CN102771356A - Efficient water-saving cultivation method for rice in cold areas - Google Patents

Efficient water-saving cultivation method for rice in cold areas Download PDF

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CN102771356A
CN102771356A CN2012102627193A CN201210262719A CN102771356A CN 102771356 A CN102771356 A CN 102771356A CN 2012102627193 A CN2012102627193 A CN 2012102627193A CN 201210262719 A CN201210262719 A CN 201210262719A CN 102771356 A CN102771356 A CN 102771356A
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water
soil
rice
moisture content
limited
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CN2012102627193A
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郭龙珠
吕纯波
魏邦记
王振刚
何权
朱伟峰
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河海大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses an efficient water-saving cultivation method for rice in cold areas. The efficient water-saving cultivation method is characterized by comprising adopting an intermittent circulating alternate irrigation method at different growth periods of the rice, performing irrigation to a water-layer upper limit, then performing natural soil drying; during the period, if the rainfall is stored to the rain-storing upper limit and the lower limit of the soil water content of each growth periods is reached, repeatedly irrigating to the irrigation water-layer upper limit, performing circulating alternation, and performing corresponding fertilization, insecticide spraying and weeding to be matched with each growth period until harvest. The efficient water-saving cultivation method is extremely remarkable in water-saving yield-increasing effects. According to test statistics, the average net quota for conventional shallow irrigation per 2000/3 m2 is about 390 m3, the water-saving irrigation amount per 2000/3 m2 is 240 m3, the water-saving amplitude is 38%, the yield is increased by 25kg per 2000/3 m2, the yield increase amplitude is 5%, the cost is reduced by 100 RMB per 2000/3 m2, and moisture production efficiency and irrigation water utilization efficiency are respectively improved by 44% and 87% in comparison with conventional irrigation.

Description

Paddy rice in cold region high-efficiency water-saving cultivation method

Technical field

The invention belongs to agricultural technology field, be specifically related to a kind of paddy rice in cold region high-efficiency water-saving cultivation method in the time of infertility.

Background technology

Paddy production mainly concentrated on south originally, but since the nineties, northern paddy production significantly increases.Wherein only there is 283,000 hectares in paddy rice in Heilongjiang Province the whole province in 1980, increases sharply by 2011 to 3,345 thousand hectares, has increased nearly 12 times between more than 30 year.Rice yield also by 1980 3400000000 jin, be increased to nearly 50,000,000,000 jin in 2011, commodity amount is up to more than 80%.

The resource of water resource, engineering, the shortage of water quality property have restricted further developing of rice area, are the maximum bottlenecks of cold district rice development.With Heilungkiang, northeast is example, and there were 3,345 thousand hectares of paddy rice irrigated areas the Heilongjiang Province in 2011 in fact, and year water consumption is up to 26,000,000,000 m 3, account for 32% of gross amount of water resources.According to national development planning, will reach 3,946 thousand hectares to Heilongjiang Province's rice area in 2015, provide best buy japonica rice 2,500 ten thousand ton for country every year.As pressing existing irrigation water managerial skills, only the paddy rice irrigation water will reach 35,000,000,000 m when the time comes 3About, account for 43% of the whole province's gross amount of water resources, though have the part paddy field to utilize to pass by water resource to irrigate, water resource will be very nervous, sustainable development will be very severe.At present, Heilongjiang Province's present situation field irrigation quota is up to 400 ~ 500m 3/ mu, the water efficiency of irrigation only 0.45, and wideling popularize water-saving irrigation method is the inevitable requirement of paddy field, Heilongjiang Province sustainable development, is of great practical significance.

After paddy rice control irrigation technique is meant that rice seedling (rice shoot) Honda is transplanted; The field face keeps thin water layer, and (field, the back face of pouring water no longer keeps water layer for 10~30mm) seedlings alive of turning green, each growing stage after turning green; As the control index, confirm irrigation period and irrigating water quota with root layer soil moisture.The soil moisture upper control limit is the saturated aqueous rate, and lower limit is then looked the paddy rice different bearing stage, 60%~80% suitable combination of the earth saturated aqueous that fetches earth respectively rate.This be according to paddy rice the different bearing stage to the sensitivity of water demand and water-saving irrigation condition under the new law of needing the water of paddy rice, on the basis of performance paddy rice self regulative mechanism and adaptive capacity, the new technology of pouring water of carrying out the water supply of timely and appropriate discovery science.This technology is the scientific and technological achievement of concentrating on studies in year surplus the unit ten such as Hohai University, large scale application in China.But because rice work district, cold ground effective accumulated temperature is low; Frost-free season is short; There is very big difference in soil physico-chemical property and southern rice district; Therefore the moisture regulation lower threshold is generally high than southern area; In addition in the actual production owing to lack with the water-saving irrigation pattern and use the measures that form a complete production network such as corresponding interstices of soil, frequency of irrigation and irrigation norm, growth period duration of rice conversion, fertilising, laxative, above-mentioned irrigation technique is difficult to adapt to the requirement in the widely different cold ground rice district large scale application of vast in territory, weather and soil property.

