CN103975711B - A kind of booth autumn cultivating watermelon method - Google Patents

A kind of booth autumn cultivating watermelon method Download PDF

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CN103975711B
CN103975711B CN201410126969.3A CN201410126969A CN103975711B CN 103975711 B CN103975711 B CN 103975711B CN 201410126969 A CN201410126969 A CN 201410126969A CN 103975711 B CN103975711 B CN 103975711B
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climing
water
soil
planting
sowing
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CN201410126969.3A
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CN103975711A (en
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杨兵
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马鞍山绿九湾瓜果蔬菜种植有限公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of autumn cultivating watermelon method, including herein below: operations such as fine variety production, nurturing staff, field planting, cultivation management, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control;The present invention makes a kind of efficiently anti-season characteristic autumn cultivating watermelon technology that the supply phase of normal open country autumn Citrullus vulgaris lists after being deferred to December by original mid or late October successively, this technology implementation is simple, workable, wide adaptability, meet the market in the dull season demand to autumn Citrullus vulgaris.In this technology production process, pest and disease damage is few, and the autumn quality of watermelon of gained is high.

Description

A kind of booth autumn cultivating watermelon method
Technical field
The present invention relates to proportion of crop planting field, be specifically related to a kind of autumn cultivating watermelon method.
Background technology
Citrullus vulgaris can be rated as " king in melon ", taste sugariness succulence, clearly quenches one's thirst, and is good fruit in midsummer, is a kind of being rich in nutrition, pure Only, the food of edible safety.Common growth of watermelon is all in spring, spring Citrullus vulgaris typically 7, August concentrates during high temperature City, and measure big, it is difficult to store for a long time.Development autumn Citrullus vulgaris then can extend the supply phase of Citrullus vulgaris.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides a kind of booth autumn cultivating watermelon method.
The present invention adopts the following technical scheme that
A kind of booth autumn cultivating watermelon method, it is characterised in that include herein below:
(1), breeding autumn cultivating watermelon is selected need to select early-maturing variety, such as disease-resistant Soviet Union honey, Feng Le mono-, poly-precious No. one, Zheng Miscellaneous No. five, Jinzhongguanlong, Citrullus vulgaris 8242 etc.;
(2), nurturing staff
A, the preparation of Nutrition Soil
Typically in broadcasting front 1-2 month, by the field soil of planting vegetable crop non-in the nearly 3-5 of 60-70%, 30-40% through harmless The proportions Nutrition Soil of the fertilizer that change processes, adds 2-3kg calcium superphosphate, 4-5g sulphuric acid zinc powder in every lm3 Nutrition Soil, 1-2g ammonium molybdate, 1-2g zinc chloride, and fully mix thoroughly and sieve;
B, sowing seedbed prepare
Make wide 1.2-1.3m, the high furrow of high 10-15cm with above-mentioned Nutrition Soil, carefully harrow leveling, before sowing, water vola water;
C, sowing
Sowing time at the sowing of mid or late July-early August, every 667 cultivation field sowing quantity 20-30g,
First by seed dry in the sun 2-3h under the low light level before broadcasting, then scald with the hot water of about 50-60 DEG C and plant and be stirred continuously 10- 15min, then soak seed 1-2h with the mature vinegar of 5-10%, pulls out, clear water is cleaned, and is placed in 28 DEG C of accelerating germination;
Medicine soil first thick for place mat 1cm below seedbed before sowing, then fill out Nutrition Soil, first spray saturating Seeding bed, all with water Even scatter seeds, then 1cm thickness medicine soil in upper cover, the preparation of its Chinese medicine soil is by every square meter seedbed 8g50% carbendazim, 3g3% Ground worm kills star, 2g sulphuric acid manganese powder and appropriate fine earth and mixes, at lid sunshade net or Caulis et Folium Oryzae;
D, seedling management
