CN103975712A - Autumn delayed cultivation method for greenhouse tomatoes - Google Patents

Autumn delayed cultivation method for greenhouse tomatoes Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103975712A
CN103975712A CN201410127053.XA CN201410127053A CN103975712A CN 103975712 A CN103975712 A CN 103975712A CN 201410127053 A CN201410127053 A CN 201410127053A CN 103975712 A CN103975712 A CN 103975712A
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fruit
seedling
water
time
canopy
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CN103975712B (en
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杨兵
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FUCHUAN FUXING FRUIT & VEGETABLE CO., LTD.
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Green Nine Gulf Gourd Fruit And Vegetable Plantation Co Ltds Of Ma'an Mountain
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/25Greenhouse technology, e.g. cooling systems therefor

Abstract

The invention discloses an autumn delayed cultivation method for greenhouse tomatoes, which comprises the following steps: selecting fine seeds; planting; managing the cultivation; performing pest control; harvesting and the like. According to the autumn delayed cultivation method for the greenhouse tomatoes, a high-efficient anti-season special greenhouse tomatoes cultivation technique is used for delaying the supply period of the normally open field autumn batched tomatoes from the original second half of October to the days after December till the next April for selling in the market in succession; the technology implementation is simple; the operability is strong; the application is wide; the requirement for the tomatoes of the long slack season market is met; the plant diseases and insect pests are few during the technical production process; the quality of the acquired tomatoes is high.

Description

A kind of tomato in plastic greenhouse delayed culture in autumn method
Technical field
The present invention relates to proportion of crop planting field, be specifically related to a kind of tomato in plastic greenhouse delayed culture in autumn method.
Background technology
Tomato (Tomato), another name tomato, tomato, ancient name persimmon in June, report of good news ternary.In Peru and Mexico, be referred to as at first " wolf peach ".Originate in South America.Fruits nutrition is abundant, tool flavour.There is weight-reducing, eliminate tired, improve a poor appetite, improve digestion to protein, reduce the effects such as gasteremphraxis dyspepsia.Eating tomato dietotherapy when fat-reducing, tomato (tomato) be take the herbaceous plant that ripe succulence berry is product.94 grams of left and right of every 100 grams of fresh fruit moisture contents, 2.5~3.8 grams, carbohydrate, 0.6~1.2 gram, protein, 0~30 milligram of Catergen, and carotin, mineral salt, organic acid etc.
Summary of the invention
The invention discloses a kind of tomato in plastic greenhouse delayed culture in autumn method.
The present invention adopts following technical scheme:
A tomato in plastic greenhouse delayed culture in autumn method, comprises following content:
(1), select the breeding booth autumn delay tomato cultivation should select cold-resistant, in large and attractive in appearance, the indeterminate growth type kind that growing way is strong of ripe, resistance to storage, fruit type. as goldentop, 601, cooperation 903, in assorted No. 4, in No. 4 etc.;
(2), cultivate and adopt cover alms bowl method or point disk seedling growing strong sprout
The preparation of a, Nutrition Soil
Generally in broadcasting front 1-2 month, the field soil, the 30-40% that in 60-70%, do not plant solanaceous crops prepare Nutrition Soil through the ratio of the fertilizer of harmless treatment, add 2-3kg superphosphate or composite fertilizer, 4-5g Chinese herbal medicinal bactericide in every lm3 Nutrition Soil again, 5-6g copper sulphate, and fully mix thoroughly and sieve;
Prepare in b, seedbed
By every 667 ㎡ cultivation field, need sow the standard of seedbed 8-10 ㎡ and prepare seedling bed, should before sowing, within 3-5 days, take seedling raising greenhouse and buckle film is added a cover sunshade net, clean out a drain, with above-mentioned Nutrition Soil, make the high furrow of wide 1.2-1.3m, high 10-15cm, thin rake leveling, waters vola water before sowing;
C, sowing
Late June-July in sowing time early and middle ten days, every 667 ㎡ cultivation field sowing quantity 20-30g,
Broadcast frontly first by seed airing 2-3h under the low light level, then with the hot water of about 50-60 ℃, scald kind and constantly stir a 10-15min, then using the vitamin C clear water solution seed soaking 2-3h of normal temperature 0.2-0.3%, pull out, drain and wait to broadcast;
The nutritional drugs soil that before sowing, first place mat 1cm is thick below seedbed, fill out again Nutrition Soil, first water sprays Seeding bed, uniform broadcasting seed, cover the thick nutritional drugs soil of 1cm in the above, wherein the preparation of nutritional drugs soil is killed star, 2g kuh-seng powder and appropriate Nutrition Soil and is mixed by every square meter seedbed 5g50% tmtd, 3g3% ground worm, after lid has been planted again, seedbed covering with plastic film, then add a cover wet straw screen or mat;
D, seedling management
During 50% seed sprouting, throw off mulch film and straw screen or mat that bed surface covers,