Summary of the invention

Goal of the invention: the objective of the invention is to demand, a kind of paddy rice in cold region high-efficiency water-saving cultivation method in the time of infertility that is applicable to is provided based on water-saving irrigation.

Technical scheme: the high-efficiency water-saving cultivation method in paddy rice in cold region of the present invention time of infertility; It is characterized in that: all adopt the intermittent cycle alternative irrigation method in the paddy rice different growing; Irrigate the supreme limit of water layer earlier; Naturally it is dried to fall then, repeats to irrigate to the upper limit cycle alternation after reaching the lower limit of each of soil moisture content breeding time; Wherein:

Be limited to 0mm on the period of seedling establishment water layer, be limited to 100% of soil saturation moisture content down; Tillering stage early stage water layer on be limited to 30mm, be limited to 90% of soil saturation moisture content down; Mid-term in tillering stage water layer on be limited to 30mm, be limited to down 90% of soil saturation moisture content; Latter stage in tillering stage water layer on be limited to 0mm, be limited to down 70% of soil saturation moisture content; Be limited to 30mm on the jointing-booting stage water layer, be limited to 100% of soil saturation moisture content down; Be limited to 30mm on the full heading time water layer, be limited to 100% of soil saturation moisture content down; Milk ripe stage water layer on be limited to 20mm, be limited to down 80% of soil saturation moisture content; Stage of yellow ripeness water layer on be limited to 0mm, be limited to down 60% of soil saturation moisture content.

Cold ground described in the present invention; Be meant that SOIL DISTRIBUTION mainly contains black earth, dark brown earth, meadow soil, white muddy soil etc., average for many years >=10 ℃ of effective accumulated temperature 2000 ℃~2850 ℃, average annual precipitation is at 400mm~600mm, the average year water surface evaporation is the area of 600mm~900mm, frost-free season 120d~150d for many years for many years.

In order efficiently to utilize rainfall, under the situation of rainfall, substitute the irrigation water layer upper limit to hold the rain index upper limit greater than the irrigation water layer upper limit, wherein: holding of period of seedling establishment is limited to 20mm on the rainfall; Holding of early stage in tillering stage is limited to 50mm on the rainfall; Holding of mid-term in tillering stage is limited to 50mm on the rainfall; Holding of latter stage in tillering stage is limited to 0mm on the rainfall; Holding of jointing-booting stage is limited to 50mm on the rainfall; Holding of full heading time is limited to 50mm on the rainfall; Holding of milk ripe stage is limited to 20mm on the rainfall; Holding of stage of yellow ripeness is limited to 20mm on the rainfall.

The moisture regulation threshold value of different growing can be referring to table 1.

The moisture regulation threshold value of table 1 different growing.

The soil saturation moisture content can be judged through instrument test or footprint degree of depth empirical value, comparative optimization ground, and the soil saturation moisture content is judged according to the width of interstices of soil: the soil saturation moisture content is 100% o'clock, the soil free from flaw; The soil saturation moisture content is 95% o'clock, and the interstices of soil width is 0 ~ 1mm; The soil saturation moisture content is 90% o'clock, and the interstices of soil width is 1 ~ 2mm; The soil saturation moisture content is 85% o'clock, and the interstices of soil width is 2 ~ 4mm; The soil saturation moisture content is 80% o'clock, and the interstices of soil width is 4 ~ 5mm; The soil saturation moisture content is 70% o'clock, and the interstices of soil width is 4 ~ 6mm; The soil saturation moisture content is 60% o'clock, and the interstices of soil width is 7 ~ 10mm.