During 80% seed sprouting, throw off bed surface covering;Lower the temperature with suitable with by sunshade net, during nursery, to water sufficient water, after Suitably water depending on nursery season and soil moisture content, open to 2 leaf 1 hearts constantly at rice shoot, a day field planting can be selected;
(3), field planting
Cultivation field arranges
Cultivation field should be deep ploughed in advance;Every mu of the decomposed manure 1500-2000kg used through harmless treatment, peroxophosphoric acid Calcium 50kg, soil conditioner 10-12kg, implement rotary tillage after sprinkling evenly, the thinner leveling of rake, bedding of ditching, make wide 1.8-2.0 rice, The cultivating bed of high 15-20cm, and it is empty to reserve operation ditch and suitable booth limit between the furrow of wide 30-50cm, 8-10 days scaffoldings before field planting The vexed canopy of buckle film;
Survival after transplant in good time
Selection has this varietal characteristic, tool 5-7 sheet true leaf, and leaf color is dark green, the sturdy internode of cane is short, strengthening without pest and disease damage Seedling, choosing cloudy day about 10 days August or fine day at dusk open cave field planting by seeding row spacing by 43 × 80cm seeding row spacing, and irrigate in time and determine root Water, after work in 3-5 days, the more flat cave of harmony root of earthing up, in the ranks lay micro-irrigation flexible pipe, covering film in furrow face and put Seedling;
(4), manage after field planting
According to weather conditions and plant growing way appearance, by the opening and closing of booth, carry out thermophilic management and Illumination adjusting, and The field planting of plant lives, the first key point such as fruit phase, swollen fruit mid-term, implements to topdress in conjunction with micro drip-irrigation, implements three climing trainings, climing length 30 Enforcement is hung climing, main climing 12 joints stays melon, implements artificial supplementary pollination, and leave labelling, and when children's melon egg is big, enforcement net hangs;
Training reason is climing
Citrullus vulgaris stretch climing after should prune in time, take three climing pruning methods, as main climing long 60cm, select and remain at 3~5 joints Article 2, healthy and strong lateral bine, extracts remaining lateral bine;Melon removes sick leaf, Lao Ye, sick branch, weak branch after occupying stably;Furrow are guided into relatively by climing when drawing climing Low one side, must not arbitrarily stir when drawing climing, does not turn round climing;When keeping down the vines of a creeping plant, branch is converted into inverted U and inserts (pressure is lived climing) in soil, select Carried out in the afternoon of fine day;
Rich water quality management
The work such as weeding, ridging in carrying out when the climing length of Citrullus vulgaris 40~50cm, after transplanting, 7d executes slow seed manure, with nitrogenous fertilizer is Main, add water to water with carbamide 5kg/ mu and execute;Melon egg executes carbamide 10kg/ mu or become thoroughly decomposed night soil 600kg/ mu, potassium sulfate time big 10kg/ mu, executes after 7d 1 time again, executes carbamide and potassium sulfate each 10kg/ mu, watermelon growing rapid hourly water demand ratio after gathering every time More, particularly expanding stage is the most urgent to the demand of moisture, but greenhouse watermelon is poured water unsuitable too much, should be according to the fresh and tender journey of leaf color Degree rationally pouring, Citrullus vulgaris is plucked front 7~10d and should be stopped watering;
(5), the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
Use crop rotation, shine the agricultural measures such as ridge, disease-resistant variety, applying organic manure;Use the vexed canopy of high temperature, black film weeding, color The physical measure such as plate and light trap;Use the biological control measures such as gyplure trapping and biological pesticide, in conjunction with necessary chemical prevention, Carry out comprehensive innoxious insect pest preventing and controlling, the high poison persistent pesticide of disabling;
(6) gather: in early and middle ten days in October, typically after female flower is open, within 28-32 days, carry out gathering of first melon;The most every Gathered a collection of every about 30 days, rural area, harmless treatment straw stalk and discarded mulch film after gathering, should be cleaned in time.
