CN103718802B - High-yield cotton cultivation method under condition of jujube-cotton intercropping - Google Patents

High-yield cotton cultivation method under condition of jujube-cotton intercropping Download PDF

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CN103718802B
CN103718802B CN201310716588.6A CN201310716588A CN103718802B CN 103718802 B CN103718802 B CN 103718802B CN 201310716588 A CN201310716588 A CN 201310716588A CN 103718802 B CN103718802 B CN 103718802B
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cotton
row
time
water
winter
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CN103718802A (en
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徐文修
赵强
张巨松
李大平
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Xinjiang Agricultural University
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Xinjiang Agricultural University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a high-yield cotton cultivation method. The high-yield cotton cultivation method includes the steps: using a constant value mode of 1.5m X 4m and 3m X 4m as spacing in the rows and spacing between rows of fruit trees in jujube-cotton intercropping; before cotton seeding, topdressing and irrigating for the first time on the last twenty days of March, implementing autumn ploughing and winter irrigation, and completing fertilization, land preparation and weed control before autumn ploughing; selecting high-quality seeds, and starting to seed on April 1st and April 5th , wherein seeding depth is 2-3cm, seeding rate is 60-75kg/hm2, 2-3 seeds are sown in each hole, and earthing depth is 1.0-1.5cm; starting final singling when one true leaf appears, intertilling timely, using mepiquat chloride 9 to control the plant height within a range of 65-70cm, and subjecting cotton to topdressing, irrigation, topping and collection; preventing pests such as tetranychus, aphid, thrips and cotton bollworm in jujube-cotton intercropping cropland. By means of the high-yield cotton cultivation method, land utilization rate is fully increased, adverse impact of jujubes on cotton intercropped with the jujubes is lessened, yield of intercropped cotton is maintained and improved, high yield and high efficiency of the cropland can be achieved finally, and consequently income increase is facilitated for farmers.

Description

A kind of cotton high yield growing method under Fructus Jujubae cotton Intercropping
Technical field
The invention belongs to proportion of crop planting technical field, more particularly to a kind of cultural method of cotton yield.
Background technology
Xinjiang has advantageous sunlight-heat reaources, and since ancient times, all kinds of fruit in Xinjiang are just enjoyed great prestige both at home and abroad, from entrance After 21 century, after the quickening South Sinkiang rural economic development working conference of particularly 2003 autonomous regions is held, the autonomous District Party Committee is bright Really propose to be adhered to woods fruit product standardization, production regularization, management style industrialization, Producer more educated (specialization) " four change " principle, builds up the pillar industry of rural economic development industry of planting forest or fruit tress, and at present, Xinjiang woods fruit cultivated area is every year with million Mu speed increase, defines woods fruit main producing region of the South Sinkiang Xinjiang's Tarim Basin based on Fructus Jujubae, Semen Juglandiss, Fructus Pruni, fragrant pear, Fructus Mali pumilae, tells The efficient woods fruit base of basin, Ili River Valley, Northern Slope of Tianshan Mountains based on Fructus Vitis viniferae, Fructus Jujubae, Fructus Lycii, fruit in season, facility woods fruit is breathed out, Full boundary realizes the Rapid Expansion of woods fruit construction of base scale, the total cultivated area of Xinjiang woods fruit in 2012 up to 133.3 ten thousand hectares, Wherein, Fructus Jujubae cultivated area occupies the 3rd, the whole nation up to 350,000 hectares, and apricot area ranks first in the country, and has preliminarily formed South Sinkiang Huan Ta In tub ground advantage woods fruit main producing region, the high-quality and efficient woods fruit base of Turpan- Hami basin, Ili River Valley and Northern Slope of Tianshan Mountains local special fruit tree produce Industry band, more than 6,700,000 tons, the gross output value breaks through 24,000,000,000 yuan to Xinjiang fruit total output in 2011, with autonomous region's local special fruit tree industry Fast development, fruit tree-crop interplanting tree-dimentional growing model are also arisen at the historic moment, and wherein fruit cotton interplanting mode has become Aksu, noise made in coughing or vomiting Assorted, and one of the important cropping pattern in the area such as field.
Jujube tree is quickly grown in the Xinjiang's Tarim Basin advantage industry of planting forest or fruit tress of South Sinkiang, and 2009 Annual planting areas are public up to 28.7 ten thousand Hectare, under the conditions of the non-planting culture of jujube tree, Fructus Jujubae cotton interplanting mode has become one of important model of local Fructus Jujubae development, Fructus Jujubae The first three years jujube tree tree crown of tree planting is little, and exposed land area is big, and intercropping cotton is sheltered from heat or light by jujube tree affects less.
As the difference of the jujube tree age of tree increases, jujube tree is also increasing to the adverse effect of intercropping cotton, have impact on Cotton Gossypii Growth, be unfavorable for keeping and improving the yield of intercropping cotton.
The content of the invention
The purpose of the embodiment of the present invention is to provide a kind of cultural method of cotton yield, it is intended to solved with the jujube tree age of tree Different increases, have impact on the growth of Cotton Gossypii, the problem of the yield for being unfavorable for keeping and improve intercropping cotton.
The embodiment of the present invention is achieved in that a kind of cultural method of cotton yield, the cultural method of the cotton yield Comprise the following steps:
Step one, the fruit tree seeding row spacing of Fructus Jujubae cotton catch cropping adopt 1.5m × 4m, the deterministic model of 3m × 4m;
Step 2, before sowing cotton seed, mid or late March, fruit tree topdress for the first time and pour water, and carry out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, in autumn ploughing Fertilising, expropriation of land, weeding are implemented before;
Step 3, chooses high-quality breeding, and 1-April 5 April starts broadcasting, seed level 2-3cm, the amount of broadcasting 60-75kg/hm2, per cave Sow 2-3 grains, earthing 1.0-1.5cm;
Step 4, occurs starting final singling during a piece of true leaf, intertills in time, control plant height in 65- using mepiquat chloride 9 70cm, carries out topdressing, irrigate, pinch and receiving flower to Cotton Gossypii;
Step 5, tetranychid, aphid, thrips to the farmland of jujube tree intercropping cotton, bollworm carry out the preventing and treating of pest and disease damage.