On producing, select the local govern-house-variety of suitable, best in quality, the high and stable yields of ripe phase, strong stress resistance for use.The one, select the kind of promoting through country's authorization name for use, can guarantee that the paddy rice proterties is relatively stable, output is steadily increasing, and is safe and reliable; The 2nd, introduce a fine variety the kind of suitable ripe phase according to different accumulated temperature bands, must not transregionally plant, in addition, early-maturing variety is educated seedlings or the length of time rice seedlings grow and is longly caused the fringe underproduction early easily; The 3rd, note seed quality, should select for use purity more than 99%, the bud rate is more than 85%, and moisture content is not higher than 15% one-level breeding as producing with planting; The 4th, buy seed in seeds company, scientific research institutions and agricultural universities and colleges through national authentication, stop blindly to buy to use.The 5th, unified as far as possible kind on producing, contiguous plant, the formation scale realizes the industrialization plantation.

Accurately hold farming season,, hold and rob accumulated temperature farming season according to characteristics such as different region growth period duration of rice, active accumulated temperatures.Temperature surpasses 5-6 ℃ and begins sowing, and rice transplanting should not be later than early June the latest, guarantees to get into ear differentiation at the beginning of 67 months the end of month of paddy rice safety heading at the beginning of 78 months the end of month, safety maturation September on, before the middle ten days, temperature dropped to 13 ℃.

Big-and-middle canopy is educated strong seedling, is the basis with the rice seedling on upland field, and early planting light seeding is prerequisite, and temperature adjustment control water is means, adopts big or middle canopy seedling, and the harvesting back is prepared bed soil and done bed, ultra light seeding kind, and control temperature, control water planting are educated the strong seedling of many tillers, are with the tiller rice transplanting in good time.The every dish of seedling restrains with bud kind 125 in the general seeding quantity machine transplanting of rice, seedling age 35~40 days, and the area that temperature condition is good is suitable rare, and poor is suitable close, and general area is 9 * 3 cun of a machine transplanting of rice specifications; The every dish of alms bowl plate seedling raising is with bud kind 80 grams, seedling age 40~45 days; Density of transplants, the seedling specification is 10 * 5 cun in the artificial planting, 3~4 strains of every cave; 10 * 6 cun of seedlings specifications, 2~3 strains of every cave.

Medicine fertilizer combines: (1) nursery period.One heart stage of one leaf, sprays and once transplants spirit prevention damping off.Transplant preceding 24 hours seedling beds and use medicinal fertilizer, Amy pleasure+foliage fertilizer plays the effect of the short insect-pest of turning green.(2) the soaked field phase.Autumn whole ground drought is raked the soil level, and disposable 50 ~ 75 kilograms+potassium sulphate of per hectare urea 80 ~ 90 kilograms+two ammoniums that applies is made base manure for 50 ~ 70 kilograms before the soaked field of pouring water, the combination water sealing weed eradication that rakes the soil level, per hectare with farming think it 3 ~ 4 bottles, medication can the draining rice transplanting after 72 hours.(3) period of seedling establishment.It is fertile for the first time to topdress in conjunction with pouring water, and the per hectare amount of imposing generally is 20 kilograms in 50 kilograms+urea of ammonium sulfate (zones of different fertilizing amount and kind have nothing in common with each other).(4) tillering stage.(fertile amount according to the local actual decide) weed eradication of topdressing in conjunction with pouring water; General per hectare imposes 4 bottles+parcel of 60 kilograms+Ah of urea Luo Jin Mercury, 15 bags (hollow place sprays control Liriomyza medicament before the dispenser of pouring water); Water conservation was mended and is irritated 50 millimeters water layers in 3 ~ 5 days again after the medication, can reach best herbicide effect.Hillock and water leaking paddy field will fill spray once " rice outstanding ".Late tillering state dry field, spray the medicament of once preventing and treating broad-leaved type weeds simultaneously, generally use bentazone or MCPA,MCP,methoxone, the big grass in field is pulled out in manual work then.(5) jointing-booting stage.Late tillering state, heavily controlled the back per hectare that combines to pour water and imposes potash fertilizer 50--70 kilogram, and jointing-booting stage sprays kasumin+control striped rice borer agricultural chemicals, the prevention damage by disease and insect.(6) full heading time.Spray again before the heading and once prevent and treat the striped rice borer agricultural chemicals.Spray heading stage and once prevent ear stem pest agricultural chemicals rice gorgeous, prevention ear stem pest are had special efficacy.Paddy rice falls and imposes guarantor's fertilizers for potted flowers when two leaves reveal point (the V district is for falling a leaf), and per hectare is executed urea 30-40 kilogram.Cut off the ridge weeds.(7) stage of yellow ripeness.Paddy rice branch stalk yellow to three/two o'clock in time gather in, and the seed-breeding field wants to cut before the frost, beats before avenging.

