CN105284378A - Tomato-celery crop rotation micro-irrigation planting method for solar greenhouse - Google Patents

Tomato-celery crop rotation micro-irrigation planting method for solar greenhouse Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105284378A
CN105284378A CN201510756486.6A CN201510756486A CN105284378A CN 105284378 A CN105284378 A CN 105284378A CN 201510756486 A CN201510756486 A CN 201510756486A CN 105284378 A CN105284378 A CN 105284378A
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water
irrigation
fertilizer
celery
field planting
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CN105284378B (en
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廉晓娟
王艳
杨军
李明悦
张余良
王正祥
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Tianjin Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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TIANJIN AGRICULTURAL RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENT INST
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like

Abstract

The invention discloses a tomato-celery crop rotation micro-irrigation planting method for a solar greenhouse. The method comprises the following steps: mounting and using of micro-irrigation equipment during tomato-celery planting, soil preparation and base fertilizer application, planting, water and fertilizer management, prevention and treatment of plant diseases and insect pests and the like. A water and fertilizer integrated micro-irrigation technology is adopted, different micro-irrigation modes are used for tomatoes and celeries, and water and nutrient are quantitatively provided for crops directly at regular times proportionally according to growing demands of vegetables in different growth periods; a contrast experiment shows that by the micro-irrigation planting method, about 200 m<3> of irrigated water can be saved per mu every year, so that water is saved by 40% at least, and fertilizers are saved by 30%; the method has the features that water, fertilizers and labor cost are saved, a micro-ecological environment is improved, plant diseases and insect pests are reduced, and yield and quality of the vegetables are improved; and moreover, the method is simple in technology, high in economic benefit and easy to be popularized.

Description

A kind of Tomato in Greenhouse-celery crop rotation slight irrigation implantation methods
Technical field
The invention belongs to growing vegetables technical field, especially relate to Tomato in Greenhouse-celery crop rotation slight irrigation implantation methods.
Background technology
Industrialized agriculture is one of industry that the world today is most active, and industrialized agriculture is all being greatly developed at present in the countries and regions of Agriculture comparison prosperity.Facilities vegetable is the important component part of industrialized agriculture, and the developing into of facilities vegetable solves and lack dish winter, realize vegetables year-round provision aspect and played great function, for the common people increase income, enrich citizen's vegetable basket and made positive contribution.The facility cultivation area development of China based on vegetables is in recent years very fast, and especially recent years, it is more swift and violent that various places government, authorities have put into effect the policy of a series of development and backup facility agricultural in succession, measure makes facility area develop.Within 1981, China's Installation Vegetable Cultivation area is less than 0.72 ten thousand hm 2, within 1998, develop into 1,440,000 hm 2, by the end of the year 2010, China's facilities vegetable Annual planting area will reach 4,670,000 hm 2, account for 95% of China's facility cultivation and the area of world's facilities horticulture 80% respectively, become the country that facility area is maximum in the world.
Although China's Installation Vegetable Cultivation achieves great development, world's facilities horticulture first big country has been become at present in scale, but develop comparatively early with external facilities vegetable and also there is larger gap compared with the country of production management technology prosperity, lack the advanced planting technology based on facilities environment condition and quantitative management index, standardized production technical system is not yet formed.Water and fertilizer utilization is low is the most general problem existed in vegetable production in green house, always continues to use " the large fertilizer of flood, need not ask people " that hand down in history in current vegetable production in green house, " fertilizer is walked with water, and a water one is fertile " water and fertilizer management pattern blindly.China is the country of a serious water shortage, although gross amount of water resources is more, but because China is a populous nation, so water resource occupation rate is extremely low per capita, agricultural irrigation water is that China mainly uses water rich and influential family, account for more than 60% of national total water consumption, agriculture lack of water on the one hand, another aspect more agricultural water wasting phenomenon ubiquity again, irrigation application efficiency is 30%-40% only, and the effective rate of utilization of the U.S. reaches 60%-70%, Israel is then up to more than 90%, excessive pouring water not only causes moisture to waste, also easily cause greenhouse by solar heat soil and space humidity excessive, easily bring out damage by disease and insect, degradation problem under quality of vegetable.In this external Vegetable produce, fertilizers input is excessive, not only causes the increase of fertilizer waste, cost, also can cause nutrient Cumulate Sum drip washing in soil, cause accumulation and the groundwater contamination of soil acidification, secondary salinization, nitrate nitrogen.In vegetable production in green house, Application Ratio is inharmonious, fertilizing method is unreasonable is also the subject matter existed at present.Therefore must consider the factors such as water, fertilizer, environment at China's development facilities vegetable, develop modern slight irrigation efficient agriculture with saving water, improve facilities vegetable water and fertilizer utilization, the sustainable development of guarantee facilities vegetable.