Further, in step one, the fruit tree seeding row spacing of Fructus Jujubae cotton catch cropping adopts the definite value mould of 1.5m × 4m, 3m × 4m substantially Formula, jujube tree row both sides have been ditched low ridge, jujube tree ditch width 80cm-100cm, the high 15cm in ridge, and jujube tree is with side row Cotton Gossypii apart from 80- 100cm, in the ranks Cotton Gossypii adopts 1.4m films to jujube tree, and 4 row Cotton Gossypiis, Cotton Gossypii wide-and narrow-row configuration [(30+40+30)+50cm] are planted per film × 12cm, jujube tree can in the ranks lay two width films, plant 8 row Cotton Gossypiis, and per hectare strain number is 22.2 ten thousand plants.
Further, jujube tree in the ranks Cotton Gossypii can also adopt 2.3m wide film, the Cotton Gossypii of a width film, a film 8 are planted between fruit tree OK, it is configured to:[(15+45+15+50+15+45+15)+30] cm × 10cm, per hectare strain number are 30.8 plants.
Further, in step 2, Autumn deep ploughing should be greater than 20cm, and after ploughing, winter irrigation in time, necessary before fruit tree October 20 Winter irrigation to be completed;Before starting the year's ploughing per hectare apply more than 45 tons of farm manure, dregs of fat 750kg, according to fertilization compositions based on earth measurement:Available nitrogenous fertilizer is total The 50%-60% of amount, phosphate fertilizer and whole potash fertilizer, i.e. carbamide 300-450kg, phosphoric acid diamidogen 300-375kg, potassium sulfate 75- 120kg, ploughs deeply as base manure, carries out whole layer placement of fertilizer, fertilizer is uniformly sprinkled in ground before plough, and machinery is ploughed deeply, or with deep fertilizer spraying machine or Drill for sowing in lines ploughs deeply more than 20cm after uniformly applying.
Further, in step 2, before sowing cotton seed, 2250-2700g/hm is mended with the field of applying that content is 33%2Or 48% Trefanocide 1200-1800g/hm2, 50% Acetochlor 1500-1800g/hm2, 600-750kg even sprayings are watered, rake a kind of farm tools is mixed in time Enter upper soll layer, with trefanocide process soil 48h when after sowed, other spray after can sowing, spray various medicines Fruit tree ditch will be avoided during agent as far as possible and fruit tree is dry, prevent from poisoning being produced to fruit tree.
Further, in step 3, from high-quality breeding, the prescription of seed is that purity is not less than 97%, cleanliness not Capsuled seed less than 99%, germination percentage not less than 85%, moisture less than 12%, good seed rate not less than 95%, cotton 49 in selection Or 26 in new land;Can sow when under film, the 5cm soil moistures stably pass through 12 DEG C, 5-April 15 Optimal sowing date April, rain After to break alkali shell in time and help Seedling to be unearthed, after emerging whne cotyledon by it is yellow turn green when, put Seedling, cotton plant stem by the timely rupture of membranes of set spacing in the rows Aperture is tight with grave, and rotten kind of plot and 50cm are short of seedling, disconnected ridge is reseeded in time with soaked cotton seed.
Further, in step 4, seedling stage intertills three times, for the first time in cotyledon period, shallow plowing 5-8cm;Second intertillage knot Final singling is closed, depth is up to 10cm;Before buddingging, depth reaches 15cm for third time intertillage;
4 leaf of cotton Seedling wholeheartedly when, use mepiquat chloride 7.5-15g/hm2It is light to adjust;Before head water, mepiquat chloride 15-22.5g/hm is used2Change control, Ensure cotton plant robust growth, reduction comes off and empty Fruit branch;Before and after two water, mepiquat chloride 45-75g/hm is used2Change control, reach in fruit number of units Manually pinched during to 8-10 platforms immediately, 8-10 days after pinching, use mepiquat chloride 90-120g/hm2Carrying out control, by plant height control System is in 65-70cm;
Topdress, late May, fruit tree should be topdressed for the second time and be poured water in early stage of blooming, with reference to applying fruit trees with fertilizer simultaneously, Spray foliage fertilizer 2-3 time, mid-July to mid-August, visual Cotton growth foliage-spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3-4 time, each consumption It is every 3-4kg/hm2;Topdress and can apply carbamide 150kg/hm for the first time before head water in field2, pour water deep placement with reference to trench digging, secondary additional Applying visual Cotton growth is carried out with reference to two water or three water, applies carbamide 75-120kg/hm2, the time was less than July 15;
Irrigate, after mid-June, two water of Cotton Gossypii is individually carried out Cotton Gossypii head water for 10 days after head water, the three water time of Cotton Gossypii Can simultaneously carry out with reference to the soil texture, weather, Cotton growth concrete condition and jujube tree, or suitably delay and individually pour water, late August Increased according to Cotton Gossypii soil moisture content to early September and poured water for 1-2 time, but by the end of September before must cut off the water;
Topping Time is end before 5-July 15 July, and to early August after pinching, timely artificial pruning is beaten old leaf, cut Except empty Fruit branch;
Receipts flower starts harvesting in late September or early October, will divide and pluck, divide solarization, partite transport, point bundle, point storage during harvesting;Take Film is taken off before head water, receipts are picked up net residual film on the field after spending, focus on, residual film should not be placed on by the lateral of field, prevent secondary pollution.
