries out foliage-spray;It meets arid after transplanting to water, night soil is added in when watering in clear water;After there is early a kind of sedge early blossoming, When selecting fine day high temperature, early a kind of sedge early blossoming is cut off with knife, and add instant nitrogenousfertilizer;It is wrapped per acre with 10% imidacloprid 2, often wraps 400 grams, It is watered two barrels of sprayings to prevent eliminating aphis, mu is arranged with 5% beta-cypermethrin EC, 2 liang of spraying prevention cabbage caterpillars, the prevention of sclerotiniose Shi Weiyi is three ditches of cleaning after the spring, and late March extracts sick strong yellow leaf in time;Second is that being watered with 2 liang of carbendazim in initial bloom stage mu 50 kilograms of sprayings;Ditch cleaning drainage is carried out after spring, it is ensured that field is without accumulated water;
When rape main inflorescence silique is whole, complete stool and full field silique are up to 73% existing Huang, main inflorescence lower part silique is in yellow, kind Son harvests when being in inherent colour.
Statistics nest in 2014 broadcasts the economic benefit for the method plantation rape for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose, the results are shown in Table 3.
Table 3:Nest in 2014 broadcasts the economic benefit statistics for the method plantation rape for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose
Year Unit 2014
Area Ten thousand mu 4.45
Per unit area yield Kg/acre 146.2
Total output Ten thousand kilograms 650.6
Unit price Member/kilogram 5.6
The gross output value Wan Yuan 3643.4
Newly-increased total output Ten thousand kilograms 33.82
The newly-increased gross output value Wan Yuan 189.39
Save the branch amount of money Wan Yuan 144.625
It increases income and economizes on spending Wan Yuan 334.015
Embodiment 4
Implementation nest, which is broadcast, on the soil of 6.23 ten thousand mu of Fengjie County of Chongqing City in 2015 stays transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose
Method plants rape.Specific implantation methods step is in the same manner as in Example 3.
Statistics nest in 2015 broadcasts the economic benefit for the method plantation rape for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose, the results are shown in Table 4.
Table 4:Nest in 2015 broadcasts the economic benefit statistics for the method plantation rape for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose
It can be seen that from 2012 according to embodiment 1-4 tired in Fengjie County over Fengjie County of Chongqing City's Demonstration And Extension, 4 years 14.45 ten thousand mu of Demonstration And Extension area is counted, 2122.2 ten thousand kilograms of total output is added up, realizes average 146.8kg/ mus of per unit area yield (wherein 2012 143.1kg/ mus, 2013 145.3kg/ mus, 2014 146.2kg/ mus, 2015 148.6kg/ mus), than control (live streaming) average yield per mu 139.2kg, mu increase production 7.6kg, increase 5.5%.The accumulative gross output value reaches 11369.64 ten thousand yuan, adds up newly-increased 109.82 ten thousand kilograms of total output, increase newly 587.92 ten thousand yuan of the gross output value, than seedbed culturing and transplanting seedlings be averaged mu section prop up 32.5 yuan, add up newly Increase 469.625 ten thousand yuan of section branch.It is accumulative newly to increase income and economize on spending 1057.545 ten thousand yuan.
The above is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is noted that for the ordinary skill people of the art For member, various improvements and modifications may be made without departing from the principle of the present invention, these improvements and modifications are also answered It is considered as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of nest broadcasts the rapeseed cultivation method for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose, which is characterized in that include the following steps:
1) selection of land is carried out before nest is broadcast, shines ground, site preparation and weeding processing;
2) nest broadcasts culturing and transplanting seedlings rape, and the kind of the rape is that content of erucic acid is less than 1%, and sulfur content is less than 30mol/g, rape Seed oil content is higher than 40%, the cross-bred rape kind that yield is high and resistance is strong;
3) field management carried out to the rape after transplanting, the field management include look into seedling fill a vacancy, weeding, fertilising, drought resisting, early a kind of sedge Early blossoming processing, ditch cleaning drainage and prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control processing;
4) when rape main inflorescence silique is whole, complete stool and full field silique are up to the existing Huangs of 70%-80%, main inflorescence lower part silique is in yellow Color, seed harvest when being in inherent colour;
Step 2) the median fovea broadcasts culturing and transplanting seedlings rape:
2.1) nurturing staff:It carries out nest and broadcasts preparation, sowing and follow-up management,
2.2) Honda applies base manure:The amount of application of the base manure is 1000 kgs/acre of farmyard manure, the 45% of 40-50 kgs/acre Composite fertilizer and 0.5~1 kg/acre of borax or 0.2 kg/acre of 15% holding force boron impose on shifting after mixing thoroughly before rape transplanting Plant nest periphery;
2.3) it transplants;
2.4) seedling is stayed:1~2 plant of qualified healthy seedling is stayed when lifting, in nest, extra young plant, which is extracted, loses, and adds fertilizer;
Nest in the step 2.1) in nurturing staff, which is broadcast, to be prepared as:A plot part for selection preparation plantation rape is broadcast as nest educates Miao Di, it is 1 that nest, which broadcasts area with area of field ratio,:10, according to burnt dust-ashes or 1500-2000 kgs/acre of farmyard manure, dung polluted water 5-6 kgs/acre of 1000-1500 kgs/acre, 25 kgs/acre of phosphate fertilizer and potassium chloride mix stack retting and make base manure after 7-10 days;By 2.3 A rice point compartment is ditched, the whole broken leveling in compartment face;
The seedtime sowed in the step 2.1) determines by height above sea level, 600 meters of height above sea level or more it is regional in September 5-15 days Sowing, 600 meters of height above sea level area below are sowed for 15-25 days in September, and the application rate of rape seed is 100 grams/acre;
The type of seeding sowed in the step 2.1) is:6000 nests are planted according to mu, nest broadcasts nursery 600-900 nests and beats nest, nest spacing 28 centimetres, the depth of 40 centimetres of line-spacing, the nest is 3-5 centimetres, and a diameter of 20 centimetres of the nest, decomposed people and animals' cleaning up excrement water drenches Nest makees base fertilizer, per nest sowing it is sub- 30-40, be sown into nest bottom, then with sieving burnt dust-ashes or farmyard manure lid kind, lid kind thickness with It is degree to cover seed;
The follow-up management is:The preceding drought resisting of watering sooner or later of emergence, extracts overstocked weak seedling after neat seedling, 20 plants of qualification is retained per nest Healthy seedling;It after 3 leaf phases, transplants preceding 7~10 days, applies 5~7 kilograms of urea per acre or human excrement water makees top dressing, prevent eliminating aphis and dish Green worm, meet day drought when urea be watered 1000~1500 kgs/acre sprinkle pour.
