CN104094760B - A kind of greenhouse watermelon cultural method - Google Patents

A kind of greenhouse watermelon cultural method Download PDF

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CN104094760B
CN104094760B CN201410338241.7A CN201410338241A CN104094760B CN 104094760 B CN104094760 B CN 104094760B CN 201410338241 A CN201410338241 A CN 201410338241A CN 104094760 B CN104094760 B CN 104094760B
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water
planting
climing
days
sowing
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CN201410338241.7A
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CN104094760A (en
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邢国宝
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和县宝兰蔬菜种植有限公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of cultivating watermelon method, comprise following content: select breeding, cultivate the operations such as strong sprout, field planting, cultivation management, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control; The sugariness of water-melon of the inventive method cultivation is high, and skin is thin and hard, is difficult for bursting, and disease and pest is few, and output is high, non agricultural chemical residuum, and per mu yield can reach 5000kg.

Description

A kind of greenhouse watermelon cultural method

Technical field

The present invention relates to proportion of crop planting field, be specifically related to a kind of cultivating watermelon method.

Background technology

Watermelon taste sugariness succulence, clearly quench one's thirst, it is good fruit in midsummer, watermelon, except not fatty and cholesterol, contains the materials such as a large amount of glucose, malic acid, fructose, Argine Monohydrochloride, tomatin and abundant vitamin C, is a kind of food of being rich in nutrition, pure, edible safety, skin depth, thin easily the bursting of skin, the watermelon of at present a lot of kinds, skin depth, sweet king are for No. seven the early-maturing varieties of peaceful seeds company research and development, bloom to ripe about 30 days. Fruit subcircular, pericarp green has bottle green band, and smooth in appearance is straight. Pulp large red, center sugar content 13 is spent, and gradient is little, and matter is crisp, sweet tasty and refreshing. Pericarp is harder, is difficult for splitting melon, be difficult for hollow, resistance to transport. Yielding ability is good, and single melon weighs 10 kilograms of left and right, maximum 25 kilograms of field performance, and robust growth, disease-resistant, easily sit melon. Wide adaptability is one of variety of watermelon of at present tool market potential. And tolerance to low temperature and weak light, low temperature is difficult for barring when bearing fruit and growing, it is hollow to be difficult for pachydermia. Yielding ability is strong, and output is high, fruit shape rounding more. The plantation that suits large area to popularize of this variety of watermelon.

Summary of the invention

The invention provides a kind of greenhouse watermelon cultural method.

The present invention adopts following technical scheme:

A kind of greenhouse watermelon cultural method, is characterized in that comprising following content:

(1), select that breeding selects that disease resistance is strong, tolerance to low temperature and weak light, the sweet king No. seven of high temperature resistance again;

(2), cultivate strong sprout

The preparation of a, Nutrition Soil

Generally in broadcasting front 1-2 month, by garden loam 60-70%, be hybridly prepared into Nutrition Soil, every lm through fertilizer 30-40%, the cake fertilizer 10% of harmless treatment3In Nutrition Soil, add 5-8g Diammonium phosphate (DAP), 1-2g AVM, 2-3g phoxim, 1-2g ammonium molybdate, 0.01-0.02g zinc chloride, 1-2g RADIX STEMONAE powder, 2-4g onion ground-slag, 4-5g garlic residue powder, 1-2g Canton love-pea vine powder are also fully mixed thoroughly and are sieved again;

Prepare in b, sowing seedbed

Make the high furrow of wide 1.2-1.3m, high 10-15cm with above-mentioned Nutrition Soil, thin rake leveling, waters vola water before sowing;

C, sowing

Sowing time is at late January-early Febuary sowing, every 667 ㎡ cultivation field sowing quantity 30-40g,

Broadcast frontly first by seed airing 2-3h under the low light level, then scald kind with the hot water of about 50-60 DEG C and constantly stir a 10-15min, then with the citric acid water seed soaking 1-2h of 2-3%, pull out, clear water is clean, is placed in 28 DEG C of vernalization;