Described booth autumn cultivating watermelon method, it is characterised in that: the soil conditioner described in step (3) is by following heavy The component raw material of amount part is prepared from: vermiculite power 20-30, clay 10-12, citric acid 8-10, bean cake 20-25, distiller grains 3-5, ripe Calx 2-3, potassium humate 8-10, boric acid 5-6, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-3, ferrous sulfate 0.1-0.2, sodium selenite 0.01-0.03, Manganese sulfate 0.02-0.03, magnesium sulfate 0.4-0.5, ammonium molybdate 0.01-0.02, bone meal 8-11, Oleum menthae 1-2, glycerol 1-2, sucrose Ester 0.1-0.3, water are appropriate, vermiculite power, clay, citric acid are added suitable quantity of water mixing, stirs into mud, send into 200-300 DEG C of stove Middle roasting 3-4 hour, then, cooling crush becomes 2-4mm coarse grain, will divide with the rest materials mix and blend 40-50 in formula again Zhong Hou, pelletize, spray Oleum menthae, drying.
Beneficial effects of the present invention:
The autumn cultivating watermelon method that the present invention provides, is a kind of to make the supply phase of normal open country autumn Citrullus vulgaris by original 10 Being deferred to a kind of efficiently anti-season characteristic autumn cultivating watermelon technology after December the middle ten days and the last ten days moon, this technology implementation is simple, can grasp The property made is strong, and wide adaptability meets the market in the dull season demand to Citrullus vulgaris.This technology all noted in seed selection, nursery, cultivation each stage Integrated application to the green prevention and control measure of disease pest and weed, when applying base manure, with the addition of soil conditioner, not only improves soil Matter, reduces the breeding of pest and disease damage simultaneously, avoids and decrease the use of chemical pesticide to greatest extent, and Product quality and safety is also Have and ensure the most reliably.
Detailed description of the invention
Embodiment 1: a kind of booth autumn cultivating watermelon method, including herein below:
(1), breeding Citrullus vulgaris 8242 is selected;
(2), nurturing staff
A, the preparation of Nutrition Soil
Typically in broadcasting front 1-2 month, by the field soil of planting vegetable crop non-in the nearly 3-5 of 60-70%, 30-40% through harmless The proportions Nutrition Soil of the fertilizer that change processes, every lm3Nutrition Soil adds 2-3kg calcium superphosphate, 4-5g sulphuric acid zinc powder, 1-2g ammonium molybdate, 1-2g zinc chloride, and fully mix thoroughly and sieve;
B, sowing seedbed prepare
Make wide 1.2-1.3m, the high furrow of high 10-15cm with above-mentioned Nutrition Soil, carefully harrow leveling, before sowing, water vola water;
C, sowing
Sowing time at the sowing of mid or late July-early August, every 667 cultivation field sowing quantity 20-30g,
First by seed dry in the sun 2-3h under the low light level before broadcasting, then scald with the hot water of about 50-60 DEG C and plant and be stirred continuously 10- 15min, then soak seed 1-2h with the mature vinegar of 5-10%, pulls out, clear water is cleaned, and is placed in 28 DEG C of accelerating germination;
Medicine soil first thick for place mat 1cm below seedbed before sowing, then fill out Nutrition Soil, first spray saturating Seeding bed, all with water Even scatter seeds, then 1cm thickness medicine soil in upper cover, the preparation of its Chinese medicine soil is by every square meter seedbed 8g50% carbendazim, 3g3% Ground worm kills star, 2g sulphuric acid manganese powder and appropriate fine earth and mixes, at lid sunshade net or Caulis et Folium Oryzae;
D, seedling management
During 80% seed sprouting, throw off bed surface covering;Lower the temperature with suitable with by sunshade net, during nursery, to water sufficient water, after Suitably water depending on nursery season and soil moisture content, open to 2 leaf 1 hearts constantly at rice shoot, a day field planting can be selected;
(3), field planting
Cultivation field arranges
