CN102037833A - Technology and method for cultivating organic water melons - Google Patents

Technology and method for cultivating organic water melons Download PDF

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CN102037833A
CN102037833A CN2009102053163A CN200910205316A CN102037833A CN 102037833 A CN102037833 A CN 102037833A CN 2009102053163 A CN2009102053163 A CN 2009102053163A CN 200910205316 A CN200910205316 A CN 200910205316A CN 102037833 A CN102037833 A CN 102037833A
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organic
watermelons
organic watermelons
fertilizer
culture technique
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孔赟荣
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孔赟荣
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Abstract

The invention discloses a technology and method for cultivating organic water melons, relating to a nuisanceless, green, safe and environment-friendly technology and method for cultivating organic water melons which are rich in nutrients. The cultivating process is concerned with authentication of organic bases, proper rotation of crops, use of organic seeds and application of self-prepared decomposed organic fertilizers. In the cultivating process, pesticides, fertilizers, growth regulators, hormones, herbicides and the like are not used; mineral substances and plant agents are used for preventing and controlling pest and disease damages; natural enemies are used for preying on pests; and based on the inherent phototaxis and odor taxis of pests (such as using Pheromone sex attractants and black light lamps to kill moth pests, using yellow boards to trap and kill aphides and the like), the effects of killing the pests and protecting beneficial insects can be achieved. The cultivating technology comprises the technologies of sound seedling cultivation, grafting, ridge forming, planting, plastic membrane mulching, rational close planting, plant adjustment, field management, fertilizing, prevention and control of pest and disease damages and the like. By fully making use of light, heat, air and the like, the invention creates an environment beneficial to the growth of organic water melons, thereby achieving the purpose of producing organic water melons at high yield and high efficiency.

Description

The culture technique of organic watermelons and method
Technical field
The present invention is the culture technique and the method for organic watermelons, relating to a kind of culture technique and method of organic watermelons specifically, promptly is the culture technique and the method for being a kind of non-harmful, green, safety, environmental protection, highly efficient and productive, the organic watermelons that is rich in nutrition.
Background technology
The effect of watermelon: the pulp of watermelon, pericarp, seed all have edible, medical value:
Effects such as watermelon pulp (flesh) has clearing away summerheat, separates polydipsia, diuresis, relieving alcoholism are used for treating heat symptom-complex, hot summer weather polydipsia, difficult urination, have sore throat, stomatitis, drunk.
Watermelon peel is used for controlling nephritic dropsy, hepatopathy jaundice, diabetes.
The watermelon seed have clearing lung-heat moistening lung effect and in quench the thirst, aid digestion, can control haematemesis, cough for a long time.The seed shell is with controlling discharging fresh blood stool, bloody flux.
Seed shell and watermelon peel are made " water melon frost " and are specialized in medicinally, can control aphtha, aphthae in children, noma, acute laryngopharyngitis, larynx disease.
The characteristic of watermelon: watermelon happiness high-temperature drying weather.Suitable dry hot climate, drought-enduring power is strong, and 25~30 ℃ of growth preference temperatures are subject to cold damage, poor growth in the time of<10 ℃.Monthly mean temperature is the just feasible outdoor cropping of area more than 3 months in the whole year in month more than 19 ℃.Belong to long-day plant, the happiness high light.The main root degree of depth is more than 1 meter, and root mass mainly is distributed in 20~30 centimetres the root layer, requires the sand loam that draining is good, soil layer is deep.Soil pH 5~7 is advisable.
The cultivating watermelon mode of China is varied.What belong to outdoor cropping has: the non-irrigated pool of northwest, sandy land cultivation, the flat bedding cultivation in North China, the high bedding cultivation on the south the Changjiang river etc.; Belong to having of protection ground cultivation: the reed hair cultivation in Pekinese's air partition, Baoding; Belong to the modern ground plastic-sheet-covered cultivation that ground such as Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Anhui, Sichuan, Heilungkiang are arranged of cultivating, plastic tunnel cultivation, greenhouse culture etc.
Existing more than 4000 year of China's plantation watermelon, the cultivation of watermelon is by former tradition, conventional cultivation, cultivate with methods such as chemical fertilizer, agricultural chemicals, hormones to the many of now by ashamed, making watermelon production produce residue of pesticide thus improves constantly, chemical hazard further worsens, say to a certain extent,, bring certain healthy harm the edible watermelon of people; People appeal, look forward to that green can be arranged, environmental protection, organically watermelon listing, to satisfy people's safety, health, to eat watermelon to nutrition.
Summary of the invention
One, Fa Ming purpose:
The watermelon of China's plantation in recent years, the watermelon quantity because the part melon grower covets, output, save the labour, ignore quality, pesticide abuse, chemical fertilizer, hormone etc., abandon application to organic manure, the part quality of watermelon is constantly descended, sweet taste reduces, saline taste increases, sugar content descends, remains of pesticide, chemical fertilizer, poisonous and harmful substance content such as hormone increase, and bring in various degree healthy harm to the edible watermelon of people, present situation for a change, supply with people's green, healthy, non-harmful, high-quality, the organic watermelons of high yield the invention provides a kind of organic watermelons growing and cultivation technology and method, to realize providing a kind of green, environmental protection, high-quality, the organic watermelons of high yield is for people's safety, healthy, nutrition is edible.