Tomato-celery crop rotation plantation is one of principal mode of northern China facilities vegetable plantation, applicant is according to the own characteristic of fruit and vegetable, leaf vegetables, two kinds of vegetables adopt different slight irrigation modes, according to crop different bearing stage demand, water and nutrient is executed people crop root zone equably, for plant growth provides best water, fertilizer, gas, hot growing environment, effectively reduce the deep layer leaching loss of root layer soil salt residual quantity and nutrient, significantly improve liquid manure utilization ratio, alleviate soil and groundwater azotate pollution.Form the water saving of applicable tomato in China-celery crop rotation production, joint fertilizer, safety, manage cropping pattern efficiently.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to, a kind of Tomato in Greenhouse-celery crop rotation slight irrigation implantation methods is provided, the input cost that the water and fertilizer management overcoming blindness in vegetable production in green house causes is high, the liquid manure wasting of resources, quality of vegetable declines, the problems such as damage by disease and insect is serious, soil degradation and environmental pollution, make facilities vegetable economize on water, joint fertilizer, safety, High-efficient Production.
The invention discloses following technical characteristic for achieving the above object:
A kind of Tomato in Greenhouse-celery crop rotation slight irrigation implantation methods, is characterized in that being undertaken by following step:
1. tomato slight irrigation implantation methods
Basal dressing 1. wholely
According to the every 667m of soil fertility 2spread fertilizer over the fields fertilizer 2000kg-4000kg or Chicken dung fertile 1000kg-2000kg, superphosphate 30kg-50kg, plough deeply 25cm-30cm after fertilising, soil and fertilizer are mixed, to rake soil, become high furrow, furrow face width 80cm-90cm wholely, furrow width 40cm-50cm, furrow height 15cm-20cm;
2. the use of micro-irrigation equipment
Along greenhouse East and West direction, arm is installed, during long more than the 70m in greenhouse, selects branch diameter 40mm, when length is less than 70m, caliber 32mm, arm is stretching balances, on arm, bypass connection hollow billet is installed in punching, hollow billet and arm at right angle setting, stretching along ridge, during tomato planting, every furrow install two drip irrigation pipe, caliber 15mm, dripper spacing 30cm, drip irrigation pipe spacing 50cm-60cm;
3. overlay film field planting
After micro-irrigation equipment installs, cover the white mulch film that fabric width is 1.4m immediately, the fine day field planting in the morning of general selection late Febuary or early March, spacing in the rows is 45cm, in distance water dropper 2cm-3cm place rupture of membranes borehole field planting, the field planting degree of depth is exposed native face degree of depth 1cm-2cm with cotyledon and is advisable, and field planting hole grave is sternly slightly pressed, every 667m 2field planting 2200-2500 strain;
4. tomato water and fertilizer management
1) water management
Field planting-bloom: pour water in time after field planting, according to the every 667m of soil moisture content 2the amount of dripping 35m 3-45m 3; Pour seedling recovering water after field planting 7-10d, every 667m 2the amount of dripping 7m 3-9m 3;
To bloom-result: every 667m 2the amount of dripping 6m 3-8m 3, pour water interval 10d-15d;
The result initial stage: every 667m 2the amount of dripping 8m 3-10m 3, pour water interval 10d-12d;
Result contains the phase: every 667m 2the amount of dripping 8m 3-10m 3, pour water interval 8d-10d;
Result latter stage: every 667m 2the amount of dripping 7m 3-9m 3, pour water interval 8d-10d;
2) fertilizing management
Because base fertilizer uses sufficient, the first fringe fruit is no longer topdressed before occupying stably, and to promote root system development, controls overground part excessive growth,
When the first fringe fruit stone peach size, start to adopt Development of Venturi Fertilizer Applicator to topdress in conjunction with drip irrigation, fertilizer formula N:P 2o 5: K 2o is 1:0.4:1.8, every 667m 2impose pure amount of nutrients is 4kg at every turn, chases after disposable fertilizer, topdress 3-4 time altogether every a water.