Cultivation field should be deep ploughed in advance;Every mu of the decomposed manure 1500-2000kg used through harmless treatment, peroxophosphoric acid Calcium 50kg, soil conditioner 10-12kg, implement rotary tillage after sprinkling evenly, the thinner leveling of rake, bedding of ditching, make wide 1.8-2.0 rice, The cultivating bed of high 15-20cm, and it is empty to reserve operation ditch and suitable booth limit between the furrow of wide 30-50cm, 8-10 days scaffoldings before field planting The vexed canopy of buckle film;
Survival after transplant in good time
Selection has this varietal characteristic, tool 5-7 sheet true leaf, and leaf color is dark green, the sturdy internode of cane is short, strengthening without pest and disease damage Seedling, choosing cloudy day about 10 days August or fine day at dusk open cave field planting by seeding row spacing by 43 × 80cm seeding row spacing, and irrigate in time and determine root Water, after work in 3-5 days, the more flat cave of harmony root of earthing up, in the ranks lay micro-irrigation flexible pipe, covering film in furrow face and put Seedling;
(4), manage after field planting
According to weather conditions and plant growing way appearance, by the opening and closing of booth, carry out thermophilic management and Illumination adjusting, and The field planting of plant lives, the first key point such as fruit phase, swollen fruit mid-term, implements to topdress in conjunction with micro drip-irrigation, implements three climing trainings, climing length 30 Enforcement is hung climing, main climing 12 joints stays melon, implements artificial supplementary pollination, and leave labelling, and when children's melon egg is big, enforcement net hangs;
Training reason is climing
Citrullus vulgaris stretch climing after should prune in time, take three climing pruning methods, as main climing long 60cm, select and remain at 3~5 joints Article 2, healthy and strong lateral bine, extracts remaining lateral bine;Melon removes sick leaf, Lao Ye, sick branch, weak branch after occupying stably;Furrow are guided into relatively by climing when drawing climing Low one side, must not arbitrarily stir when drawing climing, does not turn round climing;When keeping down the vines of a creeping plant, branch is converted into inverted U and inserts (pressure is lived climing) in soil, select Carried out in the afternoon of fine day;
Rich water quality management
The work such as weeding, ridging in carrying out when the climing length of Citrullus vulgaris 40~50cm, after transplanting, 7d executes slow seed manure, with nitrogenous fertilizer is Main, add water to water with carbamide 5kg/ mu and execute;Melon egg executes carbamide 10kg/ mu or become thoroughly decomposed night soil 600kg/ mu, potassium sulfate time big 10kg/ mu, executes after 7d 1 time again, executes carbamide and potassium sulfate each 10kg/ mu, watermelon growing rapid hourly water demand ratio after gathering every time More, particularly expanding stage is the most urgent to the demand of moisture, but greenhouse watermelon is poured water unsuitable too much, should be according to the fresh and tender journey of leaf color Degree rationally pouring, Citrullus vulgaris is plucked front 7~10d and should be stopped watering;
(5), the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
Use crop rotation, shine the agricultural measures such as ridge, disease-resistant variety, applying organic manure;Use the vexed canopy of high temperature, black film weeding, color The physical measure such as plate and light trap;Use the biological control measures such as gyplure trapping and biological pesticide, in conjunction with necessary chemical prevention, Carry out comprehensive innoxious insect pest preventing and controlling, the high poison persistent pesticide of disabling;
(6) gather: in early and middle ten days in October, typically after female flower is open, within 28-32 days, carry out gathering of first melon;The most every Gathered a collection of every about 30 days, rural area, harmless treatment straw stalk and discarded mulch film after gathering, should be cleaned in time.