Further, in step 5, the method for the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control is:
Winter scrapes bark, by the bark on trunk and skeleton branch, sticks up skin and all wipes off, forces down the worm that survives the winter of red spider insect Mouth density;
When the existing cotyledon of Cotton Gossypii launches, immediately with 1000 times of liquid per hectares 450-600kg of omethoate, sprayed in case Cotton thrips;
Cotton aphid control:One is autumn ploughing winter irrigation;Two is to concentrate in winter to prevent and treat flowers, warmhouse booth on a large scale, is eliminated Survive the winter aphid source, reduce hibernating base, warmhouse booth dichlorvos preparation and aerosol carry out medicament fumigating, and flowers buriing ferrum goes out Gram, Furadan granular preparation, outdoor host such as pomegranate tree, Chinese pricklyash plant-spraying omethoate, the net chemical control of aphid louse, three are It is early to investigate, center strain, centre slice preventing and treating are carried out, aphid strain is found, omethoate systemic insecticide 1 is used in time:5-10 times of liquid is applied Stem, finding one plant has cotten aphid, will be applied to center 1-2m2, with finding that is controlled a circle, a piece of preventing and treating diffusion is a little controlled in discovery, will Cotten aphid was controlled in the spot film stage;
The preventing and treating of Cotton Gossypii tetranychid, removed weed in cotton field before the winter, site preparation of turning over, and winter irrigates, to reduce worm amount of surviving the winter, early spring Channel, forest belt, edge of a field rand are early prevented and treated, and when Cotton Gossypii tetranychid occurs, practicable cotton field control point, control strain, coordinate anti-with agricultural Control, Biological control and chemical prevention method for integrated control, cotton spider mites are eliminated before by the end of June, it is to avoid Cotton Gossypii is aggrieved;
Cotton bollworm control, to put prevention first, integrated control is prevented and treated in time, carries out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, and the shovel ridge is removed pupa, forces down and survive the winter Insect population, plants 4-6 row cotton fields in cotton field, traps bollworm and lay eggs on Semen Maydiss, and carry out drug treating in time, To reduce cotton field harm, frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp is disposed in cotton field, according to prediction, at the moth appearance initial stage, timing is turned on light moth of going out, according to The bollworm extent of injury can carry out spraying preventing and treating using BT Emulsions, match red 2000 times of liquid, chrysanthemum lipid chemical agents with rotation.
The present invention provide cotton yield cultural method, by the fruit tree seeding row spacing of Fructus Jujubae cotton catch cropping using 1.5m × 4m, The deterministic model of 3m × 4m;Before sowing cotton seed, mid or late March, fruit tree topdress for the first time and pour water, and carry out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, in the autumn Fertilising, expropriation of land, weeding are implemented before ploughing;High-quality breeding is chosen, 1-April 5 April starts broadcasting, seed level 2-3cm, the amount of broadcasting 60- 75kg/hm2, 2-3 grains of sowing per cave, earthing 1.0-1.5cm;Occur starting final singling during a piece of true leaf, intertill in time, using casing coupling Amine 9 controls plant height in 65-70cm, and Cotton Gossypii is carried out topdressing, irrigate, pinch and receiving flower;Farmland to jujube tree intercropping cotton Tetranychid, aphid, thrips, bollworm carry out the preventing and treating of pest and disease damage;The present invention substantially increases land utilization ratio, reduces jujube tree Adverse effect to intercropping cotton, keeps and improves the yield of intercropping cotton, the final high-yield and high-efficiency for obtaining farmland, promotes agriculture The people increase income, according to achievement in research in recent years and the local produce reality of combination.The present invention defines the three-dimensional kind of adaptation Fructus Jujubae cotton catch cropping Plant Cotton Gossypii high-yield culture technique, be obtain Fructus Jujubae cotton catch cropping solid cultivation under the conditions of cotton yield efficiently provide technical basis.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the flow chart of the cultural method of cotton yield provided in an embodiment of the present invention.
Specific embodiment
In order that the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention become more apparent, with reference to embodiments, to the present invention It is further elaborated.It should be appreciated that specific embodiment described herein is not used to only to explain the present invention Limit the present invention.
Fig. 1 shows the cultural method flow process of the cotton yield of present invention offer.For convenience of description, illustrate only with Related part of the invention.
The cultural method of the cotton yield of the embodiment of the present invention, the cultural method of the cotton yield are comprised the following steps:
Step one, the fruit tree seeding row spacing of Fructus Jujubae cotton catch cropping adopt 1.5m × 4m, the deterministic model of 3m × 4m;
Step 2, before sowing cotton seed, mid or late March, fruit tree topdress for the first time and pour water, and carry out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, in autumn ploughing Fertilising, expropriation of land, weeding are implemented before;
Step 3, chooses high-quality breeding, and 1-April 5 April starts broadcasting, seed level 2-3cm, the amount of broadcasting 60-75kg/hm2, per cave Sow 2-3 grains, earthing 1.0-1.5cm;
Step 4, occurs starting final singling during a piece of true leaf, intertills in time, control plant height in 65- using mepiquat chloride 9 70cm, carries out topdressing, irrigate, pinch and receiving flower to Cotton Gossypii;
Step 5, tetranychid, aphid, thrips to the farmland of jujube tree intercropping cotton, bollworm carry out the preventing and treating of pest and disease damage.
As a prioritization scheme of the embodiment of the present invention, in step one, the fruit tree seeding row spacing of Fructus Jujubae cotton catch cropping is adopted substantially The deterministic model of 1.5m × 4m, 3m × 4m, jujube tree row both sides have been ditched low ridge, jujube tree ditch width 80cm-100cm, the high 15cm in ridge, With side row Cotton Gossypii apart from 80-100cm, in the ranks Cotton Gossypii adopts 1.4m films to jujube tree to jujube tree, and 4 row Cotton Gossypiis, Cotton Gossypii width are planted per film Row configuration [(30+40+30)+50cm] × 12cm, jujube tree can in the ranks lay two width films, plant 8 row Cotton Gossypiis, and per hectare strain number is 22.2 ten thousand plants.
Used as a prioritization scheme of the embodiment of the present invention, in the ranks Cotton Gossypii can also be using the wide film of 2.3m, between fruit tree for jujube tree The Cotton Gossypii of a width film is planted, 8 row of a film is configured to:[(15+45+15+50+15+45+15)+30] cm × 10cm, per hectare strain Number is 30.8 plants.