Beneficial effect:

1, the inventive method is irrigated, applies fertilizer, is gone and buy Chinese medicine with instructing soil relative water content, irrigation norm, breeding time; Be a kind of convenience, the practical paddy rice in cold region high-efficiency water-saving cultivation method in the time of infertility that is applicable to; Make irrigation technique quantification, indexing and supportingization, be convenient to the effective enforcement and the popularization of water-saving irrigation technique;

2, the inventive method water-saving result is very remarkable, test statistics, the average every mu of clean quota 390m of conventional light irrigation 3About, average every mu of 240m is irrigated in control 3, water saving amplitude 38%; Water production efficiency and irrigation water utilization ratio are irrigated than routine respectively and are improved 44% and 87%; Turn green to late tillering state be the especially period of drought of Heilongjiang Province of northern China; The inventive method reduces 2 times than the conventional frequency of irrigation of irrigating; Reduce 37%; Irrigation quantity reduces 41%, demonstrates the inventive method paddy rice thirsty water in spring phase minimizing frequency of irrigation and irrigation quantity have been played significant effect, and antagonism spring drought, guarantor sow in spring significant;

3, the inventive method produces positive impact to the paddy field environment; The control irrigation method of alternation of wetting and drying, no water layer management; Reduced nutrition draining to surrounding enviroment; Thereby reduced the pollution of area source in paddy rice irrigated area, the anaerobism living environment that has changed the edaphon under the water layer covering situation is irrigated in control, has reduced greenhouse gas emission;

4, the present invention makes to have significant raising the output, the effect of increasing income to cold ground rice; Use the present invention after the Heilongjiang Province has tested 5,300,000 mu; Adopt NY/T-593-2002 to detect yield of brown rice, quality, calculate benefit, obtain the benefit data such as the table 2 of Heilongjiang Province by current year's prices.

Table 2 paddy rice control of the present invention irrigation method increasing benefit summary table.

Embodiment

Be elaborated in the face of technical scheme of the present invention down, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to said embodiment.

Embodiment 1: with the test in 2010 of experimental irrigation station of man of the Heilongjiang Province Suihua City Beilin District Qin is example.

1, before the transplanting

Will put in order ground, fertilising, soaked field before cold ground early childbirth thin planting rice on honda is transplanted, be prevention and elimination of disease and pests, paddy rice is wanted contiguous plant, and kind should be too not complicated, shifts back and forth with preventing disease and pest and causes harm, and help concentrating unified time control, scientific management liquid manure medicine.

1. whole ground: must accomplish that the autumn ploughs, topsoil depth should be at 20 centimetres~25 centimetres.

2. fertilising: base manure is executed urea 80~90kg/ hectare+phosphoric acid diamines 50~70kg/ hectare+potash fertilizer (potassium chloride) 65~75kg/ hectare, and base manure must be gone into before discharging water.

3. soaked field: begin the soaked field about at the beginning of 5 months, will and low, beginning water be raked the soil level about May 5 by high and near by far away when pouring water, to can economize soaked field water like this one time from down toward the Electrical Well rake that draws water during well irrigation plot water rake.Because rice district, cold ground rice worm is caused harm to be seedling stage main, needs to make closed soil treatment with agricultural chemicals, use butachlor or farming to think it, consumption 0.5~1.0kg/ hectare at present.Water conservation 5~7 days about water layer 50mm, begins rice transplanting when waiting it to fall Hua Dashui naturally.

2, transplant period of seedling establishment

Rice transplanting is generally all between 13~May 20 May.