2. nest according to claim 1 broadcasts the rapeseed cultivation method for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose, which is characterized in that the selection of land For:Select soil fertility good, the preceding soil for not planting crop in cruciferae;
The solarization ground is:Shine ground after preceding crop harvest;
The site preparation is:The block that harrows a field is turned over by mechanical rotary tillage or tradition, the rotary tillage or the depth for turning over rake are 20 centimetres, by 2.3 Rice packet ditch divides compartment, opens compartment ditch, thorough cut and encloses ditch, and the compartment furrow width is 30 centimetres, and the ditch depth is 20 centimetres, the thorough cut and is enclosed The depth of ditch is 30 centimetres, and ditch ditch communicates, flat compartment surface;
It is less than 0.5 mu of Gao Bangtian or terrace land to field area, does not open compartment ditch, only open ditch and encloses ditch;
The weeding is chemical weed control, and the weeding chemical herbicide is selected from the spirit of pyrrole fluorine second grass, glyphosate and fluazifop One or more of.
3. nest according to claim 1 broadcasts the rapeseed cultivation method for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose, which is characterized in that the step 2.3) it transplants and is specially:Brassica campestris L seedling 5-7 leaves carry out transplanting crop field, and seedling age was at 30 days;The local early October of 600 meters of height above sea level or more It is transplanted, 600 meters of height above sea level local mid-October to late October below is transplanted;The Transplanting Density is to plant per acre 5000~8000 nests;Nest spacing is 0.2~0.30 meter;
The mode of the transplanting is to be planted between a brood of single plant transplanting or Dan Shuan, and 2.3 meters are opened compartment plant, 5 rows of the wide 2 meters of cultivations in compartment face, nest spacing 0.2-0.30 meters;
By healthy seedling gradation lifting qualified in nest, the young plant plant is acted not overnight, after plant, root is determined in water drenching.
4. nest according to claim 1 broadcasts the rapeseed cultivation method for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose, which is characterized in that the step 3) Middle field management is specially:
3.1) seedling is looked into fill a vacancy:After transplanting is revival from transplanting, looks into seedling and fill the gaps with seedlings;
3.2) weeding:Carry out a chemical weed control within 7~10 days after cultivation;
3.3) it applies fertilizer:It is applied in Tanaka and carries seed manure, cured fertilizer and boron fertilizer;
3.4) drought resisting:When suffering from a severe drought, rapeseed plants inferior leads are rubescent, and complete stool is watered when dark green matt, in clear water when watering Middle addition night soil;
3.5) early a kind of sedge early blossoming processing:Sowing is too early, and winter temperature is high, early a kind of sedge early blossoming easily occurs, after appearance, when selecting fine day high temperature, Early a kind of sedge early blossoming is cut off with knife, and adds instant nitrogenousfertilizer;
3.6) ditch cleaning drainage:Ditch cleaning drainage is carried out after spring, it is ensured that field is without accumulated water;
3.7) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:The prevention of aphid:It is wrapped per acre with 10% imidacloprid 2, often wraps 400 grams, be watered two barrels of sprayings;Dish The prevention of green worm:Per acre with 5% beta-cypermethrin EC, 2 liang of sprayings;The control measure of sclerotiniose:First, clearing up three after the spring Ditch, mid or late March extract sick strong yellow leaf in time;Second is that being watered 50 kilograms of sprayings with 2 liang of carbendazim per acre in initial bloom stage;
Restriction without time sequencing between above-mentioned field management.
5. nest according to claim 4 broadcasts the rapeseed cultivation method for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose, which is characterized in that the step 3.3) it applies fertilizer in and is specially:After cultivation after 10~15 days, 5~8 kilograms of mu urea is watered 30~40 load leaching and applies to carry seed manure;
10~15 kilograms of urea, 5~10 kilograms of potash fertilizer are used to be spread fertilizer over the fields as cured fertilizer in dusk of the fine day without dew per acre before overwintering;
Before blooming, use per acre 50~100 grams of boraxs or 10 milliliters of happy boron of speed be watered 50 kilograms select fine day carry out foliage-spray as Boron fertilizer when the boron fertilizer selects borax, is first dissolved with 40 DEG C of warm water, sprays foliage dressing after dilution again.
6. nest described in claim 1 broadcasts the mountain area rape seed that the rapeseed cultivation method for staying transplantation of seedlings dual-purpose is sowed in non_mechanical The application in the area of plant.
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CN107135776A (en) * 2017-05-23 2017-09-08 临沧市农业技术推广站 A kind of smart implantation methods of rape three
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