5. extermination of disease and insect pest % refers to: (w/w) is mass ratio
The tomato whole season of growth, incident main diseases and insect pests had aphid, liriomyza bryoniae, early blight, gray mold, leaf mold, late blight, blossom-end rot etc.Available 10% Imidacloprid 2500 times of liquid are prevented eliminating aphis, with 48% poison barnyard grass 1500-2000 times of liquid control liriomyza bryoniae with poison, 75% tpn 600 times liquid prevent and treat early blight, 50% ten thousand mould clever 800 times of liquid prevent and treat gray mold, 50% carbendazim, 800 times of liquid control leaf molds, 58% metalaxyl-mn-zn 800-1000 times liquid prevent and treat late blight, the superphosphate solution control blossom-end rot of 0.5%.
2. celery slight irrigation implantation methods
Basal dressing 1. wholely
Every 667m 2apply farmyard manure 3000kg-5000kg, superphosphate 20kg, urea 10kg-15kg, borax 1kg, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields at soil surface, plough deeply 20cm-25cm, rear thin rake soil of turning over, makes the flat furrow that 1.2m-1.5m is wide wholely;
2. the use of micro-irrigation equipment
Autumn, when planting celery, the fine-spraying belt that every furrow install two diameter 32mm was connected with bypass on arm, and all there is aperture the both sides of every bar fine-spraying belt, every side opening spacing 5cm, and on fine-spraying belt, two side holes is that isosceles triangle is arranged;
3. field planting
Greenhouse by solar heat celery resident time in mid or late September, August airtight vexed canopy 20d-30d carry out greenhouse disinfection, every furrow field planting 6-8 is capable; band Tu Tuo transplants; the field planting degree of depth is with shallow not crab rooting, and deeply do not bury the heart and be as the criterion, this celery veriety seeding row spacing is 10cm-15cm × 15cm-20cm; Celery veriety seeding row spacing is 15cm-20cm × 20cm-25cm; Every 667m 2field planting 15000-20000 strain;
4. water and fertilizer management
1) water management
Pour water in time after field planting, according to the every 667m of soil moisture content 2irrigation quantity 35m 3-45m 3; Pour seedling recovering water after 5d-7d, every 667m 2irrigation quantity 12m 3-15m 3, suitably control water after slow seedling, terminate restraining the growth of seedlings when celery young leaves major part is launched, pour water once every 8d-12d, every 667m 2irrigation quantity 15m 3; Late autumn and winter should control to water, and general interval 15d-20d fills with a water, every 667m 2irrigation quantity 15m 3, and pour water and should carry out the morning at fine day, and note adding forced ventilation wet down, prevent the excessive generation disease of humidity;
2) fertilizing management
Field planting, after 1 month, adopts Development of Venturi Fertilizer Applicator combination to pour water and topdresses, fertilizer formula N:P 2o 5: K 2o is 1:0.63:1.08, every 667m 2impose pure amount of nutrients is 5kg at every turn, topdresses 2-3 time altogether, if when celery calcium deficiency, boron, should spray the calcium chloride solution of 0.3% and the borax soln of 0.1% in time;
5. the extermination of disease and insect pest
The incident damage by disease and insect of celery mainly contains aphid, trialeurodes vaporariorum, spot blight, early blight, soft rot.Available 10% Imidacloprid 2500 times of liquid are anti-to eliminate aphis, trialeurodes vaporariorum.75% mancozeb wettable powder 500 times liquid, or 75% tpn wetting powder, 600 ~ 800 times of liquid, or 50% thiophanate methyl wetting powder, 500 times of liquid are prevented and treated spot blight, are prevented and treated early blight, 72% agricultural streptomycin sulphate soluble powder or new phytomycin 3000 ~ 4000 times of liquid prevent and treat soft rot with 50% carbendazol wettable powder, 800 times of liquid or 72% Du Pont gram dew wetting powder 800 times of liquid.
3. micro irrigation fertilizer spreading points for attention
1. the selection of fertilizer: select the solid fertilizer that dissolubility is good, nutrient purity is high, and do not produce precipitation during mixed preparing between the fertilizer selected, in case system jams.
2. the preparation of fertilizer solution: take fertilizer used according to fertilizer formula before each fertilising, with larger container fertilizer is fully stirred, dissolve, filter after pour solution into fertilising container.