Fine day 9:00 left and right, the black sunshade net of plastic house sunshade rate 65-70%, canopy both sides open wide, and implement ventilating management to 17:00 left and right black sunshade net is pushed away and rolled in ceiling, keep nursery soil moistening, during lack of water, when sooner or later cooling, with thin eye watering can, water;
E, minute seedling
Divide seedling front 3-5 days, the ratio that is about 1:10 in minute seedling canopy and the Area Ratio of cultivation canopy, build the also timely buckle film of minute seedling booth and add a cover sunshade net, with above-mentioned Nutrition Soil, make wide 1.2-1.3m, the high furrow of high 10-15cm, thin rake leveling, furrow face in leveling canopy, with the nutritive cube cover about 10 * 10cm, pouring into Nutrition Soil puts in furrow face, every row 13-15 alms bowl, front-back staggered is arranged, squeeze tight, every 667 ㎡ cultivation field need 4500 left and right of alms bowl processed, or adopt the cave of 32-50 cave/dish to coil, after filling organic substrate, in furrow face, sequence, as calendar seedling age 12-15 days, during tool 2-3 sheet true leaf, can divide seedling, before dividing seedling, furrow face is beaten permeable, after the fine day 16:00 or overcast and rainy whole day grow seedlings, limit lifting, transplant on limit, water in limit, planting the seedling degree of depth buries to 1-2cm under cotyledonary node and is advisable with Nutrition Soil, on minute seedbed, slotting arch bar is added a cover straw screen or mat and is shaded in 1-2 days, after surviving, night, remove, seedling growth greenhouse continues to keep sunshade overlay management daytime, shortens gradually Shading time, suitably hardening, temperature of shed is controlled at following, night on 28 ℃ of daytimes below 20 ℃, point disk seedling growing should divide moisturizing when sooner or later cooling in time after seedling, allows all the time cave dish mesostroma keep moistening,
When seedling growth amount reaches 6-8 sheet true leaf, can select a day field planting;
(3), field planting
Cultivation field arranges
Before field planting, to utilize summer high temperature high light to implement the vexed canopy of high temperature to cultivation field and tan by the sun processing, then open canopy and throw off mulch film and deep plough, row open-air exposure is some day again, selects subsequently continuous high temperature fine day to water filling in the field of booth place and keeps the 10-15cm shoaling layer high-temperature boiling field of 7-10 days to process; 8-10 days button canopy cover nets before field planting, every mu of decomposed manure 1500-2000kg, urea 15kg using through harmless treatment, phosphate fertilizer 50kg, soil conditioner 20-30kg, sprinkle evenly rear enforcement rotary tillage, the thinner leveling of rake, trench digging bedding, make the cultivating bed of wide 1.8-2.0 rice, high 15-20cm, and reserve and between the furrow of wide 30-50cm, operate ditch and suitably booth limit is empty; Build 4.5 meters of spans, long 50-80 rice, two furrow of rising 1.8-2.0 rice or span 6-6.5 rice, long 50-60 rice, rise three furrow north-south arch booths of 2.5-3.0 rice;
In good time transplant planting
Selection has selected varietal characteristic, 6-8 sheet true leaf, leaf look dark green, the sturdy internode of cane is short, without strong sprout of damage by disease and insect, in early and middle ten days in August, select overcast and rainy whole day or by seeding row spacing 33 * 45cm, open cave field planting after the 15:00 of fine day, and irrigate in time normal root water, ridging harmony root, after one week, intertill again flat cave, then at furrow face, lay micro-irrigation flexible pipe in the ranks, cover unregistered land film and put in time seedling envelope cave;
(4), cultivation management
The high temperature period after field planting, canopy both sides open wide, and implement large ventilating management, and daytime temperature is adjusted in below 30 ℃ in booth, during higher than 30 ℃, should cover straw screen or mat outward or sunshade net is suitably lowered the temperature in canopy; Night, temperature was adjusted in below 20 ℃, will push away film net to roll in ceiling the calm evening without rain, make plant fully experience night cool, along with the decline gradually of environmental temperature, in mid or late October, in booth both sides, set up successively 60-80cm apron film, and progress in good time little ventilation and close canopy management, when nocturnal temperature is during lower than 13 ℃, in booth, set up little shed buckle film, and along operating every 5 meter amperes of ditch between furrow, fill a 200-300 watt of incandescent lamp in canopy, illumination and heat are provided; When night, temperature was lower than 8 ℃, on little shed, also should add a cover straw screen or mat or nonwoven, and the heat supply of turning on light, and suitably ventilate, reduce air humidity in canopy; in good time
Illumination adjusting
In conjunction with the adjusting of the environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, plan as a whole regulating illumination condition, guarantee the light application time of 2-3 hour every day as far as possible, early stage, the high temperature high light period should be noted suitably shading in good time, prevented the reduction of photosynthetic efficiency and the generation of day bright fruit; The cold period in later stage, overcast and rainy especially continuously, should take off by straw screen or mat the control of the time of lid, plant, low temperature, in sufferable scope, is increased to illumination as far as possible;