Two, Fa Ming feature:
In the organic watermelons cultivation process, do not use agricultural chemicals, chemical fertilizer, weed killer herbicide, growth regulator, hormone of synthetic etc., make organic watermelons production reach theory productions such as nuisanceless, green, environmental protection, application organic farmland, organic manure, organic quality, make the organic watermelons of production become nuisanceless, environmental protection, safe, highly efficient and productive, edible nourishing, health, it will be loved by the people.
Organic watermelons pulp rich in proteins, glucose, sucrose, fructose, malic acid, glutamic acid, citrulling, invertase, calcium, iron, phosphorus, raw fiber and vitamin (A, B, C) etc.
Three, the culture technique of organic watermelons and method:
(1), the requirement in organic watermelons cultivation base:
1, guarantees that organic watermelons plantation plot is not contaminated.Will carry out the authentication of 0FDC certification authority in China, the plot that has in the organic watermelons production base might be subjected to the influence that pollute in contiguous conventional plot, must set up buffer strip or physical barrier.China certification authority to the requirement of isolation strip length around the base for being separated by 8 meters.Isolation strip length was for being separated by 10 meters around Germany BCS certification authority required organic base.
2, select the integrality in base.The soil in base should be complete plot, can not accompany therebetween to carry out the conventional plot that produces, but allow to exist organic conversion plot; Organic watermelons production base and conventional plot intersection must have the visible marking, as mountains and rivers, river, massif, mound, booth, the artificial isolation strip that is provided with etc.
3, must there be the transition period.Usually needed for 2 years by conventional grown place system to the conversion of organic production base, after the watermelon of the sowing results, just can be used as organic products thereafter; Watermelon need just can become organic watermelons through 3 year conversion time before results.The time started of transition period, the producer must be fully by organic production requirement operation in the transition period from calculating from certification authority's application authentication.The watermelon of growing in the field piece after organic conversion in 1 year can be used as organic conversion crop and sells.
(2), cultivation management
1, organic watermelons breed selection.Kind selects should consider to adapt to local soil and climatic characteristic, melon kind with organic watermelons sign, the watermelon kind and the kind that damage by disease and insect are had resistance, and the seed of certified organic watermelons and seedling, organic small-sized aspermous watermelon is optional: snow goose, snow are beautiful etc., and organic have the seed watermelon optional: magnificent, beautiful unicorn, 8424, superfine product carbuncle etc.When selecting kind, to take into full account the genetic diversity of cover crop.Ban use of any transgenosis watermelon seed.
2, the organic base of crop rotation and cleaning rural area should adopt at least 3 kinds of crops that comprise wheat, green manure or legume to carry out crop rotation; Can only grow in the 1 year area of 1 batch of watermelon allows to adopt two kinds of shift of crops that comprise legume.After the preceding stubble watermelon results, thoroughly sweep the cleaning base, invalid object is all transported outside the base destroy, destroy by fire, burn till scorched clay dust or buried, to reduce disease.
3, corresponding cultivation techniques is by cultivating technology such as strong sprout, grafting, ridging, field planting, cultivation, plastic mulching, rational close planting, plant adjustment, field management, fertilising, the extermination of disease and insect pest, make full use of conditions such as light, heat, gas, create an environment that helps organic watermelons growth, to reach the purpose of highly efficient and productive production organic watermelons.
(3), fertilizer uses
The fundamental difference of organic watermelons production and conventional watermelon production is the difference that control, crop smothering and the fertilizer of disease worm use, and it requires to produce than conventional watermelon high.
1, fertilizer practice.Adopt fertilizer and green manuring technology.The homemade chicken manure that becomes thoroughly decomposed of general employing, duck excrement, pig manure, stable dung, night soil, tangerine bar, green manure etc. are for the fertilizer of raw material or use the organic watermelons plantation special-purpose fertile.When the organic manure that use oneself is prepared, made or composting becomes, must fully become thoroughly decomposed, help the absorption of organic watermelons to organic nutrient.The fertilizer nutrient content is low, discharges slowly, and it is sufficient that consumption is wanted, and with assurance enough nutrient supplies are arranged, otherwise the fertilizer deficiency symptom can appear in organic watermelons, and growth retardation influences output.Discharge shortcoming slowly at organic manure available nutrient in early stage, can utilize certain micro-organisms, as the organic watermelons plantation with effects such as fixed nitrogen, phosphorus decomposing, potassium decomposings is special-purpose fertile, quicken nutrient release, nutrient accumulation through the activity of these beneficial bacteriums, promote the effective utilization of organic watermelons to nutrient, also available night soil adding suitable quantity of water through becoming thoroughly decomposed is watered and is spilt short its growth of watermelon.
2, the technology of fostering and apply fertilizer.Green manure has nitrogen fixation, and green manuring can obtain more rich sources of nitrogen, and can improve soil organic matter content.The output of general every mu of green manure is 1800~2000kg, and by nitrogenous 0.34% calculating, fixing nitrogen is 61.2~68kg.Normal green manure of planting has: a plurality of green manure kinds such as Chinese milk vetch, clover, sweet potato, wormwood artemisia branch, the bitter pea (vetch) of arrow, orchid seed, white sweet clover.