Used as a prioritization scheme of the embodiment of the present invention, in step 2, Autumn deep ploughing should be greater than 20cm, the timely winter after ploughing Fill, had to complete winter irrigation before fruit tree October 20;Before starting the year's ploughing per hectare apply more than 45 tons of farm manure, dregs of fat 750kg, according to survey Fertilization compositions based on earth:The 50%-60% of available nitrogenous fertilizer total amount, phosphate fertilizer and whole potash fertilizer, i.e. carbamide 300-450kg, phosphoric acid diamidogen 300-375kg, potassium sulfate 75-120kg, plough deeply as base manure, carry out whole layer placement of fertilizer, fertilizer are uniformly sprinkled in ground before plough, machinery Plough deeply, or more than 20cm is ploughed deeply after uniformly being applied with deep fertilizer spraying machine or drill for sowing in lines.
As a prioritization scheme of the embodiment of the present invention, in step 2, it is 33% to apply field with content before sowing cotton seed Mend 2250-2700g/hm2Or 48% trefanocide 1200-1800g/hm2, 50% Acetochlor 1500-1800g/hm2, it is watered 600- 750kg even sprayings, in time rake a kind of farm tools be mixed into upper soll layer, with being sowed after during the soil 48h of trefanocide process, other sprays Sow by after applying, fruit tree ditch will be avoided when spraying various medicaments as far as possible and fruit tree is dry, prevent from poisoning being produced to fruit tree.
As a prioritization scheme of the embodiment of the present invention, in step 3, from high-quality breeding, the prescription of seed is Purity is not less than 95% less than 12%, good seed rate not less than 85%, moisture not less than 99%, germination percentage not less than 97%, cleanliness Capsuled seed, in selection 26 in cotton 49 or new land;Can sow when the 5cm soil moistures stably pass through 12 DEG C under film, most preferably broadcast 5 days-April 15 April phase is planted, alkali shell will be broken after rain in time and helped Seedling to be unearthed, after emerging when cotyledon is green by yellow turn, by set spacing in the rows In time rupture of membranes puts Seedling, and cotton plant stem aperture is tight with grave, and rotten kind of plot and 50cm are short of seedling, disconnected ridge is timely with soaked cotton seed Reseed.
As a prioritization scheme of the embodiment of the present invention, in step 4, seedling stage intertills three times, for the first time in cotyledon period, Shallow plowing 5-8cm;Second intertillage combines final singling, and depth is up to 10cm;Before buddingging, depth reaches 15cm for third time intertillage;
4 leaf of cotton Seedling wholeheartedly when, use mepiquat chloride 7.5-15g/hm2It is light to adjust;Before head water, mepiquat chloride 15-22.5g/hm is used2Change control, Ensure cotton plant robust growth, reduction comes off and empty Fruit branch;Before and after two water, mepiquat chloride 45-75g/hm is used2Change control, reach in fruit number of units Manually pinched during to 8-10 platforms immediately, 8-10 days after pinching, use mepiquat chloride 90-120g/hm2Carrying out control, by plant height control System is in 65-70cm;
Topdress, late May, fruit tree should be topdressed for the second time and be poured water in early stage of blooming, with reference to applying fruit trees with fertilizer simultaneously, Spray foliage fertilizer 2-3 time, mid-July to mid-August, visual Cotton growth foliage-spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3-4 time, each consumption It is every 3-4kg/hm2;Topdress and can apply carbamide 150kg/hm for the first time before head water in field2, pour water deep placement with reference to trench digging, secondary additional Applying visual Cotton growth is carried out with reference to two water or three water, applies carbamide 75-120kg/hm2, the time was less than July 15;
Irrigate, after mid-June, two water of Cotton Gossypii is individually carried out Cotton Gossypii head water for 10 days after head water, the three water time of Cotton Gossypii Can simultaneously carry out with reference to the soil texture, weather, Cotton growth concrete condition and jujube tree, or suitably delay and individually pour water, late August Increased according to Cotton Gossypii soil moisture content to early September and poured water for 1-2 time, but by the end of September before must cut off the water;
Topping Time is end before 5-July 15 July, and to early August after pinching, timely artificial pruning is beaten old leaf, cut Except empty Fruit branch;
Receipts flower starts harvesting in late September or early October, will divide and pluck, divide solarization, partite transport, point bundle, point storage during harvesting;Take Film is taken off before head water, receipts are picked up net residual film on the field after spending, focus on, residual film should not be placed on by the lateral of field, prevent secondary pollution.
As a prioritization scheme of the embodiment of the present invention, in step 5, the method for the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control is:
Winter scrapes bark, by the bark on trunk and skeleton branch, sticks up skin and all wipes off, forces down the worm that survives the winter of red spider insect Mouth density;
When the existing cotyledon of Cotton Gossypii launches, immediately with 1000 times of liquid per hectares 450-600kg of omethoate, sprayed in case Cotton thrips;
Cotton aphid control:One is autumn ploughing winter irrigation;Two is to concentrate in winter to prevent and treat flowers, warmhouse booth on a large scale, is eliminated Survive the winter aphid source, reduce hibernating base, warmhouse booth dichlorvos preparation and aerosol carry out medicament fumigating, and flowers buriing ferrum goes out Gram, Furadan granular preparation, outdoor host such as pomegranate tree, Chinese pricklyash plant-spraying omethoate, the net chemical control of aphid louse, three are It is early to investigate, center strain, centre slice preventing and treating are carried out, aphid strain is found, omethoate systemic insecticide 1 is used in time:5-10 times of liquid is applied Stem, finding one plant has cotten aphid, will be applied to center 1-2m2, with finding that is controlled a circle, a piece of preventing and treating diffusion is a little controlled in discovery, will Cotten aphid was controlled in the spot film stage;
The preventing and treating of Cotton Gossypii tetranychid, removed weed in cotton field before the winter, site preparation of turning over, and winter irrigates, to reduce worm amount of surviving the winter, early spring Channel, forest belt, edge of a field rand are early prevented and treated, and when Cotton Gossypii tetranychid occurs, practicable cotton field control point, control strain, coordinate anti-with agricultural Control, Biological control and chemical prevention method for integrated control, cotton spider mites are eliminated before by the end of June, it is to avoid Cotton Gossypii is aggrieved;
Cotton bollworm control, to put prevention first, integrated control is prevented and treated in time, carries out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, and the shovel ridge is removed pupa, forces down and survive the winter Insect population, plants 4-6 row cotton fields in cotton field, traps bollworm and lay eggs on Semen Maydiss, and carry out drug treating in time, To reduce cotton field harm, frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp is disposed in cotton field, according to prediction, at the moth appearance initial stage, timing is turned on light moth of going out, according to The bollworm extent of injury can carry out spraying preventing and treating using BT Emulsions, match red 2000 times of liquid, chrysanthemum lipid chemical agents with rotation.