Described booth autumn cultivating watermelon method, it is characterised in that: the soil conditioner described in step (3) is by following heavy The component raw material of amount (kg) is prepared from: vermiculite power 25, clay 11, citric acid 9, bean cake 22, distiller grains 4, Calx 2.5, humic Acid potassium 9, boric acid 5.5, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2.5, ferrous sulfate 0.15, sodium selenite 0.02, manganese sulfate 0.02, magnesium sulfate 0.4, molybdenum Acid ammonium 0.01, bone meal 9, Oleum menthae 2, glycerol 1, sucrose ester 0.2, water are appropriate, and vermiculite power, clay, citric acid are added suitable quantity of water Mixing, stirs into mud, sends into 200-300 DEG C of kiln roasting 3-4 hour, and then, cooling crush becomes 2-4mm coarse grain, general again with join Rest materials mix and blend in side is after 40-50 minute, pelletize, sprays Oleum menthae, drying.
Utilize the autumn watermelon products that above-mentioned complex art is produced compared with the autumn watermelon products that usual manner is produced, have There is a following advantage:

Claims (2)

1. a booth autumn cultivating watermelon method, it is characterised in that include herein below:
(1), breeding autumn cultivating watermelon is selected need to select early-maturing variety, disease-resistant Soviet Union honey, Feng Le mono-, poly-precious No. one, Zheng miscellaneous five Number, Jinzhongguanlong, Citrullus vulgaris 8242;
(2), nurturing staff
A, being formulated in of Nutrition Soil are broadcast front 1-2 month, by the field soil of planting vegetable crop non-in the nearly 3-5 of 60-70%, 30-40% Through the proportions Nutrition Soil of the fertilizer of harmless treatment, every lm3Nutrition Soil adds 2-3kg calcium superphosphate, 4-5g sulfur Acid zinc powder, 1-2g ammonium molybdate, 1-2g zinc chloride, and fully mix thoroughly and sieve;
B, sowing seedbed prepare to make wide 1.2-1.3m, the high furrow of high 10-15cm with above-mentioned Nutrition Soil, carefully harrow leveling, before sowing Water vola water;
C, sowing first will be planted before broadcasting at mid-July-early August sowing, every 667 cultivation field sowing quantity 20-30g sowing time Son dry in the sun 2-3h under the low light level, then scalds with the hot water of 50-60 DEG C and plants and constantly stir 10-15min, then soak with the mature vinegar of 5-10% Kind of 1-2h, pulls out, clear water is cleaned, and is placed in 28 DEG C of accelerating germination;Medicine soil first thick for place mat 1cm below seedbed before sowing, then fill out battalion Supporting soil, first spray saturating Seeding bed, uniform broadcasting seed, then 1cm thickness medicine soil in upper cover with water, the preparation of its Chinese medicine soil is by every Worm kills star, 2g sulphuric acid manganese powder and appropriate fine earth and mixes on square meter seedbed 8g50% carbendazim, 3g3% ground, then lid sunshade net or Caulis et Folium Oryzae;
When d, seedling management 80% seed sprouting, throw off bed surface covering;With sunshade net with suitably cooling, foot to be watered during nursery Water, suitably watered with backsight nursery season and soil moisture content, when rice shoot grows to 2 leaf 1 heart, selected a day field planting;
(3), field planting cultivation field arranges cultivation field and should deep plough in advance;Use the decomposed manure through harmless treatment for every mu 1500-2000kg, calcium superphosphate 50kg, soil conditioner 10-12kg, implement rotary tillage, the thinner leveling of rake after sprinkling evenly, trench digging is made Furrow, make wide 1.8-2.0 rice, the cultivating bed of high 15-20cm, and reserve and operate ditch and suitably between the furrow of wide 30-50cm Booth limit is empty, the 8-10 days scaffolding vexed canopies of buckle film before field planting;In good time to select to have this varietal characteristic, tool 5-7 sheet true for survival after transplant Leaf, leaf color is dark green, the sturdy internode of cane is short, strong sprout without pest and disease damage, choosing cloudy day about 10 days August or fine day at dusk by 43 × 80cm seeding row spacing opens cave field planting, and irrigates in time and determine root water, after work in 3-5 days, the more flat cave of harmony root of earthing up, in the ranks spread in furrow face If micro-irrigation flexible pipe, covering film also put Seedling;