The front first thick fine earth of place mat 1-2cm below seedbed of sowing, fill out again Nutrition Soil, first water sprays Seeding bed, uniform broadcasting seed, cover again the thick medicine soil of 1cm in the above, the preparation of its Chinese medicine soil mixes by the fine earth of every square meter seedbed 5g25% metalaxyl, 1g Mancozeb, 2g scarp powder, 1g and 10kg, hides straw at lid, and spray water 1-2 time every day on straw;

D, seedling management

When 80% seed sprouting, throw off bed surface covering; Note suitably insulation, while growing seedlings, will water sufficient water, suitably water with grow seedlings season and soil moisture content of backsight, open to 2 leaf 1 hearts constantly at rice shoot, can select a day field planting;

(3) build canopy chamber: East and West direction is built canopy, long 60 meters of hot house, rise-span ratio 0.25,1.5 meters of shoulder heights, 6 row's columns, middle shed span 4-6 rice, intermediate altitude 1.2-1.8 rice, 3 meters of post and intercolumniations, little shed span 1-3 rice, canopy is high 1 meter, and construction material both can have been used bamboo wood, also can use concrete prefabricated work, also available assembled coating steel pipe, little shed adopts 0.04-0.07 millimeter polyethylene film, and big or middle canopy adopts without dripping film more;

(4), field planting

Cultivation field arranges

Cultivation field should be deep ploughed in advance; Every mu of decomposed manure 2000-3000kg, calcium superphosphate 50kg using through harmless treatment, cake fertilizer 10kg, soil conditioner 8-10kg, sprinkle evenly rear enforcement rotary tillage, the thin leveling of rake again, trench digging bedding, make the cultivating bed of wide 1.8-2.0 rice, high 10-15cm, and reserve and between the furrow of wide 30-50cm, operate ditch and suitable booth limit sky, the 8-10 days vexed canopies of scaffolding buckle film before field planting;

Transplant planting in good time

As seedling age 30-35 days, while having 4-5 days true leaves, get final product field planting, select cloudy day or fine day to open cave field planting by seeding row spacing by 43 × 80cm seeding row spacing at dusk, and irrigate in time normal root water, after work in 3-5 days, the more flat cave of harmony root of earthing up, lay micro-irrigation flexible pipe, covering film in the ranks and put seedling at furrow face;

(5), after field planting, manage

According to weather conditions and plant growing way appearance, by the switching of booth, carry out thermophilic management and Illumination adjusting, and live in the field planting of plant, just fruit phase, swollen fruit mid-term etc. key point, implement to topdress in conjunction with micro drip-irrigation;

Training and fruit thinning: adopt how climing pruning method, in the time of 4-6 sheet true leaf to main climing pinching, then the healthy and strong son of the 3-4 root of selecting and remain is climing, evenly guides four directions into, all the other excisions, until son climing while growing 7-8 sheet leaf to its pinching, promote grandson climing sprouting and growth, after the climing result of grandson, every grandson is climing stays the pinching of 3-4 sheet true leaf, short fruit development, when after Fruit, nourish and grow while dying down, stop pinching, base portion Lao Ye should extract early, remove overstocked cissoid, in order to ventilation and penetrating light, 4-6 of fruit stayed in general every strain, all the other flowers and fruits, should remove in time;

Rich water quality management

In the time of the climing length 40~50cm of watermelon, carry out the work such as intertill and clean tillage, ridging, after transplanting, 7d executes slow seed manure, taking nitrogenous fertilizer as main, adds water to water execute with carbon ammonium 15kg/ mu; Bloom after bearing fruit and chase after 20,000 grams/acre of potassium sulfates, enter expanding stage and chase after thousand grams/acre of Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 40-50, suitable foliage application of later stage, every a 0.3-0.4% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution of spray in 5 days, connects and sprays 2-3 time, after gathering, execute ammonium sulfate 15kg/ mu at every turn, when watermelon growing is rapid, water demand ratio is more, and particularly expanding stage is the most urgent to the demand of moisture, but greenhouse watermelon pour water unsuitable too much, should rationally water according to leaf look fresh and tender degree, watermelon is plucked front 7~10d and should be stopped watering;

