CN106342656A - Film mulching and drip irrigation method for saline-alkali land in Yellow-river irrigated region - Google Patents

Film mulching and drip irrigation method for saline-alkali land in Yellow-river irrigated region Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106342656A
CN106342656A CN201610737900.3A CN201610737900A CN106342656A CN 106342656 A CN106342656 A CN 106342656A CN 201610737900 A CN201610737900 A CN 201610737900A CN 106342656 A CN106342656 A CN 106342656A
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China
Prior art keywords
irrigation
salt
water
soda soil
yellow river
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CN201610737900.3A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
王胜
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Shandong Sunway Garden Technology Co Ltd
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Shandong Sunway Garden Technology Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201610737900.3A priority Critical patent/CN106342656A/en
Publication of CN106342656A publication Critical patent/CN106342656A/en
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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0256Ground coverings
    • A01G13/0268Mats or sheets, e.g. nets or fabrics
    • A01G13/0275Films
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion

Abstract

The invention discloses a film mulching and irrigation method for saline-alkaline land in Yellow-river irrigating region. In detail, the film mulching and irrigation method comprises the steps of 1) leveling the land and ditching; 2) laying irrigation system; 3) sowing crop and salt-adsorbing plant in interval; 4) mulching film; 5) making up drip irrigation liquid and dripping; 6) managing field and preventing diseases and pests until harvest. The method uses special methods of ditching, pipe laying, sowing, film mulching and irrigation. The method can not only control the stalinization of saline-alkali land in Yellow-river irrigated region effectively, but also guarantee the normal growth of crop in the condition until harvest. The method provides new thought and new method for the effective application of saline-alkaline land in Yellow-river irrigated region.