No longer pour water behind the rice transplanting, changed traditional very little water and turned green and do not reveal the mode of basining irrigation of mud.Good rice striking root time of seedling quality is greatly about transplanting back about 6~8 days, the bad about needs of seedling quality 10~12 days, and this phase paddy soil moisture Control lower limit standard is to account for 100% of saturated soil water content, is standard with the field free from flaw.As setting up water layer behind the shoot transplanting equipment, the paddy rice root of hair is slow, runs into strong wind weather and causes the seedling phenomenon of wafing easily at once.Transplant period of seedling establishment and set up water layer, rice seedling is seen than the blade edge of not setting up water layer in the surface, does not set up water layer; The surface sees that the land for building blackout is unshowy, but in fact this phase is not set up water layer, the generation outer (like Liriomyza) of decapacitation minimizing damage by disease and insect; Can also make ground surface soil directly receive the radiation of the sun, help improving soil temperature, make the paddy rice root of hair fast; White root is many, takes root dark.Helping turns green in advance tillers, and gives paddy rice medication in tillering stage, and the sealing weed eradication is laid a solid foundation.

Transplant the field management of period of seedling establishment: (1) transplant specification generally take 9 cun * (6 cun~7 cun), 2~3 strains, 1~1.5 centimetre of transplanting depth are inserted in every cave.(2) agricultural chemicals that once prevents cutworm on the big limit of ridge, be sprayed between transplanting date, in case limit, ridge rice shoot is injured (using cypermethrin usually).

3, tillering stage

0~20 centimetre of root layer soil moisture lower control limit standard of tillering early stage is 90% of a saturation moisture content, and the upper control limit standard is 30 millimeters water layers; 0~20 centimetre of root layer soil moisture lower control limit standard of middle of tillering is 90% of a saturation moisture content, and upper control limit is 30 millimeters water layers.But, tiller in earlier stage and have middle of tillering weed eradication and fertilising requirement, this phase to combine fertilising to go and buy Chinese medicine and seal weed eradication, need set up 30~50 millimeters water layers according to practical experience.Tillering stage such as weather arid generally will be irritated water 4 times, are in harmonious proportion like rainwater and can irritate water three times.Be specially:

Pour water for the first time greatly about about May 23, pour water 20~30 millimeters, per hectare is executed ammonium sulfate 50kg+ urea 25kg then.

Between 26~May 28 May, urea 50~60kg/ hectare is executed in 30~50 millimeters of moisturizings greatly in moisturizing for the second time.Dispenser: 4~5 bottles+rice of Ah Luo Jin does not have 15 bags/hectare of grass (suggestion fertilizer is singly executed, prescription executes, and gets final product for long-pending 4~6 mu but can take down every spray apparatus spray plane to the shower nozzle of sprayer during dispenser).This phase should keep 10~15 days water layers with liquid medicine, straw is arranged just with not plump god or kill not plump every sprayer soon and convert medicine 1 bag like pond, hilllock or sink, carries out cauline leaf spraying processing, can make the field herbicide effect near 100% like this, beats the grass and pull out with manual work in remaining field.

0~20 centimetre of root layer soil moisture lower control limit standard of late tillering state is 70% of a saturation moisture content, 8~10 millimeters of this phase field facial cleft seams.At this moment just as rainy season, rainfall often, subterranean water level is high, should note in good time draining; In time dry field makes topsoil be drought status, reduces the absorption of rice root to nitrogenous fertilizer; Make the blade hardening and look light, make the paddy rice stem sturdy, suppress the excessive elongation of internode; Increase the stalk circularity, improve the later stage lodging tolerance, reduce spreading of various damage by disease and insect.

Late tillering state, should be confirmed suitable time and degree that control is poured water according to factors such as the situation of seedling growth and soil property, fertilizer, climatic conditions.Its specific practice is: seedling amount at a glance, after reaching mu spike number requirement, carry out control morning.Two see the seedling gesture, and the rice seedling growing way is prosperous excessively, and envelope Gansu Province is too early, should heavily control.Three see the leaf look, and the leaf look dark green should early be controlled.Four see weather, and fine open field is robbed in a run of wet weather draining early.Five see fertility, and the field piece that soil property is fertile and subterranean water level is high will early be controlled.(control field time should about 20~July 1 June).