Rich water quality management
According to weather conditions and plant growing way appearance, after being held in plant field planting and living, just the key point such as fruit phase and swollen fruit phase is implemented to topdress: general field planting live after every 667 ㎡ canopies ground with the amino acid active liquid fertilizer of 5-6kg, impose tiller fertilizer one time; After two fringes are really shaped and swollen fruit respectively to chase after once swollen fruit mid-term fertile, general each every 667 ㎡ execute nitrogen phosphorus potassium Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 10-15kg; In conjunction with diseases and pests controlling, in initial bloom stage blade face, mend potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1-2 time execute 0.2% boron fertilizer and 0.2%; According to weather and field water holding situation, in swollen fruit, just mid-term, blade face benefit was executed 1% superphosphate leachate 1-2 time; In conjunction with topdressing, water, pour water thoroughly and not steep and be advisable, and topdress pour water after in time ventilation, reduce air humidity in canopy; Fruit enters green ripe stage and controls water control fertilizer;
Plant is adjusted
When plant height reach 25-30cm, ground floor inflorescence open before, with high about 45cm thin bamboo, near plant trunk, insert in Rhizosphere Soil, under every fringe fruit, save soft cord binding one, and arrange in time fruit ear;
General enforcement gone alone training, stays fruit failure to consider one dry half or other training types again, and side shoot is extractd in time, stays fruit 2-3 fringe, and 2 leaf pinching are stayed in flower fringe top, stem top; In good time excision base portion is old, yellow, sick leaf;
Protect Hua Liuguo
When a Honoka has after 2-3 opening, select safe plant growth regulator to go bail for and spend processing, as with 0.11% rich dose of No. two aqua (8ml/ bag), one bag be watered 1.0kg make treatment fluid dip in flower or spraying decoration, treatment fluid is equipped with red pigment before processing, to leave mark after processing, avoid reprocessing;
When fixed of fruit ear, when fruit footpath reaches 1cm, 2-3 fruit stayed in the first ear selection, and 3-4 fruit stayed in the every ear selection in top, and extracts as early as possible sick fruit, malformed fruit and unnecessary flowers and fruits;
(5), the extermination of disease and insect pest
Autumn is delayed the relative spring of tomato and does sth. in advance tomato, disease alleviates, emphasis is noted the control of virus disease and gray mold, but insect pest meeting increases the weight of, should be according to the plant protection policy of " putting prevention first; integrated control ", comprehensive farmer's law, bioanalysis, Physical and the chemical method of adopting carries out integrated control in good time, and notes protection against rodents;
(6) gather: the last ten-days period between February in late December to next year, according to the market conditions listing of gathering of selecting a time of selecting a good opportunity in batches; After gathering, should clean in time rural area, harmless treatment straw and discarded mulch film.
Described tomato in plastic greenhouse delayed culture in autumn method, it is characterized in that: the soil conditioner described in step (3) is prepared from by the component raw material of following weight portion: vermiculite power 20-30, clay 10-12, citric acid 8-10, the offcuts 20-25 of food factory, vinasse 3-5, white lime 2-3, potassium humate 8-10, boric acid 5-6, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-3, ferrous sulfate 1-2, sodium selenite 0.01-0.03, manganese sulphate 0.2-0.3, magnesium sulfate 4-5, ammonium molybdate 0.1-0.2, bone meal 8-11, peppermint oil 1-2, glycerine 1-2, sucrose ester 0.1-0.3, water is appropriate, by vermiculite power, clay, citric acid adds suitable quantity of water to mix, stir into mud, send into 200-300 ℃ of kiln roasting 3-4 hour, then, cooling crush becomes 2-4mm coarse grain, by again with formula in rest materials mix and blend after 40-50 minute, granulation, spraying peppermint oil, dry and get final product,
Described tomato in plastic greenhouse delayed culture in autumn method, it is characterized in that: described Chinese herbal medicinal bactericide has following method to make: a, take onion 25-35, southern magnolia 2-4, kuh-seng 3-4, India canna leaf 4-6, pomelo peel 4-6, Chinese pulsatilla 6-8, asiatic moonseed 4-6, golden cypress 1-2, tuber of stemona 4-6, betel nut 3-4, alumen 2-3, gall nut 3-4, frutus cnidii 2-4, Fructus meliae toosendan 3-4, the blue 3-4 of mountain villous themeda, water eggplant 2-4, baeckea frutescen 2-4, litharge 2-4, fern root 2-4 by weight; B, onion is gone root peeling to squeeze the juice to filter to obtain Conditions of Onion Juice; C, by remaining herbal raw materials such as southern magnolia, kuh-seng, India canna leaf 4, pomelo peel, the Chinese pulsatillas, mix poach and be boiled into and mix soup juice; D, the mixing soup juice that step (c) is made mix, filter with Conditions of Onion Juice, concentrated, and spraying is dry, then mix with the borneol and grinding of powder weight 1-2%, obtain Chinese herbal medicinal bactericide.