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and specific embodiment to the present invention application principle be further described.
As shown in figure 1, the cultural method of the cotton yield of the embodiment of the present invention is comprised the following steps:
S101:The fruit tree seeding row spacing of Fructus Jujubae cotton catch cropping adopts the deterministic model of 1.5m × 4m, 3m × 4m substantially;
S102:Before sowing cotton seed, mid or late March, fruit tree topdress for the first time and pour water, and carry out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, autumn ploughing it It is front to implement fertilising, expropriation of land, weeding;
S103:High-quality breeding is chosen, 1-April 5 April starts broadcasting, seed level 2-3cm, the amount of broadcasting 60-75kg/hm2, under every cave Plant 2-3 grains, earthing 1.0-1.5cm;
S104:Occur starting final singling during a piece of true leaf, intertill in time, plant height is controlled in 65- using mepiquat chloride 9 70cm, carries out topdressing, irrigate, pinch and receiving flower to Cotton Gossypii;
S105:Tetranychid, aphid, thrips to the farmland of jujube tree intercropping cotton, bollworm carry out the preventing and treating of pest and disease damage.
The present invention's concretely comprises the following steps:
The first step, the fruit tree seeding row spacing of Fructus Jujubae cotton catch cropping adopt the deterministic models such as 1.5m × 4m, 3m × 4m, jujube tree row two substantially Side has been ditched low ridge, and bottom of trench keeps level, is easy to jujube tree to irrigate, jujube tree ditch convenient width 80cm-100cm, the high 15cm in ridge, jujube tree With distance (spacing) 80-100cm of side row Cotton Gossypii, advantageous mechanical operation, the normal growth of jujube tree and Cotton Gossypii is not affected, root is reduced Competition of the system to liquid manure, in the ranks Cotton Gossypii can plant 4 row Cotton Gossypiis, Cotton Gossypii using the film of different wide cuts, using 1.4m films to jujube tree per film Wide-and narrow-row configures [(30+40+30)+50cm] × 12cm, and jujube tree can in the ranks lay two width films, plants 8 row Cotton Gossypiis, and per hectare is theoretical Strain number is up to 22.2 ten thousand plants, or using the wide film of 2.3m, the Cotton Gossypii of a width film is planted between fruit tree, and 8 row of a film is configured to:[(15+45 + 15+50+15+45+15)+30] cm × 10cm, per hectare theory strain number is up to 30.8 plants;
Second step, broadcasts front preparation
1st, autumn ploughing winter irrigation
The orchard of intercropping cotton is required to carry out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, and Autumn deep ploughing should reach more than 20cm, winter irrigation in time after ploughing, fruit Had to complete winter irrigation before tree October 20, cotton field winter irrigation can harvest situation according to Cotton Gossypii and carry out or suitably delay simultaneously, in good time Site preparation, carries out residual film removing work during site preparation;
2nd, spring fruit tree is poured water for the first time, mid or late March, and fruit tree is topdressed pour water (water of sprouting) for the first time, it is necessary to ditch, edge Pour water in ditch, when pouring water, if in the ranks Cotton Gossypii to wait to broadcast ground soil moisture content poor, spring irrigation can be carried out to which, be difficult excessive, otherwise be affected subsequent Sowing cotton seed, fruit tree will prevent during pouring water for the first time metals run out and flood irrigation, can otherwise have a strong impact on Cotton Gossypii and emerge and grow;
3rd, use sufficient base manure
Before starting the year's ploughing per hectare apply more than 45 tons of farm manure, dregs of fat 750kg, according to fertilization compositions based on earth measurement:Available nitrogenous fertilizer total amount 50%-60%, phosphate fertilizer and whole potash fertilizer (i.e. carbamide 300-450kg, phosphoric acid diamidogen 300-375kg, potassium sulfate 75-120kg) Plough deeply as base manure, carry out whole layer placement of fertilizer, fertilizer is uniformly sprinkled in ground before plough, machinery is ploughed deeply, or with deep fertilizer spraying machine or drill for sowing in lines More than 20cm is ploughed deeply after uniformly applying, during fertilising both otherwise injure fruit tree, make great efforts again improve site preparation quality, be broadcast full stand wound Make condition;
4th, chemical weed control
2250-2700g/hm is mended with the field of applying that content is 33% before sowing cotton seed2Or 48% trefanocide 1200-1800g/ hm2, 50% Acetochlor 1500-1800g/hm2, 600-750kg even sprayings are watered, rake a kind of farm tools is mixed into upper soll layer in time, is found pleasure in fluorine Spirit process soil 48h when after sowed, other spray after can sowing, fruit tree will be avoided when spraying various medicaments as far as possible Ditch and fruit tree are dry, prevent from producing poisoning to fruit tree;
5th, seedbed preparation
The ground for ploughing through carry out immediately harrow a kind of farm tools soil moisture conservation, prevent Topsoil water from evaporating, seedbed preparation quality reach " moisture in the soil, it is broken, net, It is loose, neat, flat " standard;
3rd step, sows to management of emerging
1st, seed selection and seed treatment
From high-quality breeding, breeding is the basis of high yield, according to field test and production practices, can select plant type it is compact, Precocious, disease-resistant, shade tolerant, high yield kind, main adapted varieties has middle cotton 49,26 in new land, and the prescription of seed is purity >=97%, cleanliness >=99%, germination percentage >=85%, the capsuled seed of moisture < 12%, good seed rate >=95%;
2nd, the sowing time
Can sow when under film, the 5cm soil moistures stably pass through 12 DEG C, 1-April 5 general April starts broadcasting, it is optimal to sow 5 days-April 15 April phase, now fruit tree be in the budding period, suitably can be sowed in advance according to meteorological condition then, be carried with sharp Cotton Gossypii Front maturation, but it is noted that prevention early spring diastrous weather;
3rd, seeding quality
Seed level 2-3cm, the amount of broadcasting 60-75kg/hm2, sow 2-3 grains per cave, earthing 1.0-1.5cm, seed level to be kept is consistent, Broadcast that row end is straight, line-spacing is accurate, seeding down is uniform, earthing is good, press mold is tight, rand ditch not broadcast leakage, do not leak cave, strive reaching one Broadcast full stand;