3, use the kind of organic manure: ight soil of animal and residual body, plant is macerated composting, green manure, ash, cake fertilizer, scorched clay dust etc.; Mineral matter class: materials such as potassium breeze, rock phosphate, calcium chloride; The organic fertilizer and the part microbial manure that also have organic certification authority to authenticate in addition.
4, nuisancelessization of fertilizer processing: fertilizer need carry out nuisancelessization processing in preceding 2~3 months executing, and was preferably in and just carried out the year before fertilizer is carried out nuisancelessization processing; At summer or high temperature season, fertilizer is added a small amount of lime, that water-sprinkling is mixed is wet, accumulation, plastic covering film, makes its abundant fermentation maturity.Temperature can be killed the sick worm and the crop smothering that have in the farm organic fertilizer effectively up to 60~70 ℃ in the yeast phase heap, and the fertilizer after handling is easily absorbed by watermelon.
5, the using method of fertilizer
(1) fertilizing amount: the soil of organic watermelons plantation should be accomplished when using organic manure: plant vegetables and culture fertility carries out synchronously.Use the ratio of animal and plant fertilizer should grasp at 1: 1 to well.1500~2000 kilograms of general every mu of organic fertilizers, 150~200 kilograms in cake fertilizer imposes special-purpose fertile 40~50 kilograms of organic watermelons, 500~1000 kilograms of night soils.
(2) use sufficient base fertilizer: total fertilization amount 70~80% as base fertilizer, is sneaked into fertilizer in the plow layer equably in conjunction with ploughing, be beneficial to root system and absorb.
(3) skilful spraying fertilizer: after watermelon is beared fruit, the special-purpose fertilizer of organic watermelons is sprinkled into reserves in the ditch and water water, or with watering around the watermelon root behind the night soil water qualify that becomes thoroughly decomposed, in time water when meeting a day drought, high temperature or water the night soil of joining water.
(4), diseases and pests controlling and elimination weeds harm.
1, agricultural measures:
(1), selects suitable organic watermelons kind.Select kind to take an examination and consider soil and the climatic characteristic that adapts to the locality, damage by disease and insect is had the organic watermelons kind and the kind of resistance.
(2), efficent rotation.Continuous cropping is avoided in the organic watermelons base, the generation of continuous cropping meeting aggravation damage by disease and insect.Crop rotation or intercropping such as wheat, green manure, beans, dish, watermelon will be adopted in the watermelon base, and crop rotation of watermelon base or intercropping help the generation of the preventing disease and pest of organic watermelons.
(3), adopt organic operating technology.In organic watermelons was produced, sowing opened into fruit maturation about 30~45 days to gathering in the crops about 90~120 days from female flower certainly.Can adopt nutritive cube to educate strong sprout, use black seed pumpkin seedling, cucurbit seedling etc. to cook the watermelon graft technology of stock, carry out technology such as open country field planting, film covering, booth organic farming, can increase the resistance against diseases of organic watermelons like this, reduce the harm of generation, intrusion and the weeds of damage by disease and insect.
(4), rational close planting.Every mu of field is a radix to plant 330~750 strain watermelon seedlings, can select the plantation radix according to different organic watermelons kinds, guarantees the land for growing field crops rational close planting, impels the sufficient sunlight of main climing acquisition, and healthy and strong growth strengthens resistance against diseases.
(5), scientific management.At the subterranean water level height, the high furrow of zanjon are carried out in the area that rainwater is more, are beneficial to irrigation and drainage, keep suitable soil and air humidity.Moisture condition is at first depended in general disease spore germination, in conjunction with in good time, adopts ventilation flexibly in facility, cultivation, and the damp-warm syndrome degree in the control device is built the damp-warm syndrome degree environment that is unfavorable for that damage by disease and insect takes place, and has better action to preventing and alleviating disease.In time remove bud drop, fallen flowers, shedding, stubble, weeds etc., cleaning rural area, the middle parasitism and the source of infection of elimination damage by disease and insect.Destroy, destroy by fire, the buried plant that has virus, a sick worm, weeds etc., make full use of resources such as natural light, heat, water, soil, fertilizer, kind, impel watermelon to grow vigorously, strengthen resistance against diseases.
2, biological, physical control.The organic watermelons cultivation can utilize pest natural enemy to carry out insect predation and control.Also can utilize the intrinsic light that becomes of insect, the performance that becomes to distinguishing the flavor of to catch and kill insect.Wherein comparatively widely used have pheromones sex attractant, black light lamp to catch and kill the moth class pest, utilizes methods such as yellow plate trapping aphid, reaches kill pests, protects the effect of useful insect.
3, some mineral matter and the plant medical agent that utilizes the organic watermelons cultivation to allow to use prevented and treated.Can use insect pests such as sulphur, lime, lime sulfur, bordeaux mixture.The plant that can be used for organic watermelons production has Dalmatian chrysanthemum, garlic, cordate houttuynia, China tree, peppermint etc.As with 2000~3000 times of liquid of neem oil control Liriomyza, use that tansy 30g/L (fresh weight) is anti-to eliminate aphis and acarid etc.
4, the production of organic watermelons is generally adopted artificial weeding and is in time removed.The cultivation of organic watermelons can not be used weed killer herbicide, can utilize black mulch film to cover, and suppresses weed growth.When use contains the fertilizer of weeds, it is become thoroughly decomposed fully, thereby kill weed seed, reduce the growth of organic watermelons field weed.