3. fertilizing equipment operation: use Development of Venturi Fertilizer Applicator operation very simple, first the suction nozzle of Development of Venturi Fertilizer Applicator is put into the open container holding solution, suction nozzle installs screen pack, and suction nozzle does not touch container bottom, the valve opened the valve on Development of Venturi Fertilizer Applicator supervisor and inhale on fertile flexible pipe, and the valve on regulated fertilization device supervisor, make the intake line that solution is uniform and stable, and liquid manure liquid mixing ratio is controlled at about 10:1.
4. the control of fertilization time: apply fertilizer after system normal irrigation a period of time, should keep the 20min-30min that pours water after having applied fertilizer, in case chemical substance accumulation blocking aperture.
5. the cleaning of irrigation system is preserved
After irrigation system runs a Growing season, the blowoff valve of opened filter bottom is answered to put dirt, cleaned filter screen.Drip irrigation pipe end to be opened and rinse, after drip irrigation pipe, fine-spraying belt being removed, be placed on lucifuge, place that temperature is low keeps properly, use again in order to the coming year.
The present invention further discloses Tomato in Greenhouse-celery crop rotation slight irrigation implantation methods fertile at water saving joint, improve the application of water and fertilizer utilization aspect.Particularly in raising tomato-celery output, improve the application of tomato-celery quality aspect.
Experimental result shows:
(1) tomato-celery crop rotation slight irrigation implantation methods is compared with peasant's conventional border irrigation implantation methods, and water saving more than 40%, joint fertile more than 30%, output increases obviously, and tomato yield increases by more than 5%, and celery output increases by more than 3%.
(2) adopt slight irrigation implantation methods compared with peasant's conventional border irrigation implantation methods, Tomato Quality is obviously improved, and Vc content increases by more than 20%, and soluble sugar content increases by more than 7%, and nitrate content reduces by more than 15%.
(3) adopt slight irrigation implantation methods compared with peasant's conventional border irrigation implantation methods, celery quality significantly improves, and Vc content increases by more than 20%, and crude fiber content reduces by more than 15%, and nitrate content reduces by more than 4%.
Tomato in Greenhouse disclosed by the invention-celery crop rotation slight irrigation implantation methods is compared with peasant's conventional border irrigation implantation methods, and its advantage is:
Adopt the tomato of micro irrigation technology optimization disclosed by the invention-celery water and fertilizer management mode can to economize on water fertilizer, time and labour saving, reduction greenhouse humidity, reduce disease and weeds, reduce Pesticide use number of times and consumption, improve quality of vegetable, increase yield, increase income, and advanced technology, workable.
Embodiment:
The present invention is described below by specific embodiment.Unless stated otherwise, technological means used in the present invention is method known in those skilled in the art.In addition, embodiment is interpreted as illustrative, but not limits the scope of the invention, and the spirit and scope of the invention only limited by claims.To those skilled in the art, under the prerequisite not deviating from essence of the present invention and scope, the various change carry out the material component in these embodiments and consumption or change also belong to protection scope of the present invention.Wherein said best buy fertilizer, Chicken dung fertilizer, superphosphate etc., raw material used by the extermination of disease and insect pest all have commercially available.The % occurred in embodiment refers to: (w/w); Micro-irrigation equipment of the present invention is bought in Tianjin Le Long irrigation technique Co., Ltd.
Embodiment 1
1. tomato slight irrigation implantation methods
Basal dressing 1. wholely
According to the every 667m of soil fertility 2spread fertilizer over the fields fertilizer 2000kg, superphosphate 30kg, after fertilising, plough deeply 25cm, soil and fertilizer are mixed, soil of raking, become high furrow wholely, furrow face width 80cm, furrow width 50cm, furrow height 15cm; Described fertilizer refers to best buy fertilizer, buys this bio tech ltd green in Tianjin;
2. the installing and using of micro-irrigation equipment
Micro-irrigation equipment is made up of stem, arm, hollow billet three part, and near stem systems such as water source mounting filter, Development of Venturi Fertilizer Applicator, air inlet and exhaust valve, manometer, water meters, greenhouse East and West direction installs arm, caliber 32mm, arm is stretching balances, and on arm, punching installs bypass connection hollow billet, hollow billet and arm at right angle setting, stretching along ridge, during tomato planting, every furrow install two drip irrigation pipe, caliber 15mm, dripper spacing 30cm, drip irrigation pipe spacing 50cm;
3. overlay film field planting
After micro-irrigation equipment installs, cover the white mulch film that fabric width is 1.4m immediately, mulch film will even up tension.Before tomato field planting, 3d carries out greenhouse disinfection, every 667m 2add dichlorvos 0.25kg with Cosan 3kg, mix sawdust and divide heap to light, leak informaton after airtight stifling diel.The field planting in the morning of late Febuary fine day, spacing in the rows is 45cm, and in distance water dropper 2cm-3cm place rupture of membranes borehole field planting, the field planting degree of depth is exposed native face degree of depth 1cm-2cm with cotyledon and is advisable, and field planting hole grave is sternly slightly pressed, every 667m 2field planting 2500 strain.