Beneficial effect of the present invention:
Tomato in plastic greenhouse delayed culture in autumn method provided by the invention, a kind ofly to make the supply phase of normal open country autumn stubble tomato by original mid or late October, be deferred to a kind of efficient anti-season characteristic tomato in plastic greenhouse culture technique of going on the market after December, this technology is implemented simple, workable, wide adaptability, has met the demand of market in dull season to tomato in very long winter and early spring.In addition this technology is all noted the integrated application to the green prevention and control measure of disease pest and weed choosing seeds, grow seedlings, cultivate each stage, while applying base manure, added soil conditioner, not only improved soil property, lowered the breeding of damage by disease and insect simultaneously, avoid to greatest extent and reduced the use of chemical pesticide, Product quality and safety also has guarantee very reliably.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1: a kind of tomato in plastic greenhouse delayed culture in autumn method, comprises following content:
(1), select the breeding booth autumn delay tomato cultivation should select cold-resistant, in large and attractive in appearance, the indeterminate growth type kind that growing way is strong of ripe, resistance to storage, fruit type. as goldentop, 601, cooperation 903, in assorted No. 4, in No. 4 etc.;
(2), cultivate and adopt cover alms bowl method or point disk seedling growing strong sprout
The preparation of a, Nutrition Soil
Generally in broadcasting front 1-2 month, the field soil, the 30-40% that in 60-70%, do not plant solanaceous crops prepare Nutrition Soil through the ratio of the fertilizer of harmless treatment, add 2-3kg superphosphate or composite fertilizer, 4-5g Chinese herbal medicinal bactericide in every lm3 Nutrition Soil again, 5-6g copper sulphate, and fully mix thoroughly and sieve;
Prepare in b, seedbed
By every 667 ㎡ cultivation field, need sow the standard of seedbed 8-10 ㎡ and prepare seedling bed, should before sowing, within 3-5 days, take seedling raising greenhouse and buckle film is added a cover sunshade net, clean out a drain, with above-mentioned Nutrition Soil, make the high furrow of wide 1.2-1.3m, high 10-15cm, thin rake leveling, waters vola water before sowing;
C, sowing
Late June-July in sowing time early and middle ten days, every 667 ㎡ cultivation field sowing quantity 20-30g,
Broadcast frontly first by seed airing 2-3h under the low light level, then with the hot water of about 50-60 ℃, scald kind and constantly stir a 10-15min, then using the vitamin C clear water solution seed soaking 2-3h of normal temperature 0.2-0.3%, pull out, drain and wait to broadcast;
The nutritional drugs soil that before sowing, first place mat 1cm is thick below seedbed, fill out again Nutrition Soil, first water sprays Seeding bed, uniform broadcasting seed, cover the thick nutritional drugs soil of 1cm in the above, wherein the preparation of nutritional drugs soil is killed star, 2g kuh-seng powder and appropriate Nutrition Soil and is mixed by every square meter seedbed 5g50% tmtd, 3g3% ground worm, after lid has been planted again, seedbed covering with plastic film, then add a cover wet straw screen or mat;
D, seedling management
During 50% seed sprouting, throw off mulch film and straw screen or mat that bed surface covers,
Fine day 9:00 left and right, the black sunshade net of plastic house sunshade rate 65-70%, canopy both sides open wide, and implement ventilating management to 17:00 left and right black sunshade net is pushed away and rolled in ceiling, keep nursery soil moistening, during lack of water, when sooner or later cooling, with thin eye watering can, water;
E, minute seedling
Divide seedling front 3-5 days, the ratio that is about 1:10 in minute seedling canopy and the Area Ratio of cultivation canopy, build the also timely buckle film of minute seedling booth and add a cover sunshade net, with above-mentioned Nutrition Soil, make wide 1.2-1.3m, the high furrow of high 10-15cm, thin rake leveling, furrow face in leveling canopy, with the nutritive cube cover about 10 * 10cm, pouring into Nutrition Soil puts in furrow face, every row 13-15 alms bowl, front-back staggered is arranged, squeeze tight, every 667 ㎡ cultivation field need 4500 left and right of alms bowl processed, or adopt the cave of 32-50 cave/dish to coil, after filling organic substrate, in furrow face, sequence, as calendar seedling age 12-15 days, during tool 2-3 sheet true leaf, can divide seedling, before dividing seedling, furrow face is beaten permeable, after the fine day 16:00 or overcast and rainy whole day grow seedlings, limit lifting, transplant on limit, water in limit, planting the seedling degree of depth buries to 1-2cm under cotyledonary node and is advisable with Nutrition Soil, on minute seedbed, slotting arch bar is added a cover straw screen or mat and is shaded in 1-2 days, after surviving, night, remove, seedling growth greenhouse continues to keep sunshade overlay management daytime, shortens gradually Shading time, suitably hardening, temperature of shed is controlled at following, night on 28 ℃ of daytimes below 20 ℃, point disk seedling growing should divide moisturizing when sooner or later cooling in time after seedling, allows all the time cave dish mesostroma keep moistening,
When seedling growth amount reaches 6-8 sheet true leaf, can select a day field planting;
(3), field planting
Cultivation field arranges
Before field planting, to utilize summer high temperature high light to implement the vexed canopy of high temperature to cultivation field and tan by the sun processing, then open canopy and throw off mulch film and deep plough, row open-air exposure is some day again, selects subsequently continuous high temperature fine day to water filling in the field of booth place and keeps the 10-15cm shoaling layer high-temperature boiling field of 7-10 days to process; 8-10 days button canopy cover nets before field planting, every mu of decomposed manure 1500-2000kg, urea 15kg using through harmless treatment, phosphate fertilizer 50kg, soil conditioner 20-30kg, sprinkle evenly rear enforcement rotary tillage, the thinner leveling of rake, trench digging bedding, make the cultivating bed of wide 1.8-2.0 rice, high 15-20cm, and reserve and between the furrow of wide 30-50cm, operate ditch and suitably booth limit is empty; Build 4.5 meters of spans, long 50-80 rice, two furrow of rising 1.8-2.0 rice or span 6-6.5 rice, long 50-60 rice, rise three furrow north-south arch booths of 2.5-3.0 rice;