(6), the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control

Adopt crop rotation, shine the agricultural measures such as ridge, disease-resistant variety, applying organic manure; Adopt the physical measure such as the vexed canopy of high temperature, black film weeding, colour table and light trap; Adopt the biological control measures such as gyplure trapping and biological pesticide, in conjunction with necessary chemical prevention, carry out comprehensive innoxious insect pest preventing and controlling, the height poison persistent pesticide of forbidding;

(7) gather: in early and middle ten days in May, generally after female flower is open, within 28-32 days, carry out gathering of first melon; Every about 30 days, gather a collection of later, after gathering, should clean in time rural area, harmless treatment straw and discarded mulch film.

Described greenhouse watermelon cultural method, it is characterized in that: the soil conditioner described in step (3) is prepared from by the component raw material of following weight portion: brown coal powder 20-30, Concave-convex clay rod 10-12, citric acid 8-10, camellia cake 6-8, tobacco leftovers 2-3, white lime 2-3, potassium humate 8-10, boric acid 5-6, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-3, 8-11, fennel powder 0.1-0.2, Chinese prickly ash 0.1-0.2, wheat bran 1-2, starch 0.01-0.02, brown sugar 0.01-0.02, water is appropriate, add suitable quantity of water to mix brown coal powder Concave-convex clay rod citric acid, stir into mud, send into 200-300 DEG C of kiln roasting 3-4 hour, then, cooling crush becomes 2-4mm coarse grain, by again with formula in rest materials mix and blend after 40-50 minute, granulation, spraying brown sugar water, dry and get final product.

Beneficial effect of the present invention:

Cultivating watermelon method provided by the invention, implement simple, workable, wide adaptability, each stage is being chosen seeds, grown seedlings, cultivates to this technology and all noting the integrated application of the green prevention and control measure to disease pest and weed, while applying base manure, add soil conditioner, not only improved soil property, lowered the breeding of disease and pest simultaneously, avoid to greatest extent and reduced the use of chemical pesticide, Product quality and safety also has guarantee very reliably. The sugariness of water-melon of the inventive method cultivation is high, and skin is thin and hard, is difficult for bursting, and disease and pest is few, and output is high, non agricultural chemical residuum, and per mu yield can reach 5000kg.

Detailed description of the invention

Embodiment 1:A kind of greenhouse watermelon cultural method, comprises following content:

(1), select that breeding selects that disease resistance is strong, tolerance to low temperature and weak light, the sweet king No. seven of high temperature resistance again;

(2), cultivate strong sprout

The preparation of a, Nutrition Soil

Generally in broadcasting front 1-2 month, by garden loam 60%, be hybridly prepared into Nutrition Soil, every lm through fertilizer 30%, the cake fertilizer 10% of harmless treatment3In Nutrition Soil, add 6g Diammonium phosphate (DAP), 1.5g AVM, 2.5g phoxim, 2g ammonium molybdate, 0.02g zinc chloride, 2g RADIX STEMONAE powder, 3g onion ground-slag, 4g garlic residue powder, 2g Canton love-pea vine powder are also fully mixed thoroughly and are sieved again;

Prepare in b, sowing seedbed

Make the high furrow of wide 1.2-1.3m, high 10-15cm with above-mentioned Nutrition Soil, thin rake leveling, waters vola water before sowing;

C, sowing

Sowing time is at late January-early Febuary sowing, every 667 ㎡ cultivation field sowing quantity 30-40g,

Broadcast frontly first by seed airing 2-3h under the low light level, then scald kind with the hot water of about 50-60 DEG C and constantly stir a 10-15min, then with the citric acid water seed soaking 1-2h of 2-3%, pull out, clear water is clean, is placed in 28 DEG C of vernalization;

The front first thick fine earth of place mat 1-2cm below seedbed of sowing, fill out again Nutrition Soil, first water sprays Seeding bed, uniform broadcasting seed, cover again the thick medicine soil of 1cm in the above, the preparation of its Chinese medicine soil mixes by the fine earth of every square meter seedbed 5g25% metalaxyl, 1g Mancozeb, 2g scarp powder, 1g and 10kg, hides straw at lid, and spray water 1-2 time every day on straw;