4. tomato water and fertilizer management
1) water management
Field planting-bloom: pour water in time after field planting, every 667m 2the amount of dripping 35m 3; Pour seedling recovering water after field planting 10d, every 667m 2the amount of dripping 8m 3;
To bloom-result: every 667m 2the amount of dripping 7m 3, pour water interval 15d;
The result initial stage: every 667m 2the amount of dripping 8m 3, pour water interval 12d;
Result contains the phase: every 667m 2the amount of dripping 9m 3, pour water interval 10d;
Result latter stage: every 667m 2the amount of dripping 8m 3, pour water interval 10d;
2) fertilizing management
Because base fertilizer uses sufficient, the first fringe fruit is no longer topdressed before occupying stably, and to promote root system development, controls overground part excessive growth,
When the first fringe fruit stone peach size, start to adopt venturi to topdress in conjunction with drip irrigation, fertilizer formula N:P 2o 5: K 2o is 1:0.4:1.8, every 667m 2impose pure amount of nutrients is 4kg at every turn, chases after disposable fertilizer every a water, topdresses altogether 4 times;
5. the extermination of disease and insect pest
With 10% Imidacloprid, 2500 times of liquid prevent eliminating aphis, with 48% poison barnyard grass 1500 times of liquid control liriomyza bryoniaes with poison, 75% tpn 600 times liquid prevent and treat early blight, 50% ten thousand mould clever 800 times of liquid prevent and treat gray mold, 50% carbendazim, 800 times of liquid control leaf molds, 58% metalaxyl-mn-zn, 800 times of liquid prevent and treat late blight, the superphosphate solution control blossom-end rot of 0.5%.
2. celery slight irrigation implantation methods
Basal dressing 1. wholely
Every 667m 2apply farmyard manure 3000kg, superphosphate 20kg, urea 10kg, borax 1kg, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields at soil surface, plough deeply 20cm, rear thin rake soil of turning over, makes the flat furrow that 1.2m is wide wholely;
2. the installing and using of micro-irrigation equipment
Autumn, when planting celery, the fine-spraying belt that every furrow install two diameter 32mm was connected with bypass on arm, and there is aperture every bar fine-spraying belt both sides, every side opening spacing 5cm, and on fine-spraying belt, two side holes is that isosceles triangle is arranged
3. field planting
Greenhouse by solar heat celery resident time in mid-September, August airtight vexed canopy 20d carry out greenhouse disinfection, every furrow field planting 6 row, band Tu Tuo transplant, the field planting degree of depth is with shallow not crab rooting, and deeply do not bury the heart and be as the criterion, celery veriety seeding row spacing is 20cm × 20cm; Every 667m 2field planting 15000 strain;
4. water and fertilizer management
1) water management
Pour water in time after field planting, according to the every 667m of soil moisture content 2irrigation quantity 40m 3; Pour seedling recovering water after 5d, every 667m 2irrigation quantity 12m 3, suitably control water after slow seedling, terminate restraining the growth of seedlings when celery young leaves major part is launched, pour water once every 8d, every 667m 2irrigation quantity 15m 3; Late autumn and winter should control to water, and general interval 15d fills with a water, every 667m 2irrigation quantity 15m 3, and pour water and should carry out the morning at fine day, and note adding forced ventilation wet down, prevent the excessive generation disease of humidity;
2) fertilizing management
Field planting, after 1 month, adopts Development of Venturi Fertilizer Applicator combination to pour water and topdresses, fertilizer application formula N:P 2o 5: K 2o is 1:0.63:1.08, every 667m 2impose pure amount of nutrients is 5kg at every turn, topdresses altogether 2 times; If when celery calcium deficiency, boron, the calcium chloride solution of 0.3% and the borax soln of 0.1% should be sprayed in time;
5. the extermination of disease and insect pest
With 10% Imidacloprid, 2500 times of liquid anti-to eliminate aphis, trialeurodes vaporariorum; 75% mancozeb wettable powder 500 times liquid prevents and treats spot blight; With 50% carbendazol wettable powder, 800 times of liquid prevent and treat early blight, soft rot prevented and treated by 72% agricultural streptomycin sulphate.