(4), manage according to weather conditions and plant growing way appearance after field planting, by the opening and closing of booth, carry out thermophilic management and light According to regulation, and in alive of the field planting of plant, just fruit phase, swollen fruit key point in mid-term, implement to topdress in conjunction with micro drip-irrigation, implement three climing whole Branch, the enforcement of climing length 30 is hung climing, main climing 12 joints stays melon, implements artificial supplementary pollination, and leave labelling, when children's melon egg is big in fact Execute net to hang;Training manage climing Citrullus vulgaris stretch climing after should prune in time, take three climing pruning methods, as main climing long 60cm, 3 ~5 select and remain at joint 2 healthy and strong lateral bines, extract remaining lateral bine;Melon removes sick leaf, Lao Ye, sick branch, weak branch after occupying stably;When drawing climing Guide the relatively low one side of furrow into by climing, must not arbitrarily stir when drawing climing, not turn round climing;When keeping down the vines of a creeping plant, branch is converted into inverted U and inserts in soil, choosing Select and carry out in the afternoon of fine day;Rich water quality management carry out when the climing length of Citrullus vulgaris 40~50cm in weeding, ridging, 7d after transplanting Execute slow seed manure, based on nitrogenous fertilizer, add water to water with carbamide 5kg/ mu and execute;Melon egg executes carbamide 10kg/ mu or the night soil that becomes thoroughly decomposed time big 600kg/ mu, potassium sulfate 10kg/ mu, execute after 7d 1 time again, executes carbamide and potassium sulfate each 10kg/ mu after gathering every time, and Citrullus vulgaris is raw Long rapid hourly water demand is the most, and expanding stage is the most urgent to the demand of moisture, but greenhouse watermelon is poured water unsuitable too much, should basis The fresh and tender degree of leaf color is rationally watered, and Citrullus vulgaris is plucked front 7~10d and should be stopped watering;
(5), the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
Use agricultural measures crop rotation, shine ridge, disease-resistant variety, applying organic manure;Use the vexed canopy of physical measure high temperature, black film weeding, Colour table and light trap;Use the trapping of biological control measure gyplure and biological pesticide, in conjunction with necessary chemical prevention, carry out comprehensive nothing Evilization insect pest preventing and controlling, disabling high poison persistent pesticide;
(6) gather: in early and middle ten days in October, after female flower is open, within 28-32 days, carry out gathering of first melon;Later every 30 days Left and right is gathered a collection of, should clean rural area, harmless treatment straw stalk and discarded mulch film after gathering in time.
2. according to the booth autumn cultivating watermelon method described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: the soil described in step (3) Conditioner is prepared from by the component raw material of following weight portion: vermiculite power 20-30, clay 10-12, citric acid 8-10, bean cake 20-25, distiller grains 3-5, Calx 2-3, potassium humate 8-10, boric acid 5-6, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-3, ferrous sulfate 0.1-0.2, Asia Sodium selenate 0.01-0.03, manganese sulfate 0.02-0.03, magnesium sulfate 0.4-0.5, ammonium molybdate 0.01-0.02, bone meal 8-11, Oleum menthae 1-2, glycerol 1-2, sucrose ester 0.1-0.3, water are appropriate, vermiculite power, clay, citric acid are added suitable quantity of water mixing, stirs into Mud, sends into 200-300 DEG C of kiln roasting 3-4 hour, and then, cooling crush becomes 2-4 mm coarse grain, then with its excess in formula Material mix and blend after 40-50 minute, pelletize, spray Oleum menthae, drying.
CN201410126969.3A 2014-03-31 2014-03-31 A kind of booth autumn cultivating watermelon method CN103975711B (en)

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CN107493892A (en) * 2017-08-31 2017-12-22 宁涛 A kind of summer and autumn cultivation method of greenhouse watermelon

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