In good time transplant planting
Selection has selected varietal characteristic, 6-8 sheet true leaf, leaf look dark green, the sturdy internode of cane is short, without strong sprout of damage by disease and insect, in early and middle ten days in August, select overcast and rainy whole day or by seeding row spacing 33 * 45cm, open cave field planting after the 15:00 of fine day, and irrigate in time normal root water, ridging harmony root, after one week, intertill again flat cave, then at furrow face, lay micro-irrigation flexible pipe in the ranks, cover unregistered land film and put in time seedling envelope cave;
(4), cultivation management
The high temperature period after field planting, canopy both sides open wide, and implement large ventilating management, and daytime temperature is adjusted in below 30 ℃ in booth, during higher than 30 ℃, should cover straw screen or mat outward or sunshade net is suitably lowered the temperature in canopy; Night, temperature was adjusted in below 20 ℃, will push away film net to roll in ceiling the calm evening without rain, make plant fully experience night cool, along with the decline gradually of environmental temperature, in mid or late October, in booth both sides, set up successively 60-80cm apron film, and progress in good time little ventilation and close canopy management, when nocturnal temperature is during lower than 13 ℃, in booth, set up little shed buckle film, and along operating every 5 meter amperes of ditch between furrow, fill a 200-300 watt of incandescent lamp in canopy, illumination and heat are provided; When night, temperature was lower than 8 ℃, on little shed, also should add a cover straw screen or mat or nonwoven, and the heat supply of turning on light, and suitably ventilate, reduce air humidity in canopy; in good time
Illumination adjusting
In conjunction with the adjusting of the environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, plan as a whole regulating illumination condition, guarantee the light application time of 2-3 hour every day as far as possible, early stage, the high temperature high light period should be noted suitably shading in good time, prevented the reduction of photosynthetic efficiency and the generation of day bright fruit; The cold period in later stage, overcast and rainy especially continuously, should take off by straw screen or mat the control of the time of lid, plant, low temperature, in sufferable scope, is increased to illumination as far as possible;
Rich water quality management
According to weather conditions and plant growing way appearance, after being held in plant field planting and living, just the key point such as fruit phase and swollen fruit phase is implemented to topdress: general field planting live after every 667 ㎡ canopies ground with the amino acid active liquid fertilizer of 5-6kg, impose tiller fertilizer one time; After two fringes are really shaped and swollen fruit respectively to chase after once swollen fruit mid-term fertile, general each every 667 ㎡ execute nitrogen phosphorus potassium Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 10-15kg; In conjunction with diseases and pests controlling, in initial bloom stage blade face, mend potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1-2 time execute 0.2% boron fertilizer and 0.2%; According to weather and field water holding situation, in swollen fruit, just mid-term, blade face benefit was executed 1% superphosphate leachate 1-2 time; In conjunction with topdressing, water, pour water thoroughly and not steep and be advisable, and topdress pour water after in time ventilation, reduce air humidity in canopy; Fruit enters green ripe stage and controls water control fertilizer;
Plant is adjusted
When plant height reach 25-30cm, ground floor inflorescence open before, with high about 45cm thin bamboo, near plant trunk, insert in Rhizosphere Soil, under every fringe fruit, save soft cord binding one, and arrange in time fruit ear;
General enforcement gone alone training, stays fruit failure to consider one dry half or other training types again, and side shoot is extractd in time, stays fruit 2-3 fringe, and 2 leaf pinching are stayed in flower fringe top, stem top; In good time excision base portion is old, yellow, sick leaf;
Protect Hua Liuguo
When a Honoka has after 2-3 opening, select safe plant growth regulator to go bail for and spend processing, as with 0.11% rich dose of No. two aqua (8ml/ bag), one bag be watered 1.0kg make treatment fluid dip in flower or spraying decoration, treatment fluid is equipped with red pigment before processing, to leave mark after processing, avoid reprocessing;
When fixed of fruit ear, when fruit footpath reaches 1cm, 2-3 fruit stayed in the first ear selection, and 3-4 fruit stayed in the every ear selection in top, and extracts as early as possible sick fruit, malformed fruit and unnecessary flowers and fruits;
(5), the extermination of disease and insect pest
A: cultural control
Select disease-resistant variety, implement crop rotation in 3 years~5 years, ridge is shone in deep ploughing, cultivates strong sprout, creates adapt circumstance condition, enriches the fertilizer through harmless treatment, clean rural area measure;
B: physical control
Adopt daylight airing and hot water treatment of seeds, lemonade seed soaking, utilizes not busy high temperature high light of summer to implement to pour water vexed canopy, covers silver color mulch film repellent aphid lice, establishes fly net obstruct insect and migrates, with colour table and light trap;
C: biological control
Adopt gyplure trapping primary pest; The use of botanical fungicide is used biopesticide to prevent and treat in good time; Active protection and utilize various natural enemies;
D: chemical control
The Major Diseases of tomato in plastic greenhouse delayed culture in autumn has the contagious diseases such as virus disease, epidemic disease, bacterial wilt, graywall and black mould and top rot, muscle is rotten and the physiological disturbance such as " three fall "; Major Pests has Bemisia tabaci, aphid, prodenia litura, beet armyworm, cotton bollworm etc., strictly presses the regulation of GB4285 and GB/T8321 and carries out;
(6) gather: the last ten-days period between April in late December to next year, according to the market conditions listing of gathering of selecting a time of selecting a good opportunity in batches; After gathering, should clean in time rural area, harmless treatment straw and discarded mulch film.