Embodiment 2
1. tomato slight irrigation implantation methods
Basal dressing 1. wholely
According to the every 667m of soil fertility 2spread fertilizer over the fields Chicken dung 1000kg, superphosphate 50kg, after fertilising, plough deeply 30cm, soil and fertilizer are mixed, soil of raking, become high furrow wholely, furrow face width 90cm, furrow width 50cm, furrow height 20cm;
2. the installing and using of micro-irrigation equipment
Micro-irrigation equipment is made up of stem, arm, hollow billet three part, and near stem systems such as water source mounting filter, Development of Venturi Fertilizer Applicator, air inlet and exhaust valve, manometer, water meters, greenhouse East and West direction installs arm, caliber 32mm, arm is stretching balances, and on arm, punching installs bypass connection hollow billet, hollow billet and arm at right angle setting, stretching along ridge, during tomato planting, every furrow install two drip irrigation pipe, caliber 15mm, dripper spacing 30cm, drip irrigation pipe spacing 50cm;
3. overlay film field planting
After micro-irrigation equipment installs, cover the white mulch film that fabric width is 1.4m immediately, mulch film will even up tension.Before tomato field planting, 2d carries out greenhouse disinfection, every 667m 2add dichlorvos 0.25kg with Cosan 2kg, mix sawdust and divide heap to light, leak informaton after airtight stifling diel.The field planting in the morning of early March fine day, spacing in the rows is 45cm, and in distance water dropper 2cm-3cm place rupture of membranes borehole field planting, the field planting degree of depth is exposed native face degree of depth 1cm-2cm with cotyledon and is advisable, and field planting hole grave is sternly slightly pressed, every 667m 2field planting 2200 strain.
4. tomato water and fertilizer management
1) water management
Field planting-bloom: pour water in time after field planting, every 667m 2the amount of dripping 40m 3; Pour seedling recovering water after field planting 7d, every 667m 2the amount of dripping 8m 3;
To bloom-result: every 667m 2the amount of dripping 8m 3, pour water interval 12d;
The result initial stage: every 667m 2the amount of dripping 10m 3, pour water interval 12d;
Result contains the phase: every 667m 2the amount of dripping 10m 3, pour water a 9d;
Result latter stage: every 667m 2the amount of dripping 9m 3, pour water interval 9d;
2) fertilizing management
Because base fertilizer uses sufficient, the first fringe fruit is no longer topdressed before occupying stably, and to promote root system development, controls overground part excessive growth,
When the first fringe fruit stone peach size, start to adopt venturi to topdress in conjunction with drip irrigation, fertilizer formula N:P 2o 5: K 2o is 1:0.4:1.8, every 667m 2impose pure amount of nutrients is 4kg at every turn, chases after disposable fertilizer every a water, topdresses altogether 3 times;
5. the extermination of disease and insect pest
With 10% Imidacloprid, 2500 times of liquid prevent eliminating aphis, with 48% poison barnyard grass 1500 times of liquid control liriomyza bryoniaes with poison, 75% tpn 600 times liquid prevent and treat early blight, 50% ten thousand mould clever 800 times of liquid prevent and treat gray mold, 50% carbendazim, 800 times of liquid control leaf molds, 58% metalaxyl-mn-zn, 800 times of liquid prevent and treat late blight, the superphosphate solution control blossom-end rot of 0.5%.