Description

A kind of Yellow River irrigation salt-soda soil covering membrane and drop irrigation method
Technical field
The invention belongs to water-saving irrigation technique field, it is related to a kind of Yellow River irrigation salt-soda soil covering membrane and drop irrigation method.
Background technology
Salt-soda soil is a kind of form that salt gathers, and contained salt branch in soil affects the normal growth of farm-forestry crop. The data announced according to Ministry of Land and Resources white paper in 2014, China's salt-soda soil storage is 20.45 hundred million mu, all kinds of arranges utilization About 500,000,000 mu of saline alkali land resource, wherein concentrates about 100,000,000 mu of the salt-soda soil being distributed in flakes, main inclusion northwest sulfate type salt-soda soil 30000000 mu, 30,000,000 mu of northeast soda alkaline land, 15,000,000 mu of Hetao Irrigation District secondary salinization of land, coastal tidal salt-soda soil 1500 Ten thousand mu and 10,000,000 mu of North China flower arrangement salt-soda soil, have that total amount is big, widespread feature.
The Hetao area refers to that the Yellow River " several " word is curved and its periphery basin, just provides abundant since ancient times for the Chinese nation Resource, proverb also says " the Yellow River hundred evil, only rich a set of ".But the Hetao area be also in Yellow River irrigation salinization of soil degree the tightest The region of weight, solonchak salification amount is high, and most of is the water soluble salt such as chloride and sulfate, and level of ground water is high, and earth work is difficult Degree is big, and excavation can form drift sand, should first take dewatering construction measure if any such engineering.However, this region mode of watering mostly is Broad irrigation, some low laying areas even have filling no to arrange, so that level of ground water rises and salification quickly, so that original arable land is become , thus secondary salinization phenomenon in salt-soda soil.
Covering membrane and drop irrigation, also known as under-film drip irrigation, covers one layer of mulch film on drip irrigation zone or drip irrigation pipe, be a kind of combine with Color row drip irrigation technique and the novel water-saving technology of domestic film coating technique advantage.This technology is by controlled pipeline system water supply, The water of pressurization is fully merged with water soluble fertilizer after filtration facility filter " clear ", formation rich water solution, entrance delivery main- Arm-hollow billet (is laid on the irrigation belt below mulch film), then by the drip on hollow billet drop by drop uniformly, regularly, quantitatively Infiltration crop root development area, for Root Absorption.Therefore, it is beneficial to river bend ground in irrigation areas large area development covering membrane and drop irrigation Area realizes water-saving irrigation and salt discharge fall alkali, but still needs to solve the blocking of drip irrigation silt, drip irrigation source ensuring and region water salt balance The problems such as.
Content of the invention
For above-mentioned situation, it is an object of the invention to provide a kind of Yellow River irrigation salt-soda soil covering membrane and drop irrigation method.Pass through It is applied in combination special trench digging, pipe laying, sowing, overlay film and irrigation method, solve drip irrigation water source and regional water salt equilibrium problem, Can not only effective control Yellow River irrigation salt-soda soil salinization and alkalization, the secondary salinization in improvement salt-soda soil, and can protect Card crop with this understanding normal growth until harvest.
To achieve these goals, the present invention adopts following technical proposal:
A kind of Yellow River irrigation salt-soda soil covering membrane and drop irrigation method, it comprises the following steps:
1) smooth to needing the Yellow River irrigation salt-soda soil carrying out covering membrane and drop irrigation to carry out, subsequently dig on smooth salt-soda soil Ditch, the depth of described ditch is 5~10 centimetres, and width is 20~40 centimetres, and the width on the ridge between described ditch is 20~40 centimetres;
2) lay drip irrigation system, the drip irrigation zone in described drip irrigation system is spread in the way of burying every ridge paving and is embedded in described ridge In, paving buried depth degree is 5~10 centimetres;
3) crop and suction salt plant are sowed respectively in any two described ditches adjacent one another are, the sowing of described crop Density is 2000~3000 plants every mu, and the described thickness of sowing inhaling salt plant is 1000~1500 plants;
4) it is coated with water white transparency mulch film, described mulch film is completely covered described ditch for sowing described crop and its both sides Described ridge;
5) fertilizer is placed in the fertilizer spreading tank in described drip irrigation system, is mixed into after drip irrigation liquid with water and carries out drip irrigation, 7~15 Once, each drip irrigation amount is 10~15 cubic metres/mu to its drip irrigation;
6) conventionally field management and the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control are carried out, until crop harvesting.
Preferably, in the above-mentioned methods, step 1) described in ditch equal with the width on described ridge.
Preferably, in the above-mentioned methods, step 2) described in drip irrigation system include water source project (include cistern, water pump Deng), head pivot (include fertilizer spreading tank, filter etc.), water distributing network (include supervisor, arm, hollow billet (i.e. drip irrigation zone), droplet First-class) and control, measure and protection device (including pressure gauge, water meter, control valve, sand flash valve, ball valve, atmospheric valve etc.).
Preferably, in the above-mentioned methods, step 2) described in drip irrigation zone be embedded in the central authorities on described ridge by paving.
Preferably, in the above-mentioned methods, step 3) described in crop include oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers, corn and soybean, Radix Ipomoeae, Rhizoma Solani tuber osi etc., Described suction salt plant includes Suaeda salsa, salicornia europaeal, Salicornia bigelovii etc..
Preferably, in the above-mentioned methods, step 4) described in water white transparency mulch film be Low Density Polyethylene (ldpe) mulch film.
Preferably, in the above-mentioned methods, step 5) described in water water source be subsoil water/surface water mixing water source, described The preferred well water of subsoil water, the preferred river of described surface water or water in a canal.
Compared with prior art, using technique scheme the present invention has the advantage that
1st, it is applied in combination special trench digging, pipe laying, sowing, overlay film and irrigation method, can not only fill effective control the Yellow River The salinization and alkalization in area salt-soda soil, and ensure that normal growth, until harvesting, is Yellow River irrigation salt to crop with this understanding The effectively utilizes on alkali ground provide new approaches and new method;
2nd, it is capable of the effect of control salt of economizing on water by the way of wells connecting with canals drip irrigation, make ground by well-digging using subsoil water Lower water level decreasing, effectively improves the secondary salinization in salt-soda soil, and by canal irrigation region to well-irrigated area's recharge of groundwater, reaches drip irrigation The underground hydromining filling-in weighing apparatus in area;Meanwhile, (especially general in the salt-soda soil of Yellow River irrigation to inorganic salt in growth course using crop Store-through chloride and sulfate) picked-up effect reach salt discharge drop alkali effect;
3rd, water white transparency mulch film is had the advantages that light transmission is good, flexibility is good, is easily adhered with soil, is suitable to northern area (especially Yellow River irrigation) uses, and is conducive to soil to provide suitable condition for plant growth under the conditions of covering membrane and drop irrigation.
Brief description
Fig. 1 is the setting schematic diagram of the Yellow River irrigation salt-soda soil film-mulched irrigation method of the present invention, and wherein 1 is salt-soda soil soil Earth, 2 is mulch film, and 3 is drip irrigation zone, and 4 is crop, and 5 is to inhale salt plant.
Specific embodiment