D, seedling management

When 80% seed sprouting, throw off bed surface covering; Note suitably insulation, while growing seedlings, will water sufficient water, suitably water with grow seedlings season and soil moisture content of backsight, open to 2 leaf 1 hearts constantly at rice shoot, can select a day field planting;

(3) build canopy chamber: East and West direction is built canopy, long 60 meters of hot house, rise-span ratio 0.25,1.5 meters of shoulder heights, 6 row's columns, middle shed span 4-6 rice, intermediate altitude 1.2-1.8 rice, 3 meters of post and intercolumniations, little shed span 1-3 rice, canopy is high 1 meter, and construction material both can have been used bamboo wood, also can use concrete prefabricated work, also available assembled coating steel pipe, little shed adopts 0.04-0.07 millimeter polyethylene film, and big or middle canopy adopts without dripping film more;

(4), field planting

Cultivation field arranges

Cultivation field should be deep ploughed in advance; Every mu of decomposed manure 2800kg, calcium superphosphate 50kg using through harmless treatment, cake fertilizer 10kg, soil conditioner 9kg, sprinkle evenly rear enforcement rotary tillage, the thin leveling of rake again, trench digging bedding, make the cultivating bed of wide 1.8-2.0 rice, high 10-15cm, and reserve and between the furrow of wide 30-50cm, operate ditch and suitable booth limit sky, the 8-10 days vexed canopies of scaffolding buckle film before field planting;

Transplant planting in good time

When seedling age 30 days, while having 4-5 days true leaves, get final product field planting, select cloudy day or fine day to open cave field planting by seeding row spacing by 43 × 80cm seeding row spacing at dusk, and irrigate in time normal root water, after work in 3-5 days, the more flat cave of harmony root of earthing up, lay micro-irrigation flexible pipe, covering film in the ranks and put seedling at furrow face;

(5), after field planting, manage

According to weather conditions and plant growing way appearance, by the switching of booth, carry out thermophilic management and Illumination adjusting, and live in the field planting of plant, just fruit phase, swollen fruit mid-term etc. key point, implement to topdress in conjunction with micro drip-irrigation;

Training and fruit thinning: adopt how climing pruning method, in the time of 4-6 sheet true leaf to main climing pinching, then the healthy and strong son of the 3-4 root of selecting and remain is climing, evenly guides four directions into, all the other excisions, until son climing while growing 7-8 sheet leaf to its pinching, promote grandson climing sprouting and growth, after the climing result of grandson, every grandson is climing stays the pinching of 3-4 sheet true leaf, short fruit development, when after Fruit, nourish and grow while dying down, stop pinching, base portion Lao Ye should extract early, remove overstocked cissoid, in order to ventilation and penetrating light, 4-6 of fruit stayed in general every strain, all the other flowers and fruits, should remove in time;

Rich water quality management

In the time of the climing length 40~50cm of watermelon, carry out the work such as intertill and clean tillage, ridging, after transplanting, 7d executes slow seed manure, taking nitrogenous fertilizer as main, adds water to water execute with carbon ammonium 15kg/ mu; Bloom after bearing fruit and chase after 20,000 grams/acre of potassium sulfates, enter expanding stage and chase after thousand grams/acre of Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 40-50, suitable foliage application of later stage, every 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution of spray in 5 days, connects and sprays 2-3 time, after gathering, execute ammonium sulfate 15kg/ mu at every turn, when watermelon growing is rapid, water demand ratio is more, and particularly expanding stage is the most urgent to the demand of moisture, but greenhouse watermelon pour water unsuitable too much, should rationally water according to leaf look fresh and tender degree, watermelon is plucked front 7~10d and should be stopped watering;

(6), the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control

Adopt crop rotation, shine the agricultural measures such as ridge, disease-resistant variety, applying organic manure; Adopt the physical measure such as the vexed canopy of high temperature, black film weeding, colour table and light trap; Adopt the biological control measures such as gyplure trapping and biological pesticide, in conjunction with necessary chemical prevention, carry out comprehensive innoxious insect pest preventing and controlling, the height poison persistent pesticide of forbidding;

(7) gather: in early and middle ten days in May, generally open and within latter 30 days, carry out gathering of first melon at female flower; Every about 30 days, gather a collection of later, after gathering, should clean in time rural area, harmless treatment straw and discarded mulch film.