The weeds control culture technique by adopting the restriction weed growth to grow is as crop rotation, plant green manure, the control weeds such as lie fallow; Provide and use stalk, straw etc. to cover weeding; Adopt artificial, machinery and electric heating weeding; Ban use of gene engineering product and chemical herbicide weeding.
(5), the control of several frequently seen watermelon disease:
1, the control of watermelon blight:
Watermelon blight also is dead arm, wilt disease etc., and it is very extensive to distribute.Generally about 5%, many persons' its incidence of disease fall ill more than 30%, even total crop failure.
(1), symptom: the full growing process of watermelon all can be fallen ill.The watermelon young shoot is injured, and is corrupt at once dead in soil, can not emerge.The sequela of emerging, the top is the dehydration shape, and cotyledon and blade wither vertical, and the climing base of stem all atrophy browning is dampinged off; Sick climing morbidity, the base portion browning, stem skin lobe is often overflowed with resin-like glue juice, is reddish black after doing.The crosscut disease is climing, and vascular bundle is brown.Later stage diseased plant cortex is peeled off, and xylem is cracked, the rarely seen yellowish-brown fiber of butt rot.During wet weather, sick portion is common to pink mustiness thing, i.e. mitogenetic armful of stroma of cause of disease seedling and robe group.
(2), cause of disease: cause of disease is a watermelon point sickle spore bacterium, belongs to the Deuteromycotina fungi.
(3), this disease of occurrence regularity is a kind of soil-borne disease, the cause of disease seedling is mainly survived the winter on soil and invalid body, by infected seed, soil, fertilizer, irrigation water, insect and anthropochory.Germ is invaded between the apical cell of host's root wound or root hair, and germ can directly be invaded young root when infected seed was sprouted.In the summer watermelon 6 months, begin morbidity the last ten-days period, mid-July to early August is the morbidity Sheng phase.The leading factor of morbidity is temperature, humidity, and temperature all can be fallen ill at 8-34 ℃, and 24-32 ℃ is the optimum temperature that infects, and fall ill in the time of 16-18 ℃ at most seedling stage.The weather conditions of meeting drought or showers alternating with sunshine behind the rain descend morbidity more.In addition, subacidity soil and inclined to one side nitrogen fertilizer application are more conducive to morbidity.
(4), non-environmental pollution control technology
1) select for use disease-resistant or disease tolerant variety.Adopt disease-free seed or seed disinfection, collect seed from anosis Tanaka.Seed disinfection, 50% carbendazol wettable powder of available seed weight 0.3%~0.4% seed dressing before broadcasting, or with 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazol wettable powder, soaked seed 1 hour.
2) the strict nutrition soil of selecting.Adopt anosis seedlings and soil, make feeding block seedlings raising, can reduce the germina infection in seedling stage with the soil of new soil or sterilization.
3) reasonable cultivation management improves the plant disease resistance and advocates rice field-upland field rotation, the crop rotation more than 3~5 years of inclusive NAND melon crop.Soil deeptillage, high bedding cultivation, fall ill serious booth, greenhouse more will be taked and non-melon crop crop rotation.Use the organic base manure that becomes thoroughly decomposed, in time impose phosphorus, potash fertilizer, in time ventilate, reduce booth humidity.Can not broad irrigation, prevent plant early ageing and basal part of stem because of the soil water supply inequality, produce the nature lacerated wound.During morbidity, control water, in time remove diseased plant, thoroughly destruction, burning or buried, and carry out soil disinfection with lime etc.
4) soil disinfection.Every square metre of nursery bed disinfection is handled the furrow faces with 50% carbendazim, 8 grams.Before the field planting,, sneak into thin dry ground 25~30Kg, behind the mixing, evenly be sprinkled in the planting pit with every mu of 18~20Kg of 50% carbendazol wettable powder.In summer high temperature season, utilize solar energy to carry out soil disinfection, promptly after the results, turn over, pour water, spread mulch film, airtight then booth 15~20 days, surface soil temperature can reach more than 70 ℃, and fusarium wilt and other soil-borne diseases, nematode etc. are all had the better prevention effect.
5) graft seedling growth.Make stock grafting with black seed pumpkin or cucurbit seedling.
2, the control of watermelon anthrax:
Anthracnose is one of important disease of watermelon, and various places generally take place, and at many rainy weathers and southern many water area outstanding the weight is taken place, and is the main cause that influences the watermelon high and stable yields.
(1), symptom: watermelon leaf, climing, the fruit all can fall ill.Leaf portion scab, it just is circular faint yellow water stain shape stigma, back browning look, the edge puce, middle filbert, concentric wheel stripe and pore are arranged, scab is easily bored a hole, about 0.5 centimetre of scab diameter, and often there is yellow haloing the periphery, pore on the scab and concentric wheel stripe all do not have climing rot obvious, and the scab color is more even.Petiole and climing scab fusiformis or the oblong of going up just are the water soaking mode yellowish-brown, back blackening brown.Fruit is injured, and just is dirty-green oil stain shape fleck, after be expanded into circle, crineous caves in slightly, when air humidity is big, the glutinous shape thing of long Chinese red on the scab, when serious scab in flakes, watermelon rots.