2. celery slight irrigation implantation methods
Basal dressing 1. wholely
Every 667m 2apply farmyard manure 5000kg, superphosphate 20kg, urea 15kg, borax 1kg, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields at soil surface, plough deeply 25cm, rear thin rake soil of turning over, makes the flat furrow that 1.5m is wide wholely;
2. the installing and using of micro-irrigation equipment
Autumn, when planting celery, the fine-spraying belt that every furrow install two diameter 32mm was connected with bypass on arm, and there is aperture every bar fine-spraying belt both sides, every side opening spacing 5cm, and on fine-spraying belt, two side holes is that isosceles triangle is arranged
3. field planting
Greenhouse by solar heat celery resident time in late September, August airtight vexed canopy 30d carry out greenhouse disinfection, every furrow field planting 8 row, band Tu Tuo transplant, the field planting degree of depth is with shallow not crab rooting, and deeply do not bury the heart and be as the criterion, this celery veriety seeding row spacing is 15cm × 18cm; Every 667m 2field planting 20000 strain;
4. water and fertilizer management
1) water management
Pour water in time after field planting, every 667m 2irrigation quantity 35m 3; Pour seedling recovering water after 7d, every 667m 2irrigation quantity 15m 3, suitably control water after slow seedling, terminate restraining the growth of seedlings when celery young leaves major part is launched, pour water once every 12d, every 667m 2irrigation quantity 15m 3; Late autumn and winter should control to water, and general interval 20d fills with a water, every 667m 2irrigation quantity 15m 3, and pour water and should carry out the morning at fine day, and note adding forced ventilation wet down, prevent the excessive generation disease of humidity;
2) fertilizing management
Field planting, after 1 month, adopts Development of Venturi Fertilizer Applicator combination to pour water and topdresses, fertilizer application formula N:P 2o 5: K 2o is 1:0.63:1.08, every 667m 2impose pure amount of nutrients is 5kg at every turn, topdresses altogether 3 times; If when celery calcium deficiency, boron, the calcium chloride of 0.3% and the borax soln of 0.1% should be sprayed in time;
5. the extermination of disease and insect pest
With 10% Imidacloprid, 2500 times of liquid anti-to eliminate aphis, trialeurodes vaporariorum; 75% tpn wetting powder 600 times liquid prevents and treats spot blight; Or 2% Du Pont gram dew wetting powder 800 times of liquid prevent and treat early blight, new phytomycin 3000 times of liquid prevent and treat soft rot.
Embodiment 3
Tomato in Greenhouse-celery crop rotation slight irrigation implantation methods and peasant's conventional border irrigation implantation methods contrast, test is carried out in Tianjin modern agriculture science and technology innovation bases No. 67 greenhouses, process 1 is the fertilising of peasant's normal irrigation, to process 2 be micro irrigation fertilizer spreading, and it the results are shown in Table 1, table 2:
Table 1 micro irrigation fertilizer spreading is on the impact of tomato-celery output, economic benefit
Table 2 micro irrigation fertilizer spreading is on the impact of tomato-celery quality
As can be seen from Table 1, compared with employing micro irrigation fertilizer spreading applies fertilizer with peasant's conventional border irrigation, an annual water-saving amount can reach 233m 3/ 667m 2, water saving 45.7%, joint fertile 32.9%, saves fertilizer cost 158 yuan/667m 2, increase the output value 878 yuan/667m 2, add up to and increase income 1036 yuan/667m 2, cost-saving synergistic is remarkable.
Table 2 can be found out, adopts micro irrigation fertilizer spreading method, and tomato Vc content increases by 22.8%, and soluble sugar content increases by 7.29%, and titratable acid content reduces by 14.3%, and sugar-acid ratio improves 25.2%, and nitrate content reduces by 16.8%; Celery Vc content increases by 25.45%, and crude fiber content reduces by 19.1%, and nitrate content reduces by 4.37%, and tomato celery quality is obviously improved.Simultaneously micro irrigation fertilizer spreading can obviously reduce pour water, apply fertilizer, go and buy Chinese medicine, the labor such as whole ground, every 667m 2annual minimizing labor 15-20.