By accompanying drawing and specific embodiment, the present invention will be further described in detail below, but the following example It is not intended to limit protection scope of the present invention.
Embodiment: plant Rhizoma Solani tuber osi improved soil salinization and alkalization using covering membrane and drop irrigation method.
Selected Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Ba Yan Nor City Wulate Front Banner Xi little Zhao town 200 mu of village of western police station salt-soda soil carries out this The film-mulched irrigation method of invention, site contour landforms are simple, and overall landform trend is that southwest is high, northeast is low, and physical features is flat, construction No huge elevation change in region, need not building be removed.The domestic water system of whole Wulate Front Banner belongs to Yellow River System, Experimental plot only has 10 km apart from the Yellow River, and surrounding has the irrigation canal of Huanghe water, and level of ground water is high, and local beverage well typically exists 20 meters about, phreatic line is at 2 meters about.
Experimental plot salt-soda soil is carried out smooth after, using ditcher ditching, ditch depth 10cm, furrow width 40cm, row spacing between ditch 40cm.Using conventional method lay drip irrigation system, drip irrigation zone by every ridge paving bury in the way of spread be embedded in ridge central authorities, left and right respectively away from 20cm, buried depth 5cm.Before sowing 20d about by Rhizoma Solani tuber osi accelerating germination, broadcast front 2~3d and carry out stripping and slicing, every piece has 2~3 pieces of buds, and clearly Except sick rotten potato.When temperature stably passes through 7~8 DEG C, Rhizoma Solani tuber osi and Suaeda salsa are sowed respectively adjacent one another are at any two Ditch in, then spread earthing, wherein the thickness of sowing of Rhizoma Solani tuber osi is 3000 plants every mu, the thickness of sowing of Suaeda salsa is 1500 Strain.After sowing finishes, the Low Density Polyethylene mulch film for 120cm for the fabric width is coated with the ditch being used for sowing Rhizoma Solani tuber osi and its both sides Ridge on.The compound fertilizer of farm manure and chemical fertilizer is placed in fertilizer spreading tank, is mixed into after drip irrigation liquid with coming from the water drinking well Carry out drip irrigation, once, each drip irrigation amount is 15m to 7d drip irrigation3/ mu.Carry out control of weeds, weeds 4 leaf phase in time before and after emerging First every mu adds water 30l to earth's surface spraying twice with precious one-tenth 10~15g.Intertilled in time before buddingging, pine is intertilled in intermembranous vacant lot Soil, promotes soil gas under film to exchange.After buddingging, initial bloom stage is earthed up in time.In addition, using conventional pest control method to horse Bell potato is processed.In after planting 60~70d, when stem and leaf harvests by green flavescence and when gradually withering.
The covering membrane and drop irrigation method of the present invention effectively increases efficiency of water application, compared with the mode irrigated with canal system, every mu of ground Water consumption save only about half of (by 300m3It is down to 160m3), yield remains basically stable.By drip irrigation liquid as carrier, can be by Fertilizer uniformly applies crop rhizosphere, is easy to Crop, reduces because of soil fixing, volatilization, rainwash and deep percolation simultaneously And the fertilizer loss leading to.Compared with the mode irrigated with canal system, change utilization rate and improve 12.5%.In addition, contrast covering membrane and drop irrigation Soil characteristic in front and back understands, chloride content is down to 0.5% by 0.7%, and sulphates content is down to 0.7%, ph value by 1% and is 8.3, show persistently to be possible to the soil in effective control the Yellow River (the especially river bend) irrigated area using the covering membrane and drop irrigation method of the present invention Salinization and alkalization.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of Yellow River irrigation salt-soda soil covering membrane and drop irrigation method, it comprises the following steps:
1) smooth to needing the Yellow River irrigation salt-soda soil carrying out covering membrane and drop irrigation to carry out, subsequently ditching on smooth salt-soda soil, The depth of described ditch is 5~10 centimetres, and width is 20~40 centimetres, and the width on the ridge between described ditch is 20~40 centimetres;
2) lay drip irrigation system, the drip irrigation zone in described drip irrigation system is spread in the way of burying every ridge paving and is embedded in described ridge, paving Buried depth degree is 5~10 centimetres;
3) crop and suction salt plant are sowed respectively in any two described ditches adjacent one another are, the thickness of sowing of described crop For 2000~3000 plants every mu, the described thickness of sowing inhaling salt plant is 1000~1500 plants;
4) it is coated with water white transparency mulch film, described mulch film is completely covered described in described ditch and its both sides for sowing described crop Ridge;
5) fertilizer is placed in the fertilizer spreading tank in described drip irrigation system, is mixed into after drip irrigation liquid with water and carries out drip irrigation, drip within 7~15 days Fill once, each drip irrigation amount is 10~15 cubic metres/mu;
6) conventionally field management and the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control are carried out, until crop harvesting.
2. Yellow River irrigation according to claim 1 salt-soda soil covering membrane and drop irrigation method is it is characterised in that step 1) described in ditch Equal with the width on described ridge.
3. Yellow River irrigation according to claim 1 salt-soda soil covering membrane and drop irrigation method is it is characterised in that step 2) described in drip Fill system includes water source project, head pivot, water distributing network and control, measurement and protection device.
4. Yellow River irrigation according to claim 1 salt-soda soil covering membrane and drop irrigation method is it is characterised in that step 2) described in drip Fill the central authorities that band is embedded in described ridge by paving.
5. Yellow River irrigation according to claim 1 salt-soda soil covering membrane and drop irrigation method is it is characterised in that step 3) described in make Thing includes oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers, corn and soybean, Radix Ipomoeae, Rhizoma Solani tuber osi.
6. Yellow River irrigation according to claim 1 salt-soda soil covering membrane and drop irrigation method is it is characterised in that step 3) described in inhale Salt plant includes Suaeda salsa, salicornia europaeal, Salicornia bigelovii.
7. Yellow River irrigation according to claim 1 salt-soda soil covering membrane and drop irrigation method is it is characterised in that step 4) described in no The transparent mulch film of color is Low Density Polyethylene mulch film.
8. Yellow River irrigation according to claim 1 salt-soda soil covering membrane and drop irrigation method is it is characterised in that step 5) described in water Water source be subsoil water/surface water mixing water source.
9. Yellow River irrigation according to claim 8 salt-soda soil covering membrane and drop irrigation method is it is characterised in that described subsoil water is well Water, described surface water is river or water in a canal.
CN201610737900.3A 2016-08-26 2016-08-26 Film mulching and drip irrigation method for saline-alkali land in Yellow-river irrigated region Pending CN106342656A (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106857156A (en) * 2017-03-01 2017-06-20 天津泰达绿化集团有限公司 A kind of technical method of strand hydraulic reclamation open ground low cost greening
CN106941903A (en) * 2017-03-03 2017-07-14 北京市农业技术推广站 A kind of sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivating and growing method
CN108029379A (en) * 2017-11-17 2018-05-15 西安理工大学 A kind of salt-soda soil crop rhizosphere soils oxygen automatic update system
CN108419473A (en) * 2018-03-15 2018-08-21 浙江园冶生态建设有限公司 A kind of salt-soda soil Landscape Construction technology
CN108617183A (en) * 2018-05-10 2018-10-09 天津泰达绿化集团有限公司 A kind of heavy saline-alkali area at seashore low cost, water-saving ecological fast repairing method
CN109220143A (en) * 2018-11-12 2019-01-18 江苏省农业科学院 A kind of fertilizing method for alleviating soil in protected field secondary salinization
CN110268894A (en) * 2019-07-31 2019-09-24 许伟 A kind of type of seeding of northern area plantation plastic mulched crop