(2), cause of disease: cause of disease is Curcurbitaceae thorn dish spore bacterium [Colletotrichumorbiculare (the Berk , ﹠amp of Colletotrichum; Mont.) Arx, pore is an aceravlus on the scab.Conidium ellipse or Long Circle, colourless unit cell, the inclusion graininess, bristle is scattered in the aceravlus, brown, the top look light, and separation is arranged.
(3), occurrence regularity: this germ mainly is attached to be retained in the soil on host's the residual body and survives the winter, and seed also can carry disease germs, and the germ on its seed can survive 2 years.Under optimum conditions, germ relies on rainwater or dashing of irrigation water to spatter propagation, directly invades from host's epidermis, and subaerial blade is at first fallen ill.High humidity is to bring out this sick principal element, and under the relative moisture that continues 87%-95%, in 3 days incubation periods, humidity is lower, and the incubation period is longer, and it is slower to fall ill.Under 10-30 ℃ of temperature, all can fall ill, and the heaviest with morbidity under 95% relative moisture and the 24 ℃ of temperature.Too much nitrogen fertilizer application, impeded drainage, ventilation and penetrating light difference and the morbidity of continuous cropping plot are all compared serious.The watermelon of gathering in the crops behind grave illness field or the rain is also morbidity in transporting procedures.
(4), non-environmental pollution control technology
1), selects disease-resistant disease tolerant variety for use.
2), the strict nutrition soil of selecting.To carry out and non-melon crop rotation more than 3 years with growing seedlings, prevent that soil from carrying disease germs, in the time of can not rotating, must carry out the nursery soil sterilization.
3), seed treatment.To producing with kind of available 50~51 ℃ of water seed soakings or with 0.3%~0.4% heavy 50% powder of carbendazim seed dressing of seed; Or with 200 times of liquid seed soaking of formalin 30 minutes, with the clean back vernalization of flushing with clean water.
4), the control nitrogen fertilizer application, carry out draining, ventilation, increase printing opacity sunshine, reduce relative moisture, improve the watermelon resistance against diseases.
5), agricultural measures: carry out crop rotation more than 3 years with non-melon crop.Adopt rational application of fertilizers, use the fertilizer that fully becomes thoroughly decomposed.Attention is leveled land, and prevents field ponding, draining in time behind the rain, rational close planting.After the melon crop results, in time remove does destruction such as invalid body, burn or do buried processing etc.
The invention achievement:
The culture technique of organic watermelons and the application of method, help not only that we cultivate organically, the organic watermelons of high yield, high-quality, green, environmental protection, the relieved watermelon of edible safety, nutrition, health is provided for people, and for improving the technology and method that organic watermelons per mu yield, quantity, quality provide the science cultivation, make it reach per mu yield and surpass 10000 jin, the income good harvest that surpasses 20000~30000 yuan of mu/year.
The application of organic watermelons culture technique and method, it will play a significant role for China develops green agriculture, have crucial promotional value.
Description of drawings
Accompanying drawing 1: the organic watermelons of growing in the organic watermelons base; The small-sized organic watermelons of Fig. 2; The large-scale organic watermelons of Fig. 3.
Embodiment:
Example 1: small-sized organic watermelons culture technique
1, kind is selected: cultivate small-sized organic watermelons and should select adaptability stronger, and the organic watermelons kind that disease resistance is good, as select the small-sized watermelon snow goose of organic no seed.
The small-sized organic watermelons of no seed all can normal growth more than 10 ℃ at temperature.Adopt different culture techniques, can be from unit's late July in the middle of the month to summer sowing, 5-10 is monthly to be gathered in the crops.
2, planting type:
(1), protection ground cultivation in early spring: February the early and middle ten days seeding and seedling raising, seedling age 35-40 days, adopt heating mode to grow seedlings, in 3 months, be colonizated in the greenhouse listing at the beginning of 6 months by the end of May the last ten-days period.
(2) bare area cultivation in spring: late March to late May is sowed, and seedling age is about 30 days.Grow seedlings to protection, the latest frost after date is colonizated in bare area or adds a cover little shed.
(3) delay to the protection in summer cultivation: the late July sowing, seedling age is about 20 days.Early September is added a cover the canopy film, adds a cover the insulation straw screen or mat last ten-days period, goes on the market after October.
3, seeding and seedling raising
(1) nutritive soil preparation: the nutritive soil preparation method is more, and 1/3 burnt earth commonly used adds the 1/3 land for growing field crops soil of not planting melon to be mixed thoroughly and sieve, and adds 1/3 farm organic fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed.100~150 kilograms in every side land for growing field crops soil ginseng cake fertilizer is with 800 times of carbendazol sterilizations.
(2) presoaking and germinating: available 55 ℃ of water seed soakings sterilization constantly is stirred to water temperature and reduces to about 30 ℃.Soak after 4 hours, clean seed, pack tightly with wet towel then and place vernalization under 30 ℃ of left and right sides environment.
(3) sowing: sowing is used 800 times of thiophanate methyl liquid and irrigate seedling soil the previous day, when treating seed bud length to the 0.5 centimetre left and right sides, be seeded in the seedling-cultivating tray, seed should keep flat, bud point upwards, the thin nutrition soil of loam cake 1.5 cm thicks, and irrigate seedling-cultivating tray with 800 times of thiophanate methyl liquid, temperature remains on 25-30 ℃, and it is neat to emerge with assurance.After emerging, temperature remains on 18-28 ℃ and gets final product.The seedbed is rather done not wet.Should prevent freeze injury early spring, guarantees the substantial light photograph.Should prevent the excessive growth of seedling high temperature summer.