Claims (5)

1. Tomato in Greenhouse-celery crop rotation slight irrigation implantation methods, is characterized in that being undertaken by following step:
1. tomato slight irrigation implantation methods
Basal dressing 1. wholely
According to the every 667m of soil fertility 2spread fertilizer over the fields fertilizer 2000kg-4000kg or Chicken dung fertile 1000kg-2000kg, superphosphate 30kg-50kg, plough deeply 25cm-30cm after fertilising, soil and fertilizer are mixed, to rake soil, become high furrow, furrow face width 80cm-90cm wholely, furrow width 40cm-50cm, furrow height 15cm-20cm;
2. the use of micro-irrigation equipment
Along greenhouse East and West direction, arm is installed, during long more than the 70m in greenhouse, selects branch diameter 40mm, when length is less than 70m, caliber 32mm, arm is stretching balances, on arm, bypass connection hollow billet is installed in punching, hollow billet and arm at right angle setting, stretching along ridge, during tomato planting, every furrow install two drip irrigation pipe, caliber 15mm, dripper spacing 30cm, drip irrigation pipe spacing 50cm-60cm;
3. overlay film field planting
After micro-irrigation equipment installs, cover the white mulch film that fabric width is 1.4m immediately, the fine day field planting in the morning of general selection late Febuary or early March, spacing in the rows is 45cm, in distance water dropper 2cm-3cm place rupture of membranes borehole field planting, the field planting degree of depth is exposed native face degree of depth 1cm-2cm with cotyledon and is advisable, and field planting hole grave is sternly slightly pressed, every 667m 2field planting 2200-2500 strain;
4. tomato water and fertilizer management
1) water management
Field planting-bloom: pour water in time after field planting, according to the every 667m of soil moisture content 2the amount of dripping 35m 3-45m 3; Pour seedling recovering water after field planting 7d-10d, every 667m 2the amount of dripping 7m 3-9m 3;
To bloom-result: every 667m 2the amount of dripping 6m 3-8m 3, pour water interval 10d-15d;
The result initial stage: every 667m 2the amount of dripping 8m 3-10m 3, pour water interval 10d-12d;
Result contains the phase: every 667m 2the amount of dripping 8m 3-10m 3, pour water interval 8d-10d;
Result latter stage: every 667m 2the amount of dripping 7m 3-9m 3, pour water interval 8d-10d;
2) fertilizing management
Because base fertilizer uses sufficient, the first fringe fruit is no longer topdressed before occupying stably, and to promote root system development, controls overground part excessive growth, when the first fringe fruit stone peach size, starts to adopt Development of Venturi Fertilizer Applicator to topdress in conjunction with drip irrigation, fertilizer formula N:P 2o 5: K 2o is 1:0.4:1.8, every 667m 2impose pure amount of nutrients is 4kg at every turn, chases after disposable fertilizer, topdress 3-4 time altogether every a water;
2. celery slight irrigation implantation methods
Basal dressing 1. wholely
Every 667m 2apply farmyard manure 3000kg-5000kg, superphosphate 20kg, urea 10kg-15kg, borax 1kg, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields at soil surface, plough deeply 20cm-25cm, rear thin rake soil of turning over, makes the flat furrow that 1.2m-1.5m is wide wholely;
2. the use of micro-irrigation equipment
Autumn, when planting celery, the fine-spraying belt that every furrow install two diameter 32mm was connected with bypass on arm, and all there is aperture the both sides of every bar fine-spraying belt, every side opening spacing 5cm, and on fine-spraying belt, two side holes is that isosceles triangle is arranged;
3. field planting
Greenhouse by solar heat celery resident time in mid or late September, August airtight vexed canopy 20d-30d carry out greenhouse disinfection, every furrow field planting 6-8 is capable, band Tu Tuo transplants, the field planting degree of depth is with shallow not crab rooting, and deeply do not bury the heart and be as the criterion, this celery veriety seeding row spacing is 10cm-15cm × 15cm-20cm; Celery veriety seeding row spacing is 15cm-20cm × 20cm-25cm; Every 667m 2field planting 15000-20000 strain;
4. water and fertilizer management
1) water management
Pour water in time after field planting, according to the every 667m of soil moisture content 2irrigation quantity 35m 3-45m 3; Pour seedling recovering water after 5d-7d, every 667m 2irrigation quantity 12m 3-15m 3, suitably control water after slow seedling, terminate restraining the growth of seedlings when celery young leaves major part is launched, pour water once every 8-12d, every 667m 2irrigation quantity 15m 3; Late autumn and winter should control to water, and general interval 15d-20d fills with a water, every 667m 2irrigation quantity 15m 3, and pour water and should carry out the morning at fine day, and note adding forced ventilation wet down, prevent the excessive generation disease of humidity;
2) fertilizing management
Field planting, after 1 month, adopts Development of Venturi Fertilizer Applicator combination to pour water and topdresses, fertilizer formula N:P 2o 5: K 2o is 1:0.63:1.08, every 667m 2impose pure amount of nutrients is 5kg at every turn, topdresses 2-3 time altogether, if when celery calcium deficiency, boron, should spray the calcium chloride solution of 0.3% and the borax soln of 0.1% in time.
2. Tomato in Greenhouse described in claim 1-celery crop rotation slight irrigation implantation methods is fertile at water saving joint, improves the application of water and fertilizer utilization aspect.
3. Tomato in Greenhouse described in claim 1-celery crop rotation slight irrigation implantation methods, in raising tomato-celery output, improves the application of tomato-celery quality aspect.
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CN110278838B (en) * 2019-07-29 2021-08-03 吐鲁番市农业技术推广中心 Drip irrigation planting method for rotation of Hami melons and chives in sunlight greenhouse

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