Wherein, soil conditioner is prepared from by the component raw material of following weight (kg): vermiculite power 25, clay 11, citric acid 9, food factory's offcuts 24, vinasse 4, white lime 2.5, potassium humate 9, boric acid 5.5, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2.5, ferrous sulfate 1.5, sodium selenite 0.01, manganese sulphate 0.2, magnesium sulfate 4.5, ammonium molybdate 0.1, bone meal 10, peppermint oil 1.5, glycerine 1.5, sucrose ester 0.2, water is appropriate, by vermiculite power, clay, citric acid adds suitable quantity of water to mix, stir into mud, send into 200-300 ℃ of kiln roasting 3-4 hour, then, cooling crush becomes 2-4mm coarse grain, by again with formula in rest materials mix and blend after 40-50 minute, granulation, spraying peppermint oil, dry and get final product,
Wherein, Chinese herbal medicinal bactericide has following method to make: a, by weight (kg) take onion 26, southern magnolia 3, kuh-seng 3.5, India canna leaf 5, pomelo peel 5, the Chinese pulsatilla 7, asiatic moonseed 5, golden cypress 1.5, the tuber of stemona 5, betel nut 3.5, alumen 2.5, gall nut 3.5, frutus cnidii 3, Fructus meliae toosendan 3.5, mountain villous themeda orchid 3.5, water eggplant 3, baeckea frutescen 3, litharge 3, fern root 3; B, onion is gone root peeling to squeeze the juice to filter to obtain Conditions of Onion Juice; C, by remaining herbal raw materials such as southern magnolia, kuh-seng, India canna leaf, pomelo peel, the Chinese pulsatillas, mix poach and be boiled into and mix soup juice; D, the mixing soup juice that step (c) is made mix, filter with Conditions of Onion Juice, concentrated, and spraying is dry, then mix with the borneol and grinding of powder weight 1-2%, obtain Chinese herbal medicinal bactericide.
Utilize the tomato products that tomato products that above-mentioned complex art is produced is produced with usual manner to compare, there is following advantage:

Claims (3)

1. a tomato in plastic greenhouse delayed culture in autumn method, is characterized in that comprising following content:
(1), select the breeding booth autumn delay tomato cultivation should select cold-resistant, in large and attractive in appearance, the indeterminate growth type kind that growing way is strong of ripe, resistance to storage, fruit type. as goldentop, 601, cooperation 903, in assorted No. 4, in No. 4 etc.;
(2), cultivate and adopt cover alms bowl method or point disk seedling growing strong sprout
The preparation of a, Nutrition Soil
Generally in broadcasting front 1-2 month, the field soil, the 30-40% that in 60-70%, do not plant solanaceous crops prepare Nutrition Soil through the ratio of the fertilizer of harmless treatment, add 2-3kg superphosphate or composite fertilizer, 4-5g Chinese herbal medicinal bactericide in every lm3 Nutrition Soil again, 5-6g copper sulphate, and fully mix thoroughly and sieve;
Prepare in b, seedbed
By every 667 ㎡ cultivation field, need sow the standard of seedbed 8-10 ㎡ and prepare seedling bed, should before sowing, within 3-5 days, take seedling raising greenhouse and buckle film is added a cover sunshade net, clean out a drain, with above-mentioned Nutrition Soil, make the high furrow of wide 1.2-1.3m, high 10-15cm, thin rake leveling, waters vola water before sowing;
C, sowing
Late June-July in sowing time early and middle ten days, every 667 ㎡ cultivation field sowing quantity 20-30g,
Broadcast frontly first by seed airing 2-3h under the low light level, then with the hot water of about 50-60 ℃, scald kind and constantly stir a 10-15min, then using the vitamin C clear water solution seed soaking 2-3h of normal temperature 0.2-0.3%, pull out, drain and wait to broadcast;
The nutritional drugs soil that before sowing, first place mat 1cm is thick below seedbed, fill out again Nutrition Soil, first water sprays Seeding bed, uniform broadcasting seed, cover the thick nutritional drugs soil of 1cm in the above, wherein the preparation of nutritional drugs soil is killed star, 2g kuh-seng powder and appropriate Nutrition Soil and is mixed by every square meter seedbed 5g50% tmtd, 3g3% ground worm, after lid has been planted again, seedbed covering with plastic film, then add a cover wet straw screen or mat;
D, seedling management
During 50% seed sprouting, throw off mulch film and straw screen or mat that bed surface covers,
Fine day 9:00 left and right, the black sunshade net of plastic house sunshade rate 65-70%, canopy both sides open wide, and implement ventilating management to 17:00 left and right black sunshade net is pushed away and rolled in ceiling, keep nursery soil moistening, during lack of water, when sooner or later cooling, with thin eye watering can, water;
E, minute seedling