4, field management
(1) field planting: the general whole climing mode of how climing many fruits that adopts is cultivated, and 180~200 centimetres of seeding row spacing 60~80 cm x can be planted 530~730 strains for every mu.Also can cultivate 100~140 centimetres of seeding row spacing 50 cm x, duplicate rows field planting by vertical rack.
(2) rich water: based on base fertilizer, it is auxilliary topdressing.Every mu in base fertilizer with organic chicken manure that becomes thoroughly decomposed, pig manure, compost, green manure etc., adds 150~200 kilograms/mu in cake fertilizer with 1500~2000 kilograms of fertilizers, takes row replacement or the mode of spreading fertilizer over the fields to use.Whole growing is promptly stretched climing fertilizer based on the rich water pouring later on: the ginseng water night soil that becomes thoroughly decomposed was watered, watered to field planting based on nitrogen fertilizer application, and after 7~10 days; The fertilizer of bearing fruit: executing phosphorus, potash fertilizer, and watered, water the ginseng 50% water night soil etc. that becomes thoroughly decomposed after bearing fruit 7~10 days.Swollen melon fertilizer: when watermelon grows up to the rim of a bowl when size, executing phosphorus, potash fertilizer, and water, water the 70% dense matter night soil that becomes thoroughly decomposed.
(3) whole climing, stay fruit: cause and effect is real little, reach high yield, should adopt how climing many fruit modes to cultivate, and the master is climing and 3~4 sons are climing generally to keep 1, or does not put in order not climing; When staying fruit, extract main climing last first female flower, all the other all can keep, two-batch melon, following sub climing will early excision of joint of bearing fruit.
(4) extermination of disease and insect pest: the big relatively variety of watermelon of small-sized organic watermelons kind has stronger disease resistance, and general disease is climing rot, fusarium wilt, virus disease, anthracnose etc., and the extermination of disease and insect pest was carried out once in best 7~10 days.
Embodiment:
Example 2: the technology and method of booth organic watermelons high-yield culturing
In booth, adopt organic watermelons culture technique and method cultivation organic watermelons, the organic watermelons of can extremely gathering by the end of October in May, average every per mu yield organic watermelons can reach more than 7000 kilogram.
1, kind is selected for use:
Select precocious, disease-resistant, low temperature resistant sunlight, " beautiful unicorn " organic watermelons kind that regeneration capacity is strong for use.
2, cultivate strong sprout:
Heating wire hotbed feeding block seedlings raising is adopted generally in sowing mid-January in the area, Ningbo.In booth, do wide 1~1.1 meter, dark 20~25 centimetres furrow of growing seedlings, length is decided on the quantity of growing seedlings.Things such as fine earth, straw are spread in the interior spreading of the furrow of growing seedlings, and lay heating wire above, enter nutritive cube.Sowing when presoaking and germinating to 80% seed shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally, every alms bowl is broadcast 1~2.Broadcast the back and cover 0.5~1 cm thick fine earth, covering with plastic film, on take little shed.Add a cover straw screen or mat night on little shed.Bed temperature remains on 28~30 ℃ daytime before emerging, and remains on 18~20 ℃ night.70% melon seedling is thrown off mulch film after being unearthed.Qi Miaohou suitably opens little shed cooling, and canopy temperature control on daytime is controlled at 15~20 ℃ night at 20~30 ℃.Transplant preceding 7~10 days hardenings of progressively lowering the temperature.
3, optimum period field planting
Before the field planting every mu execute 1500~2000 kilograms of the fertilizers that become thoroughly decomposed, 100~150 kilograms in the cake fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed, 20~25 kilograms of potassium breezes, 30~50 kilograms in rock phosphate, 5~10 kilograms in calcium chloride, perhaps execute special-purpose fertile 40~60 kilograms of organic watermelons for every mu.In conjunction with fertilising, every mu is spread fertilizer over the fields each 2 kilograms of 3% phoxim granule and 50% carbendazol wettable powders, control soil insect and to soil disinfection.Furrow were done in field planting in preceding 20~30 days wholely, and 5 meters wide booths are done 2 furrow, and every furrow are wide 2 meters, and 30~35 centimetres wide operation ditches are stayed in the centre.At the beginning of late Febuary to 3 month, the fine field planting in the morning of choosing, every ridge cultivation 1 row, 70~80 centimetres of spacing in the rows are planted about 330~380 strains for every mu.Water a foot water alive after planting, water oozes bonnet mulch film down, takes little shed above, and add a cover straw screen or mat night on little shed.
4, temperature and humidity management:
Management after the field planting in 10 days is based on insulation, and daytime, the canopy temperature remained on 25~32 ℃, remained on 18~20 ℃ night, and the canopy temperature is suitable aeration-cooling above 35 ℃.Suitably increase ventilation after sitting melon.Melon expanding stage and maturing stage canopy temperature remain on 25~32 ℃ daytime, remain on 15~20 ℃ night.Remove little shed mid-April.Ventilation is noted in the 5 month temperatures back that raises, open the skirt film fine noon and teleblem aeration-cooling.Throw off the limit film summer and stay teleblem, and keep the skin wet, nutrient.8 month temperature height, the plant transpiration rate is big, answers science regulation and control fertilizer, water and temperature.