The field management of late tillering state: the emphasis of the field management of this phase is prevention rice blast, Liriomyza and a scotellaris, can execute Fujione and kasumin Isoprothiolane to the prosperous excessively field piece of growing way; Remove limit, field weeds, Liriomyza is caused harm, and plot spray medicine is preceding puts shallow spraying with water in field, 0.5% Rogor pulvis per hectare, 15~20kg (water blocking mouthh is 7 days after the dispenser); The scotellaris evil be prone to take place at a run of wet weather, low temperature and high relative humidity weather in massif district and hills area, before the dispenser earlier with water in field put to 3 centimetres dark, and the irrigation and drainage mouth of a river blocked dispenser then, 2.5% chlorophos pulvis or 1.5%1605 pulvis, per hectare 20~25kg spraying.The plot that convexutricle sedge herb is many will in time spray the dicotyledonous agricultural chemicals (like wealthy clean, the tea Da Song of MCPA,MCP,methoxone, Sha etc.) with broad leaved weed of control.This phase should combine to have controlled field potassium application 60~70kg/hm 2

4, jointing-booting stage

Jointing-booting stage generally in 7~July 26 July, approximately experiences about 20 days.Jointing-booting stage, from the rice strain of 10% rice strain jointing to 10% ear sword-like leave till.

When the water saving good quality and high output was irrigated, this phase field face generally need not set up the irrigation water layer, and 0~30 centimetre of root layer soil moisture lower control limit standard of jointing-booting stage is 100% of a saturation moisture content, and the upper control limit standard is 30 millimeters water layers.

Jointing-booting stage is the critical period of water need in the paddy rice growing process, this rice plant growth's amount in period increase rapidly, and the amount of growth of root also is maximum in life period of paddy rice.Rice strain blade grows in succession, and the population leaf area index will reach peak, and paddy growth also will be transferred to fringe portion; So paddy rice is relatively more responsive to weather conditions and liquid manure reaction, can not lack of water suffer from drought in the rice field; Otherwise it is many to be prone to cause grain husk flower differentiation to degenerate less, and fringe is little, yield poorly.Therefore to pour water in good time, make the soil moisture content state that reaches capacity.This phase also will be seen weather conditions, if rainfall can be held rainwater, reduces irrigation norm, to reach saving of labor, purpose of energy saving.Practice according to Suihua City Beilin District Qin Jia experiment station, Heilongjiang Province sees that general this phase in time need not pour water basically, because this phase is on the occasion of rainy season.It is flouring to add plant, and solar radiation is less than ground, the soil moisture content state that can reach capacity all the time.

The field management of jointing-booting stage: see the appearance of paddy rice, serious like the paddy rice fertilizer deficiency, can when revealing point, two leaves combine to pour water to execute urea 40kg/hm in falling of paddy rice 2About (guarantor's fertilizers for potted flowers), to notice that afterwards light rain do not arrange, heavy rain drains, Gen Baoye is urged in regulating the qi flowing in the channels.To cut off the big grass of Chi Geng therebetween, prevention rice blast.This phase is rice fulgorid and striped rice borer occurance peak, and with the red granular preparation of 3% furans, per hectare 20kg spreads pesticide-clay mixture; During dispenser, the field must keep 3 centimetres of left and right sides shallow waters 3~5 days, and dispenser is one day after like heavy rain; Must mend after clearing up and execute, be preferably in before at 8 o'clock in the morning and dispenser after at 8 o'clock in afternoon.

5, full heading time

Ear till the seed grouting of 10% spike of rice middle part since 10% rice strain.Full heading time generally between 27~August 10 July, approximately experiences about 15 days.Paddy rice full heading time photosynthesis is strong, and metabolism is vigorous, is that paddy rice needs water more period in life.This phase lack of water is suffered from drought and can be reduced the photosynthesis ability of paddy rice.Influence the growth that organic matter synthesizes and branch stalk grain husk is spent, the degeneration of increase grain husk flower and infertile.Therefore, rationally regulate and control water in the soil, oxygen relation, protect root system as possible, prolong root system life, support Gen Baoye, the run-up organic matter improves the paddy rice ripening rate.

During the high-efficiency water-saving cultivation, 0~40 centimetre of root layer soil moisture lower control limit standard is 100% of a saturation moisture content, and the upper control limit standard is 30 millimeters water layers.As run into rainy weather, can hold 50 millimeters of rainwater.

Full heading time field management: cut off the big grass of ridge, prevention ear stem seasonal febrile diseases.

6, milk ripe stage

Till spike of rice middle part kernel grouting from 10% turns to be yellow to the spike of rice seed.Generally between 11~August 28 August, approximately experiencing about 18 days (rain or shine has direct relation with temperature height and weather).

This phase irrigation management can not be ignored, otherwise is prone to cause output to descend.0~40 centimetre of root layer soil moisture lower control limit standard is 80% of a saturation moisture content, and the upper control limit standard is 20 millimeters water layers.If run into rainy weather, can hold rainwater, but be no more than 5 days.