Divide seedling front 3-5 days, the ratio that is about 1:10 in minute seedling canopy and the Area Ratio of cultivation canopy, build the also timely buckle film of minute seedling booth and add a cover sunshade net, with above-mentioned Nutrition Soil, make wide 1.2-1.3m, the high furrow of high 10-15cm, thin rake leveling, furrow face in leveling canopy, with the nutritive cube cover about 10 * 10cm, pouring into Nutrition Soil puts in furrow face, every row 13-15 alms bowl, front-back staggered is arranged, squeeze tight, every 667 ㎡ cultivation field need 4500 left and right of alms bowl processed, or adopt the cave of 32-50 cave/dish to coil, after filling organic substrate, in furrow face, sequence, as calendar seedling age 12-15 days, during tool 2-3 sheet true leaf, can divide seedling, before dividing seedling, furrow face is beaten permeable, after the fine day 16:00 or overcast and rainy whole day grow seedlings, limit lifting, transplant on limit, water in limit, planting the seedling degree of depth buries to 1-2cm under cotyledonary node and is advisable with Nutrition Soil, on minute seedbed, slotting arch bar is added a cover straw screen or mat and is shaded in 1-2 days, after surviving, night, remove, seedling growth greenhouse continues to keep sunshade overlay management daytime, shortens gradually Shading time, suitably hardening, temperature of shed is controlled at following, night on 28 ℃ of daytimes below 20 ℃, point disk seedling growing should divide moisturizing when sooner or later cooling in time after seedling, allows all the time cave dish mesostroma keep moistening,
When seedling growth amount reaches 6-8 true leaves, can select a day field planting;
(3), field planting
Cultivation field arranges
Before field planting, to utilize summer high temperature high light to implement the vexed canopy of high temperature to cultivation field and tan by the sun processing, then open canopy and throw off mulch film and deep plough, row open-air exposure is some day again, selects subsequently continuous high temperature fine day to water filling in the field of booth place and keeps the 10-15cm shoaling layer high-temperature boiling field of 7-10 days to process; 8-10 days button canopy cover nets before field planting, every mu of decomposed manure 1500-2000kg, urea 15kg using through harmless treatment, phosphate fertilizer 50kg, soil conditioner 20-30kg, sprinkle evenly rear enforcement rotary tillage, the thinner leveling of rake, trench digging bedding, make the cultivating bed of wide 1.8-2.0 rice, high 15-20cm, and reserve and between the furrow of wide 30-50cm, operate ditch and suitably booth limit is empty; Build 4.5 meters of spans, long 50-80 rice, two furrow of rising 1.8-2.0 rice or span 6-6.5 rice, long 50-60 rice, rise three furrow north-south arch booths of 2.5-3.0 rice;
In good time transplant planting
Selection has selected varietal characteristic, 6-8 sheet true leaf, leaf look dark green, the sturdy internode of cane is short, without strong sprout of damage by disease and insect, in early and middle ten days in August, select overcast and rainy whole day or by seeding row spacing 33 * 45cm, open cave field planting after the 15:00 of fine day, and irrigate in time normal root water, ridging harmony root, after one week, intertill again flat cave, then at furrow face, lay micro-irrigation flexible pipe in the ranks, cover unregistered land film and put in time seedling envelope cave;
(4), cultivation management
The high temperature period after field planting, canopy both sides open wide, and implement large ventilating management, and daytime temperature is adjusted in below 30 ℃ in booth, during higher than 30 ℃, should cover straw screen or mat outward or sunshade net is suitably lowered the temperature in canopy; Night, temperature was adjusted in below 20 ℃, will push away film net to roll in ceiling the calm evening without rain, make plant fully experience night cool, along with the decline gradually of environmental temperature, in mid or late October, in booth both sides, set up successively 60-80cm apron film, and progress in good time little ventilation and close canopy management, when nocturnal temperature is during lower than 13 ℃, in booth, set up little shed buckle film, and along operating every 5 meter amperes of ditch between furrow, fill a 200-300 watt of incandescent lamp in canopy, illumination and heat are provided; When night, temperature was lower than 8 ℃, on little shed, also should add a cover straw screen or mat or nonwoven, and the heat supply of turning on light, and suitably ventilate, reduce air humidity in canopy; in good time
Illumination adjusting
In conjunction with the adjusting of the environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, plan as a whole regulating illumination condition, guarantee the light application time of 2-3 hour every day as far as possible, early stage, the high temperature high light period should be noted suitably shading in good time, prevented the reduction of photosynthetic efficiency and the generation of day bright fruit; The cold period in later stage, overcast and rainy especially continuously, should take off by straw screen or mat the control of the time of lid, plant, low temperature, in sufferable scope, is increased to illumination as far as possible;
Rich water quality management