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101507394A (en) * 2009-04-03 2009-08-19 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 Chinese wild rye direct seeding method on saline-alkali land
CN101507403A (en) * 2009-04-03 2009-08-19 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 Saline-land salt-water drip-irrigation medlar cultivation method
CN102257946A (en) * 2011-04-27 2011-11-30 新疆农业大学 Drop irrigation method for cotton planted in severe saline-alkali soil
CN104186161A (en) * 2014-08-28 2014-12-10 宁夏固农农牧业科技有限公司 Method for drip irrigation vegetable planting below dry slope land membrane
CN104429469A (en) * 2014-11-06 2015-03-25 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 Saline land suaeda salsa and oil sunflower ridge intercropping method under condition of heavy saline-alkali soil

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101507394A (en) * 2009-04-03 2009-08-19 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 Chinese wild rye direct seeding method on saline-alkali land
CN101507403A (en) * 2009-04-03 2009-08-19 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 Saline-land salt-water drip-irrigation medlar cultivation method
CN102257946A (en) * 2011-04-27 2011-11-30 新疆农业大学 Drop irrigation method for cotton planted in severe saline-alkali soil
CN104186161A (en) * 2014-08-28 2014-12-10 宁夏固农农牧业科技有限公司 Method for drip irrigation vegetable planting below dry slope land membrane
CN104429469A (en) * 2014-11-06 2015-03-25 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 Saline land suaeda salsa and oil sunflower ridge intercropping method under condition of heavy saline-alkali soil

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106857156A (en) * 2017-03-01 2017-06-20 天津泰达绿化集团有限公司 A kind of technical method of strand hydraulic reclamation open ground low cost greening
CN106941903A (en) * 2017-03-03 2017-07-14 北京市农业技术推广站 A kind of sweet potato drip irrigation economize cultivating and growing method
CN108029379A (en) * 2017-11-17 2018-05-15 西安理工大学 A kind of salt-soda soil crop rhizosphere soils oxygen automatic update system
CN108419473A (en) * 2018-03-15 2018-08-21 浙江园冶生态建设有限公司 A kind of salt-soda soil Landscape Construction technology
CN108617183A (en) * 2018-05-10 2018-10-09 天津泰达绿化集团有限公司 A kind of heavy saline-alkali area at seashore low cost, water-saving ecological fast repairing method
CN109220143A (en) * 2018-11-12 2019-01-18 江苏省农业科学院 A kind of fertilizing method for alleviating soil in protected field secondary salinization
CN110268894A (en) * 2019-07-31 2019-09-24 许伟 A kind of type of seeding of northern area plantation plastic mulched crop

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Application publication date: 20170125