4th, help Seedling to be unearthed, put Seedling and reseed
Alkali shell will be broken after rain in time helps Seedling to be unearthed, and after emerging when cotyledon is green by yellow turn, puts by the timely rupture of membranes of set spacing in the rows Seedling, cotton plant stem aperture are tight with grave, near if any cold current, strong wind, will postpone and put the Seedling time, face inspection in time before emerging Bud and rotten kind of situation, rotten kind of plot and 50cm are short of seedling, disconnected ridge is reseeded in time with soaked cotton seed, it is ensured that full stand;
4th step, field management
1st, early final singling
Occur during a piece of true leaf, starting final singling, terminate during two panels true leaf, seedlings of selecting and remain, strong sprout, go sick seedling, weak seedling;Train " shield neck soil ", does not stay double strains, ten thousand plants/hm of strain number 21-24 of keeping a full stand of seedings2
2nd, middle weeding
Intertillage energy temperature raising soil moisture conservation in time, promotes supporting root early to go out, improves Resistance of Seedling, reduces pest and disease damage generation, and seedling stage is general Intertillage more than three times, for the first time in cotyledon period, shallow plowing 5-8cm;Second intertillage combines final singling, and depth is up to 10cm;For the third time Before buddingging, depth reaches 15cm for intertillage, and now overground part growth is accelerated, and deep intertillage can promote to prick under root and control internode;
3rd, rationalize control
Under fruit cotton Intercropping, cotton field inner ventilation situation is poor, and high humidity, Cotton Gossypii excessive growth situation are more universal, carry out Full range control, 4 leaf of cotton Seedling wholeheartedly when, use mepiquat chloride 7.5-15g/hm2It is light to adjust;Before head water, mepiquat chloride 15-22.5g/hm is used2Change Control, it is ensured that cotton plant robust growth, reduction come off and empty Fruit branch;Before and after two water, mepiquat chloride 45-75g/hm is used2Change control, in fruit number of units Manually pinched when reaching 8-10 platforms immediately, 8-10 days after pinching, use mepiquat chloride 90-120g/hm2Carrying out control, consumption to be prevented It is excessive, affect top Fruit branch elongation and tie bell, plant height is controlled in 65-70cm;
4th, topdress
The cotton field light and temperature condition of Fructus Jujubae cotton intercropping field is poorer than nonoculture cotton field, will accordingly strengthen rich water quality management, late May, fruit tree In early stage of blooming, should be topdressed pour water (flower forcing fertilizer) for the second time, and now Cotton Gossypii is in first flower bud phase, can be same with reference to applying fruit trees with fertilizer When, spray foliage fertilizer 2-3 time, weaker cotton field can suitably increase number of times, mid-July to mid-August, visual Cotton growth leaf Face sprays potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3-4 time, and each consumption is every 3-4kg/hm2
Topdress and can apply carbamide 150kg/hm for the first time before head water in field2, pour water deep placement with reference to trench digging, it is secondary impose it is visual Cotton growth is carried out with reference to two water or three water, applies carbamide 75-120kg/hm2, the time was advisable less than July 15;
5th, Rational Irrigation
Adhere to the principle of " not non-irrigated not fill, a small amount of multiple, holding field moistening ", jujube tree and Cotton Gossypii pair will be taken into account in catch cropping cotton field The demand of water, typically after mid-June, jujube tree is in florescence to Cotton Gossypii head water, has now typically poured water 2 times, thus Cotton Gossypii Before head water, jujube tree is poured water and should irrigate in jujube tree ditch, forbids broad irrigation, waterproof to diffuse out outside ditch, affects Cotton Gossypii normal growth, no The cotton field of hydropenia is postponed the head water time as far as possible, and two water of Cotton Gossypii individually carries out, notes preventing from metalling run out into Fructus Jujubae for 10 days or so after head water Tree ditch, three water time of Cotton Gossypii can be carried out simultaneously with reference to the soil texture, weather, Cotton growth concrete condition and jujube tree, or are suitably prolonged Individually pour water afterwards, late August to early September increases according to Cotton Gossypii soil moisture content pours water for 1-2 time, but by the end of September before must cut off the water;
6th, pinch
Topping Time is to terminate before 5-July 15 July, accomplish " when to not waiting branch, branch to not etc. when " principle, really Number of units immediately begins to pinch when reaching 8-10 platforms, conditional also to beat invalid alabastrum, and August was beaten group's point by boundary of flower before 5 days, subtracted Few invalid alabastrum, to early August after pinching, old leaf is beaten in timely artificial pruning, wipes out sky Fruit branch, promotes field ventilation and penetrating light, subtracts Few non-available nutrient consumption, it is ensured that the nutritional need of middle and lower part Growth of Cotton Boll, increases bell weight, promotes ripe;
7th, receive flower
Cotton boll receives flower after fully ftractureing in time, and it is to want strict hierarchy to receive flower, starts harvesting in late September or early October, During harvesting, it is desirable to accomplish point to pluck, point solarizations, partite transport, point prick, point store up;
Understand residual film:Film is taken off before taking a water, receipts are picked up net residual film on the field after spending, focus on, residual film should not be placed on field By lateral, secondary pollution is prevented;
5th step, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
In the farmland of jujube tree intercropping cotton, some common disease and pests have tetranychid, aphid, thrips, bollworm etc.,
1st, winter scrape bark, by the bark on trunk and skeleton branch, stick up skin and all wipe off, force down the insects such as red spider more Winter insect density;
2nd, cotton thrips preventing and treating:
When the existing cotyledon of Cotton Gossypii launches, immediately with 1000 times of liquid per hectares 450-600kg of omethoate, sprayed in case Cotton thrips, forbid spray in order to avoid injuring natural enemy after May 10;