5, rich water quality management:
Transplant and executed slow seed manure in back 7 days,, execute 300~400 kilograms of night soils for every mu based on nitrogenous fertilizer.When the melon egg is big, main execute phosphorus, potash fertilizer, and every mu execute 500~600 kilograms of the night soils that become thoroughly decomposed, execute special-purpose fertile 15~20 kilograms, 7~10 days of organic watermelons after, execute swollen melon fertilizer again 1 time.After gathering at every turn, execute 500~600 kilograms of the night soils that become thoroughly decomposed, execute special-purpose fertile 15~20 kilograms of organic watermelons for every mu.Greenhouse watermelon waters, pours water and will suit, and should rationally water, irritate according to leaf look fresh and tender degree.
6, plant is adjusted:
Take three climing trainings, main climing when growing to 60 centimetres, the lateral bine of 2 stalwartnesses of selecting and remain at 3~5 joint places, all the other lateral bines are all extractd, to reduce nutrient consumption.Melon bear fruit stable after, remove weak branch, sick branch and Lao Ye, sick leaf, be beneficial to ventilation and penetrating light.Choosing is kept down the vines of a creeping plant with soil block fine afternoon.
7, flower and fruit management:
During melon egg size, behind 12 joints, whenever select good strains in the field for seed and stay 1~2 melon.During melon the rim of a bowl size, extract lopsided melon and unnecessary melon, 1 melon is stayed in average every strain, and every mu is stayed 330~380 melons.After sitting melon, turned over melon 1 time in 15~20 days, and fill up melon with dry rice straw or fruit pad.When first melon 7~8 was ripe, the second batch of melon of selecting and remain on the base portion New Development is climing stayed the melon amount to determine according to the climing growing way of melon, climingly eugonicly stayed melon more, otherwise stayed melon less.The autumn air temperature height stays melon joint position suitably to postpone, 2 melons of generally selecting and remain behind 20 joints.When three, the 4th batch of melon is too much, suitably remove, to guarantee the quality of watermelon.
8, insect pests
Attention control watermelon damping off, damping off, fusarium wilt, leaf blight, downy mildew, anthracnose, powdery mildew and damage by disease and insect such as aphid, two spotted spider mite.
9, timely collecting
37~40 days first melons of gathering in the open back of female flower are gathered every about 30 days 1 time later on.When first planting melon was plucked, the part two-batch melon had been sat melon, when plucking melon and fruit, noted too much not tearing and damaging tendril.

Claims (10)

1. the present invention is the culture technique and the method for organic watermelons, and it relates to a kind of nuisanceless, green, safety, environmental protection, is rich in the culture technique and the method for the organic watermelons of nutrition.It passes through without agricultural chemicals, chemical fertilizer, growth regulator, hormone, weed killer herbicide etc.; adopt the authentication of organic base, efficent rotation, organic seed; make the fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed by oneself; carry out prevention and elimination of disease and pests with mineral matter and plant medical agent, utilize pest natural enemy to carry out the insect predation, utilize the intrinsic light that becomes of insect, the performance that becomes to distinguishing the flavor of to catch and kill insect; adopt pheromones sex attractant, black light lamp to catch and kill the moth class pest; utilize methods such as yellow plate trapping aphid, reach kill pests, protect useful insect.Culture technique is by cultivating technology such as strong sprout, grafting, ridging, field planting, cultivation, plastic mulching, rational close planting, plant adjustment, field management, fertilising, the extermination of disease and insect pest, make full use of conditions such as light, heat, gas, create an environment that helps the organic watermelons growth, to reach highly efficient and productive production organic watermelons.To satisfy people's safety, health, to eat organic watermelons to nutrition.
2. the culture technique of described organic watermelons and method is characterized in that: the cultivation base of organic watermelons, to carry out the authentication of OFDC certification authority in China.If become organic watermelons and the organic watermelons product salable that can generally acknowledge in the world, also must be through the authentication of German BCS certification authority.Its organic base reaches integrality and organic transition period requirement.
3. the culture technique of described organic watermelons and method is characterized in that: the organic watermelons seed that the authenticated mechanism of organic watermelons seed palpus of employing authenticates.
4. the culture technique of described organic watermelons and method is characterized in that: do not use agricultural chemicals, chemical fertilizer, growth regulator, hormone, weed killer herbicide etc. in the production of organic watermelons and cultivation process.
5. the culture technique of described organic watermelons and method, it is characterized in that: adopt green manure, fertilizer, generally adopt the homemade chicken manure that becomes thoroughly decomposed, duck excrement, pig manure, stable dung, night soil, tangerine bar, straw, green manure compost, ash, cake fertilizer, scorched clay dust etc. to plant special-purpose fertilizer and part mineral matter for the fertilizer of raw material or use organic watermelons.
6. the culture technique of described organic watermelons and method; it is characterized in that: carry out prevention and elimination of disease and pests with mineral matter and plant medical agent; utilize pest natural enemy to carry out insect and disclose food; utilize the intrinsic light that becomes of insect, the performance that becomes to distinguishing the flavor of to catch and kill insect; adopt pheromones sex attractant, black light lamp to catch and kill the moth class pest; utilize methods such as yellow plate trapping aphid, reach kill pests, protect useful insect.