7, stage of yellow ripeness

Generally between 29~September 18 August, approximately experience about 21 days stage of yellow ripeness.

Water management stage of yellow ripeness: this phase paddy soil moisture Control lower limit standard is 60% of a saturation moisture content.If the late growth stage of rice arid is short of rain, a saturation water (this phase is not set up water layer all the time, and irritating current water can not influence harvesting) should ceded territory to irritate in preceding 10~15 days.If this phase discharges water too early, the soil serious water shortage can cause paddy rice early ageing, influences rice yield and rice matter, but the lack of water serious plot underproduction 20%~30%.As can not irritating this batch water more than the rainwater autumn.

Field management stage of yellow ripeness: will gather in after the paddy rice maturation in good time, can before frost, gather in as what seed was used.Gathering in best period is, the branch stalk on spike of rice top should have 2/3rds chrysanthemums to become dry, fringe base portion flavescence look, and full fringe outward appearance loses green, the cauline leaf its colour changed into yellow.Under the too much situation of liquid manure, though that the part cauline leaf also has is green, become grain flavescence, also should in time gather in.

(2) contrast experiment

The same kind paddy rice in Suihua City Beilin District Qin Jia experiment station (No. 8, peaceful round-grained rice) carried out the irrigation method comparative trial in the Heilongjiang Province respectively at 2007~2010 years.Contrast is for conventional irrigation method, i.e. late tillering state draining dry field, and all the other time field faces keep water layers.The inventive method with compare, both are except that irrigation method difference, all the other cultivation steps are like seedling, to plant density, fertilizing time and fertilizing amount, the extermination of disease and insect pest etc. in full accord.The result shows, compares with contrast, and the output of paddy rice in cold region high-efficiency water-saving cultivation method has increased by 5~10%, and duty reduces 30~40%, and rate resistant to lodging improves more than 95%; Because group structure and photosynthesis are good, control is irritated and is descended more than 40% with normal filling than diseased plant rate; Control is irrigated and has been reduced irrigation quantity, frequency of irrigation, and fertility increases 20%, about 15 yuan of mu economize on electricitys, about 25 yuan of mu fuel-economizings.Paddy rice in cold region high-efficiency water-saving cultivation method has also improved brown rice yield, the polished rice rate of rice, has improved the food flavor value.

Table 3 different in moisture regulation and control in 2010 Qin Jia station rice yield contrast down.

Annotate: gravity irrigation, gather in September 13 date.The average irrigation quantity 364.9m of conventional irrigation 3/ mu, the average irrigation quantity 171.3m of the inventive method 3/ mu

Table 4 different in moisture regulation and control in 2010 Qin Jia station rice quality contrast down.

Embodiment 2: with the test in 2010 of experiment station, irrigated area, Tang Wang river, Heilongjiang Province is example:

(1) nursery period.One heart stage of one leaf, sprays and once transplants spirit prevention damping off.Transplant preceding 24 hours seedling beds and use medicinal fertilizer, Amy pleasure+foliage fertilizer plays the effect of the short insect-pest of turning green.

(2) the soaked field phase.Autumn whole ground drought is raked the soil level soaked field rice transplanting primary water.The leveling rake carefully can reduce the soaked field water before the soaked field, generally can every mu of minimizing 30-50 cubic meter.Before the soaked field of pouring water disposable apply per hectare urea 80--90 kilogram+two ammonium 50--75 kilograms+potassium sulphate 50--70 kilogram do base manure (different regions, that the different soils type is used the base fertilizer kind is different with quantity, should according to local high-yield culturing pattern with survey native result and rationally use).Rice transplanting beginning in preceding 7 days soaked field, soaked field 3-7 days.The combination water sealing weed eradication that rakes the soil level, per hectare with farming think it 3-4 bottles, medication can the draining rice transplanting after 72 hours.

(3) period of seedling establishment.The rice transplanting after 20 millimeters of pouring water of field face, it is dried to fall naturally then, no longer pours water.It is fertile for the first time to topdress in conjunction with pouring water, and the per hectare amount of imposing generally is 20 kilograms in 50 kilograms+urea of ammonium sulfate (zones of different fertilizing amount and kind have nothing in common with each other).