3rd, cotton aphid control:
One is autumn ploughing winter irrigation;Two is to concentrate in winter to prevent and treat flowers, warmhouse booth on a large scale, eliminates aphid source of surviving the winter, Hibernating base is reduced, warmhouse booth dichlorvos preparation and aerosol carry out medicament fumigating, flowers buriing ferrum goes out gram, Furadan Grain preparation, outdoor host such as the plant-spraying omethoate such as pomegranate tree, Chinese pricklyash, the aphid louse chemical control such as only, three is early investigation, Center strain, centre slice preventing and treating are carried out, aphid strain is found, in time with the systemic insecticides such as omethoate 1:5-10 times of liquid stem brush, sends out Existing one plant has cotten aphid, will be applied to center 1-2m2, spread with the method preventing and treating of " it was found that a plant is controlled a circle, discovery a little controls a piece of ", Cotten aphid was controlled in the spot film stage;
4th, the preventing and treating of Cotton Gossypii tetranychid (red spider)
Weed in cotton field was removed before winter, site preparation of turning over, winter are irrigated, to reduce worm amount of surviving the winter, early spring channel, forest belt, the edge of a field Rand is early prevented and treated, and when Cotton Gossypii tetranychid occurs, practicable cotton field control point, control strain, coordinate with cultural control, Biological control and change The method for integrated control such as preventing and treating are learned, strives cotton spider mites to eliminate before by the end of June, it is to avoid Cotton Gossypii is aggrieved;
5th, cotton bollworm control
Put prevention first, integrated control is prevented and treated in time, carry out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, the shovel ridge is removed pupa, forces down insect population of surviving the winter, in cotton 4-6 row cotton fields are planted in field, are advisable with early-maturing variety, are trapped bollworm and lay eggs on Semen Maydiss, and are carried out at medicine in time Reason, to reduce cotton field harm, disposes frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp by a certain percentage in cotton field, according to prediction in the timing of moth appearance initial stage Turn on light moth of going out, can be carried out using BT Emulsions, match red 2000 times of liquid, chrysanthemum lipid chemical agents with rotation according to the bollworm extent of injury Spraying preventing and treating.
The structure of output and major traits index of the present invention is as shown in the table:
Structure of output and major traits index
The present invention substantially increases land utilization ratio, reduces adverse effect of the jujube tree to intercropping cotton, keeps and improves The yield of intercropping cotton,
Presently preferred embodiments of the present invention is the foregoing is only, not to limit the present invention, all essences in the present invention Any modification, equivalent and improvement made within god and principle etc., should be included within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of cotton high yield growing method under Fructus Jujubae cotton Intercropping, it is characterised in that the Cotton Gossypii under the Fructus Jujubae cotton Intercropping High yield cultivating method is comprised the following steps:
Step one, the fruit tree seeding row spacing of Fructus Jujubae cotton catch cropping adopt the field planting pattern of 1.5m × 4m or 3m × 4m;
Step 2, before sowing cotton seed, mid or late March, fruit tree topdress for the first time and pour water, and carry out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, before autumn ploughing Implement fertilising, site preparation, weeding;
Step 3, chooses high-quality breeding, and 1-April 5 April starts broadcasting, seed level 2-3cm, the amount of broadcasting 60-75kg/hm2, sow 2- per cave 3, earthing 1.0-1.5cm;
Step 4, occurs starting final singling during a piece of true leaf, intertills in time, using mepiquat chloride 9g/hm2Control plant height is in 65- 70cm, carries out topdressing, irrigate, pinch and receiving flower to Cotton Gossypii;
Step 5, tetranychid, aphid, thrips to the farmland of jujube tree intercropping cotton, bollworm carry out the preventing and treating of pest and disease damage;
In step one, the fruit tree seeding row spacing of Fructus Jujubae cotton catch cropping adopts the field planting pattern of 1.5m × 4m or 3m × 4m, jujube tree row both sides Ditch low ridge, jujube tree ditch width 80cm-100cm, the high 15cm in ridge, jujube tree is with side row Cotton Gossypii apart from 80-100cm, jujube tree row Between Cotton Gossypii adopt 1.4m films, per film plant 4 row Cotton Gossypiis, Cotton Gossypii wide-and narrow-row configuration:On film, the narrow row line-spacing on both sides is 30cm, on film Middle wide row line-spacing is 40cm, and away from for 50cm, spacing in the rows is 12cm for the handing-over every trade of film and film, and jujube tree in the ranks lays two width films, kind 8 row Cotton Gossypiis are planted, per hectare strain number is 22.2 ten thousand plants;
In the ranks Cotton Gossypii, also using the wide film of 2.3m, plants the Cotton Gossypii of a width film to jujube tree between fruit tree, and 8 row of a film is configured to:1st row With the 2nd row, the 2nd row and the 3rd row, the 3rd row and the 4th row, the 4th row and the 5th row, the 5th row and the 6th row, the 6th row and the 7th row and the 7th Row is respectively 15cm, 45cm, 15cm, 50cm, 15cm, 45cm and 15cm with the line-spacing of eighth row, and 30cm width is left outside eighth row Agrarian zone, spacing in the rows is 10cm, and per hectare strain number is 30.8 ten thousand plants;
In step 2, Autumn deep ploughing should be greater than 20cm, and after ploughing, winter irrigation in time, will complete winter irrigation before fruit tree October 20;Start the year's ploughing Front per hectare applies more than 45 tons of farm manure, dregs of fat 750kg, according to fertilization compositions based on earth measurement:With the 50%-60% of nitrogenous fertilizer total amount, phosphorus Fertilizer and whole potash fertilizer, i.e. carbamide 300-450kg, phosphoric acid diamidogen 300-375kg, potassium sulfate 75-120kg, plough deeply as base manure, carry out Whole layer placement of fertilizer, plough before fertilizer is sprinkled in ground, machinery is ploughed deeply, or 20cm is ploughed deeply after uniformly being applied with deep fertilizer spraying machine or drill for sowing in lines with On;