Wherein, soil conditioner is prepared from by the component raw material of following weight (kg): brown coal powder 28, Concave-convex clay rod 11, citric acid 9, camellia cake 7, tobacco leftovers 2, white lime 3, potassium humate 9, boric acid 6, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3, fennel powder 0.1, Chinese prickly ash 0.2, wheat bran 1.5, starch 0.015, brown sugar 0.015, water is appropriate, add suitable quantity of water to mix brown coal powder Concave-convex clay rod citric acid, stir into mud, send into 250 DEG C of kiln roastings 3 hours, then, cooling crush becomes 2-4mm coarse grain, again with formula in rest materials mix and blend after 40-50 minute, granulation, spraying brown sugar water, dry and get final product, per mu yield can reach 5000kg.

Claims (1)

1. a greenhouse watermelon cultural method, is characterized in that comprising following content: (1) selects that breeding selects that disease resistance is strong, tolerance to low temperature and weak light, the sweet king No. seven of high temperature resistance again, (2) preparation of cultivating a in strong sprout, Nutrition Soil is broadcast front 1-2 month, by garden loam 60%, be hybridly prepared into Nutrition Soil through fertilizer 30%, the cake fertilizer 10% of harmless treatment, in every lm3 Nutrition Soil, add 5-8g Diammonium phosphate (DAP), 1-2g AVM, 2-3g phoxim, 1-2g ammonium molybdate, 0.01-0.02g zinc chloride, 1-2g RADIX STEMONAE powder, 2-4g onion ground-slag, 4-5g garlic residue powder, 1-2g Canton love-pea vine powder are also fully mixed thoroughly and are sieved again, the high furrow of wide 1.2-1.3m, high 10-15cm are prepared to make with above-mentioned Nutrition Soil in b, sowing seedbed, and thin rake leveling, waters vola water before sowing, c, sowing sowing time is at late January-early Febuary sowing, every 667 ㎡ cultivation field sowing quantity 30-40g, broadcast front first by seed airing 2-3h under the low light level, then scald kind of the also continuous 10-15min of stirring with the hot water of 50-60 DEG C, use again the citric acid water seed soaking 1-2h of 2-3%, pull out, clear water clean, be placed in 28 DEG C of vernalization, the front first thick fine earth of place mat 1-2cm below seedbed of sowing, fill out again Nutrition Soil, first water sprays Seeding bed, uniform broadcasting seed, cover again the thick medicine soil of 1cm in the above, the preparation of its Chinese medicine soil mixes by the fine earth of every square meter seedbed 5g25% metalaxyl, 1g Mancozeb, 2g scarp powder, 1g and 10kg, then lid screening straw, and spray water 1-2 time every day on straw, when d, seedling management 80% seed sprouting, throw off bed surface covering, note suitably insulation, while growing seedlings, will water sufficient water, suitably water with grow seedlings season and soil moisture content of backsight, in the time that rice shoot is opened to 2 leaf 1 heart, select a day field planting, (3) build canopy chamber: East and West direction is built canopy, long 60 meters of hot house, rise-span ratio 0.25,1.5 meters of shoulder heights, 6 row's columns, middle shed span 4-6 rice, intermediate altitude 1.2-1.8 rice, 3 meters of post and intercolumniations, little shed span 1-3 rice, canopy is high 1 meter, and construction material is used bamboo wood, or use concrete prefabricated work, or assembled coating steel pipe, little shed adopts 0.04-0.07 millimeter polyethylene film, and big or middle canopy adopts without dripping film, (4) field planting cultivation field arranges cultivation field and should deep plough in advance, every mu of decomposed manure 2000-3000kg, calcium superphosphate 50kg using through harmless treatment, cake fertilizer 10kg, soil conditioner 8-10kg, sprinkle evenly rear enforcement rotary tillage, the thin leveling of rake again, trench digging bedding, make the cultivating bed of wide 1.8-2.0 rice, high 10-15cm, and reserve and between the furrow of wide 30-50cm, operate ditch and suitable booth limit sky, the 8-10 days vexed canopies of scaffolding buckle film before field planting, transplant planting is as seedling age 30-35 days in good time, and field planting while having 4-5 days true leaves, selects cloudy day or fine day to open