According to weather conditions and plant growing way appearance, after being held in plant field planting and living, just the key point such as fruit phase and swollen fruit phase is implemented to topdress: general field planting live after every 667 ㎡ canopies ground with the amino acid active liquid fertilizer of 5-6kg, impose tiller fertilizer one time; After two fringes are really shaped and swollen fruit respectively to chase after once swollen fruit mid-term fertile, general each every 667 ㎡ execute nitrogen phosphorus potassium Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 10-15kg; In conjunction with diseases and pests controlling, in initial bloom stage blade face, mend potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1-2 time execute 0.2% boron fertilizer and 0.2%; According to weather and field water holding situation, in swollen fruit, just mid-term, blade face benefit was executed 1% superphosphate leachate 1-2 time; In conjunction with topdressing, water, pour water thoroughly and not steep and be advisable, and topdress pour water after in time ventilation, reduce air humidity in canopy; Fruit enters green ripe stage and controls water control fertilizer;
Plant is adjusted
When plant height reach 25-30cm, ground floor inflorescence open before, with high about 45cm thin bamboo, near plant trunk, insert in Rhizosphere Soil, under every fringe fruit, save soft cord binding one, and arrange in time fruit ear;
General enforcement gone alone training, stays fruit failure to consider one dry half or other training types again, and side shoot is extractd in time, stays fruit 2-3 fringe, and 2 leaf pinching are stayed in flower fringe top, stem top; In good time excision base portion is old, yellow, sick leaf;
Protect Hua Liuguo
When a Honoka has after 2-3 opening, select safe plant growth regulator to go bail for and spend processing, as with 0.11% rich dose of No. two aqua (8ml/ bag), one bag be watered 1.0 kg make treatment fluid dip in flower or spraying decoration, treatment fluid is equipped with red pigment before processing, to leave mark after processing, avoid reprocessing;
When fixed of fruit ear, when fruit footpath reaches 1cm, 2-3 fruit stayed in the first ear selection, and 3-4 fruit stayed in the every ear selection in top, and extracts as early as possible sick fruit, malformed fruit and unnecessary flowers and fruits;
(5), the extermination of disease and insect pest
Autumn is delayed the relative spring of tomato and does sth. in advance tomato, disease alleviates, emphasis is noted the control of virus disease and gray mold, but insect pest meeting increases the weight of, should be according to the plant protection policy of " putting prevention first; integrated control ", comprehensive farmer's law, bioanalysis, Physical and the chemical method of adopting carries out integrated control in good time, and notes protection against rodents;
(6) gather: the last ten-days period between February in late December to next year, according to the market conditions listing of gathering of selecting a time of selecting a good opportunity in batches; After gathering, should clean in time rural area, harmless treatment straw and discarded mulch film.
2. according to the tomato in plastic greenhouse delayed culture in autumn method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that: the soil conditioner described in step (3) is prepared from by the component raw material of following weight portion: vermiculite power 20-30, clay 10-12, citric acid 8-10, the offcuts 20-25 of food factory, vinasse 3-5, white lime 2-3, potassium humate 8-10, boric acid 5-6, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-3, ferrous sulfate 1-2, sodium selenite 0.01-0.03, manganese sulphate 0.2-0.3, magnesium sulfate 4-5, ammonium molybdate 0.1-0.2, bone meal 8-11, peppermint oil 1-2, glycerine 1-2, sucrose ester 0.1-0.3, water is appropriate, by vermiculite power, clay, citric acid adds suitable quantity of water to mix, stir into mud, send into 200-300 ℃ of kiln roasting 3-4 hour, then, cooling crush becomes 2-4 mm coarse grain, by again with formula in rest materials mix and blend after 40-50 minute, granulation, spraying peppermint oil, dry and get final product.
3. according to the tomato in plastic greenhouse delayed culture in autumn method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described Chinese herbal medicinal bactericide has following method to make: a, take onion 25-35, southern magnolia 2-4, kuh-seng 3-4, India canna leaf 4-6, pomelo peel 4-6, Chinese pulsatilla 6-8, asiatic moonseed 4-6, golden cypress 1-2, tuber of stemona 4-6, betel nut 3-4, alumen 2-3, gall nut 3-4, frutus cnidii 2-4, Fructus meliae toosendan 3-4, the blue 3-4 of mountain villous themeda, water eggplant 2-4, baeckea frutescen 2-4, litharge 2-4, fern root 2-4 by weight; B, onion is gone root peeling to squeeze the juice to filter to obtain Conditions of Onion Juice; C, by remaining herbal raw materials such as southern magnolia, kuh-seng, India canna leaf 4, pomelo peel, the Chinese pulsatillas, mix poach and be boiled into and mix soup juice; D, the mixing soup juice that step (c) is made mix, filter with Conditions of Onion Juice, concentrated, and spraying is dry, then mix with the borneol and grinding of powder weight 1-2%, obtain Chinese herbal medicinal bactericide.
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Address after: 542700 Fuchuan Yao Autonomous County, Hezhou, the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, west of the new Bay Industrial Park on the northeast side of the county

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Address before: 542799 No. 34 Xinjian Road, Fuyang Town, Fuchuan Yao Autonomous County, the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

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