In step 2, before sowing cotton seed, 2250-2700g/hm is mended with the field of applying that content is 33%2Or 48% trefanocide 1200- 1800g/hm2, 50% Acetochlor 1500-1800g/hm2, 600-750kg sprayings are watered, rake a kind of farm tools is mixed into upper soll layer in time, wherein Can sow after when the soil that administration trefanocide is processed needs to wait for 48h, the soil of field benefit or Acetochlor process is applied to waiting Time no requirement (NR);
In step 3, from high-quality breeding, the prescription of seed is that purity is not less than 99%, sends out not less than 97%, cleanliness Bud rate is not less than 85%, capsuled seed of the moisture less than 12%, good seed rate not less than 95%, in selection 26 in cotton 49 or new land; Can sow when the 5cm soil moistures stably pass through 12 DEG C under film, on 5-April 15 Optimal sowing date April, alkali shell will be broken after rain and is helped Seedling is unearthed, and after emerging when cotyledon is green by yellow turn, cotton plant stem aperture is tight with grave, and rotten kind of plot and continuous 50cm rows length lack Seedling, disconnected ridge are reseeded in time with soaked cotton seed;
In step 4, seedling stage intertills three times, for the first time in cotyledon period, shallow plowing 5-8cm;Second intertillage combines final singling, depth 10cm;Third time is intertilled before buddingging, depth 15cm;
4 leaf of cotton Seedling wholeheartedly when, use mepiquat chloride 7.5-15g/hm2It is light to adjust;Before head water, mepiquat chloride 15-22.5g/hm is used2Change control, it is ensured that Cotton plant robust growth, reduction come off and empty Fruit branch;Before and after two water, mepiquat chloride 45-75g/hm is used2Change control, 8- is reached in fruit number of units Manually pinch when 10,8-10 days after pinching, use mepiquat chloride 90-120g/hm2Carrying out control, plant height is controlled in 65- 70cm;
Topdress, late May, fruit tree should be topdressed for the second time and be poured water, be sprayed with reference to applying fruit trees with fertilizer simultaneously in early stage of blooming Foliage fertilizer 2-3 time, mid-July to mid-August, depending on Cotton growth foliage-spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3-4 time, each consumption is every 3- 4kg/hm2;Topdress and apply carbamide 150kg/hm for the first time before head water in field2, pour water deep placement with reference to trench digging, it is secondary to impose regarding Cotton Gossypii Growing way is carried out with reference to two water or three water, applies carbamide 75-120kg/hm2, the time was less than July 15;
Irrigate, after mid-June, two water of Cotton Gossypii is individually carried out Cotton Gossypii head water for 10 days after head water, the three water time of Cotton Gossypii combines The soil texture, weather, Cotton growth concrete condition and jujube tree are carried out simultaneously, or are delayed and individually poured water, and late August is to early September Increased according to Cotton Gossypii soil moisture content and poured water for 1-2 time, but by the end of September before must cut off the water;
Topping Time is 5-July 15 July, and to early August after pinching, old leaf is beaten in timely artificial pruning, wipes out sky Fruit branch;
Receipts flower starts harvesting in late September or early October, will divide and pluck, divide solarization, partite transport, point bundle, point storage during harvesting;Take a water Before take off film, receipts pick up net residual film on the field after spending, and focus on, residual film should not be placed on by the lateral of field, prevent secondary pollution;
In step 5, the method for the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control is:
Winter scrapes bark, by the bark on trunk and skeleton branch, sticks up skin and all wipes off, and the insect population of surviving the winter for forcing down red spider insect is close Degree;
When the existing cotyledon of Cotton Gossypii launches, immediately with 1000 times of liquid per hectares 450-600kg of omethoate, sprayed in case cotton Ji Horse;
Cotton aphid control:One is autumn ploughing winter irrigation;Two is to concentrate in winter to prevent and treat flowers, warmhouse booth on a large scale, and elimination is survived the winter Aphid source, reduces hibernating base, and warmhouse booth dichlorvos preparation and aerosol carry out medicament fumigating, and flowers buriing ferrum goes out gram, furan Mutter red granular preparation, outdoor host pomegranate tree, Chinese pricklyash plant-spraying omethoate, the net chemical control of aphid louse, three is early investigation, Center strain, centre slice preventing and treating are carried out, aphid strain is found, 1: the 5-10 times of liquid stem brush of omethoate systemic insecticide is used in time, is found One plant has cotten aphid, will be applied to center 1-2m2, with finding that is controlled a circle, a piece of preventing and treating diffusion is a little controlled in discovery, by cotten aphid control In the spot film stage;
The preventing and treating of Cotton Gossypii tetranychid, removed weed in cotton field before the winter, site preparation of turning over, and winter irrigates, to reduce worm amount of surviving the winter, early spring canal Road, forest belt, edge of a field rand are early prevented and treated, and cotton field control point, control strain are carried out when Cotton Gossypii tetranychid occurs, is coordinated with cultural control, life Thing is prevented and treated and chemical prevention method for integrated control, cotton spider mites is eliminated before by the end of June, it is to avoid Cotton Gossypii is aggrieved;
Cotton bollworm control, to put prevention first, integrated control is prevented and treated in time, carries out autumn ploughing winter irrigation, and the shovel ridge is removed pupa, forces down insect population of surviving the winter Radix, plants 4-6 row cotton fields in cotton field, traps bollworm and lay eggs on Semen Maydiss, and carry out drug treating in time, to subtract Few cotton field harm, disposes frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp in cotton field, is turned on light moth of going out in the timing of moth appearance initial stage according to prediction, according to cotton boll The rotation of the worm extent of injury carries out spraying preventing and treating using BT Emulsions, match red 2000 times of liquid, chrysanthemum esters chemical agents.
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