cave field planting by seeding row spacing 43 × 80cm at dusk, and irrigate in time normal root water, after work in 3-5 days, the more flat cave of harmony root of earthing up, lay micro-irrigation flexible pipe, covering film in the ranks and put seedling at furrow face, (5) after field planting, management, according to weather conditions and plant growing way appearance, by the switching of booth, is carried out thermophilic management and Illumination adjusting, and in alive of the field planting of plant, first really phase, swollen fruit key point in mid-term, implements to topdress in conjunction with micro drip-irrigation, training and fruit thinning: adopt how climing pruning method, in the time of 4-6 sheet true leaf to main climing pinching, then the healthy and strong son of the 3-4 root of selecting and remain is climing, evenly guides four directions into, all the other excisions, until son climing while growing 7-8 sheet leaf to its pinching, promote grandson climing sprouting and growth, after the climing result of grandson, every grandson is climing stays the pinching of 3-4 sheet true leaf, short fruit development, when after Fruit, nourish and grow while dying down, stop pinching, base portion Lao Ye should extract early, remove overstocked cissoid, in order to ventilation and penetrating light, 4-6 of fruit stayed in every strain, all the other flowers and fruits, should remove in time, rich water quality management carries out intertill and clean tillage, ridging work in the time of the climing length 40~50cm of watermelon, and after transplanting, 7d executes slow seed manure, taking nitrogenous fertilizer as main, adds water to water execute with carbon ammonium 15kg/ mu, bloom after bearing fruit and chase after 20,000 grams/acre of potassium sulfates, enter expanding stage and chase after thousand grams/acre of Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 40-50, later stage foliage application, every a 0.3-0.4% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution of spray in 5 days, connects and sprays 2-3 time, after gathering, execute ammonium sulfate 15kg/ mu at every turn, when watermelon growing is rapid, water demand ratio is more, and expanding stage is the most urgent to the demand of moisture, but greenhouse watermelon pour water unsuitable too much, should rationally water according to leaf look fresh and tender degree, watermelon is plucked front 7~10d and should be stopped watering, (6) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control adopts crop rotation, shines ridge, disease-resistant variety and applying organic manure agricultural measures, adopt the vexed canopy of high temperature, black film weeding, colour table and light trap physical measure, adopt gyplure trapping and biological pesticide biological control measure, in conjunction with necessary chemical prevention, carry out comprehensive innoxious insect pest preventing and controlling, the height poison persistent pesticide of forbidding, (7) gather: in early and middle ten days in May, after female flower is open, within 28-32 days, carry out gathering of first melon, gathered every 30 days a collection of later, after gathering, should clean in time rural area, harmless treatment straw and discarded mulch film, soil conditioner described in step (4) is prepared from by the component raw material of following weight portion: brown coal powder 20-30, Concave-convex clay rod 10-12, citric acid 8-10, camellia cake 6-8, tobacco leftovers 2-3, white lime 2-3, potassium humate 8-10, boric acid 5-6, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-3, 8-11, fennel powder 0.1-0.2, Chinese prickly ash 0.1-0.2, wheat bran 1-2, starch 0.01-0.02, brown sugar 0.01-0.02, water is appropriate, by brown coal powder, Concave-convex clay rod, citric acid adds suitable quantity of water to mix, stir into mud, send into 200-300 DEG C of kiln roasting 3-4 hour, then, cooling crush becomes 2-4mm coarse grain, by again with formula in rest materials mix and blend after 40-50 minute, granulation, spraying brown sugar water, dry and get final product.
CN201410338241.7A 2014-07-16 2014-07-16 A kind of greenhouse watermelon cultural method CN104094760B (en)

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