7. the culture technique of described organic watermelons and method, it is characterized in that: culture technique and method are by cultivating technology such as strong sprout, grafting, ridging, field planting, cultivation, plastic mulching, rational close planting, plant adjustment, field management, fertilising, the extermination of disease and insect pest, make full use of conditions such as light, heat, gas, create an environment that helps the organic watermelons growth, to reach highly efficient and productive production organic watermelons.
8. the culture technique of described organic watermelons and method is characterized in that: to satisfy people's safety, health, to eat organic watermelons to nutrition.Make the organic watermelons of cultivation, reach theory productions such as nuisanceless, green, environmental protection, the organic base of application, organic manure, organic quality, make the organic watermelons of production become nuisanceless, environmental protection, highly efficient and productive, edible safety, nutrition, health, it will be loved by the people.
9. the culture technique of described organic watermelons and method, it is characterized in that: make organic watermelons pulp rich in proteins, glucose, sucrose, fructose, malic acid, glutamic acid, citrulling, invertase, calcium, iron, phosphorus, raw fiber and vitamin (A, B, C) etc., obtain nutrition and health after making the edible organic watermelons of people.
Make watermelon peel, the watermelon seed of production satisfy edible and medical value.
10. the culture technique of described organic watermelons and method is characterized in that: without weed killer herbicide, utilize black mulch film to cover in organic watermelons cultivation process, suppress weed growth.The fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed fully that use is cut through high temperature nuclear reactor, thus kill weed seed, reduce the growth of organic watermelons field weed.Weeds control is by the culture technique that adopts the restriction weed growth to grow, as crop rotation, plant green manure, body and the control weeds such as plough; Provide and use stalk, straw etc. to cover weeding; Adopt artificial, machinery and electric heating weeding; Ban use of gene engineering product and chemical herbicide weeding.
CN2009102053163A 2009-10-13 2009-10-13 Technology and method for cultivating organic water melons Pending CN102037833A (en)

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103907463A (en) * 2014-04-14 2014-07-09 贵州芊芊园艺新技术发展公司 Method for interplanting lycoris and pyrethrum to prevent and control crop diseases and insect pests
CN103931384A (en) * 2014-04-03 2014-07-23 蒋广洁 Planting method for green-food-grade autumn watermelons
CN103931380A (en) * 2014-03-27 2014-07-23 太仓市永发农场专业合作社 Pineapple planting method
CN104221683A (en) * 2014-09-16 2014-12-24 井陉县天山绿色食品有限公司 Bio-insect repelling planting method for organic small red beans
CN104335857A (en) * 2013-08-05 2015-02-11 林天国 Watermelon cultivation method by plastic film mulching
CN104823651A (en) * 2015-04-22 2015-08-12 吴迪 Planting method of watermelons
CN106034702A (en) * 2016-06-27 2016-10-26 安徽梅兰园林景观工程有限公司 Watermelon planting method
CN106234017A (en) * 2016-08-31 2016-12-21 马山盛世生态种养专业合作社 Promote the implantation methods of Fructus Melo high yield
CN106856928A (en) * 2017-02-22 2017-06-20 广西壮族自治区农业科学院园艺研究所 A kind of cultural method of prevention greenhouse watermelon root-knot nematode
CN107347395A (en) * 2017-04-12 2017-11-17 赵德华 A kind of implantation methods of watermelon
CN110612865A (en) * 2019-09-16 2019-12-27 广西壮族自治区农业科学院 Intercropping, interplanting and crop rotation planting method for watermelons, cassava and sweet potatoes

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104335857A (en) * 2013-08-05 2015-02-11 林天国 Watermelon cultivation method by plastic film mulching
CN103931380A (en) * 2014-03-27 2014-07-23 太仓市永发农场专业合作社 Pineapple planting method
CN103931384A (en) * 2014-04-03 2014-07-23 蒋广洁 Planting method for green-food-grade autumn watermelons
CN103907463A (en) * 2014-04-14 2014-07-09 贵州芊芊园艺新技术发展公司 Method for interplanting lycoris and pyrethrum to prevent and control crop diseases and insect pests
CN104221683A (en) * 2014-09-16 2014-12-24 井陉县天山绿色食品有限公司 Bio-insect repelling planting method for organic small red beans
CN104823651A (en) * 2015-04-22 2015-08-12 吴迪 Planting method of watermelons
CN106034702A (en) * 2016-06-27 2016-10-26 安徽梅兰园林景观工程有限公司 Watermelon planting method
CN106234017A (en) * 2016-08-31 2016-12-21 马山盛世生态种养专业合作社 Promote the implantation methods of Fructus Melo high yield
CN106856928A (en) * 2017-02-22 2017-06-20 广西壮族自治区农业科学院园艺研究所 A kind of cultural method of prevention greenhouse watermelon root-knot nematode
CN107347395A (en) * 2017-04-12 2017-11-17 赵德华 A kind of implantation methods of watermelon
CN110612865A (en) * 2019-09-16 2019-12-27 广西壮族自治区农业科学院 Intercropping, interplanting and crop rotation planting method for watermelons, cassava and sweet potatoes

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