(4) tillering stage.Pour water for the first time after 30 millimeters and to irritate 30 millimeters water layers for the second time in 3-5 days; (fertile amount according to the local actual decide) weed eradication of topdressing in conjunction with pouring water; General per hectare imposes 4 bottles+parcel of 60 kilograms+Ah of urea Luo Jin Mercury, 15 bags (hollow place sprays control Liriomyza medicament before the dispenser of pouring water); Water conservation was mended and is irritated 30 millimeters water layers in 3-5 days again after the medication, can reach best herbicide effect.Hillock and water leaking paddy field will fill spray once " rice outstanding ".Late tillering state dry field, spray the medicament of once preventing and treating broad-leaved type weeds simultaneously, generally use bentazone or MCPA,MCP,methoxone, the big grass in field is pulled out in manual work then.

(5) jointing-booting stage.Impose potash fertilizer 50--70 kilogram in conjunction with the 30 millimeters per hectares of pouring water, spray kasumin+control striped rice borer agricultural chemicals about July 15, the prevention damage by disease and insect.

(6) full heading time.Adopt to irritate the primary water dried way that falls naturally, when no water layer, pour water again, the upper limit of pouring water water layer is no more than 30 millimeters, meets rain not irritate, and holds to be limited to 50 millimeters on the rain, too much discharges.Spray again before the heading and once prevent and treat the striped rice borer agricultural chemicals.Spray heading stage and once prevent ear stem pest agricultural chemicals rice gorgeous, prevention ear stem pest are had special efficacy.Paddy rice falls and imposes guarantor's fertilizers for potted flowers when two leaves reveal point, and per hectare is executed urea 30-40 kilogram.Cut off the ridge weeds.

(7) milk ripe stage.It is that the field face is done, soil is wet that soil moisture requires, and holds to be limited to 20 millimeters on the rain, is limited to 80% of saturation moisture content down.

(8) stage of yellow ripeness.Be limited to saturation moisture content on the field soil water content, be limited to down 60% of saturation moisture content, paddy rice branch stalk yellow to three/two o'clock in time gather in, and the seed-breeding field wants to cut before the frost, beats before avenging.

Table 5 different in moisture regulation and control in 2010 Heilongjiang Province's station, Tang Wang river rice yield contrast down.

Annotate: gravity irrigation, gather in September 22 date.The average irrigation quantity 479.3m of conventional irrigation 3/ mu, the average irrigation quantity 223.7mm of the inventive method mu.

As stated, although represented and explained the present invention that with reference to specific preferred embodiment it shall not be construed as the restriction to the present invention self.Under the spirit and scope of the present invention prerequisite that does not break away from the accompanying claims definition, can make various variations in form with on the details to it.

Claims (5)

1. paddy rice in cold region high-efficiency water-saving cultivation method; It is characterized in that: all adopt the intermittent cycle alternative irrigation method in the paddy rice different growing; Irrigate the supreme limit of water layer earlier, hold rain to holding the rain upper limit like rainfall, it is dried to fall naturally then; Repeat to irrigate to the upper limit cycle alternation after reaching the lower limit of each of soil moisture content breeding time; Wherein:
Period of seedling establishment is not set up water layer; Tillering stage early stage water layer on be limited to 30mm, be limited to 90% of soil saturation moisture content down; Mid-term in tillering stage water layer on be limited to 30mm, be limited to down 90% of soil saturation moisture content; Latter stage in tillering stage water layer on be limited to 0mm, be limited to down 70% of soil saturation moisture content; Be limited to 30mm on the jointing-booting stage water layer, be limited to 100% of soil saturation moisture content down; Be limited to 30mm on the full heading time water layer, be limited to 100% of earth saturated aqueous rate down; Milk ripe stage water layer on be limited to 20mm, be limited to down 80% of soil saturation moisture content; Stage of yellow ripeness water layer on be limited to 0mm, be limited to down 60% of soil saturation moisture content.
2. paddy rice in cold region high-efficiency water-saving cultivation method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the soil saturation moisture content is judged according to the width of interstices of soil: the soil saturation moisture content is 100% o'clock, the soil free from flaw; The soil saturation moisture content is 95% o'clock, and the interstices of soil width is 0-1mm; The soil saturation moisture content is 90% o'clock, and the interstices of soil width is 1-2mm; The soil saturation moisture content is 85% o'clock, and the interstices of soil width is 2-4mm; The soil saturation moisture content is 80% o'clock, and the interstices of soil width is 4-5mm; The soil saturation moisture content is 70% o'clock, and the interstices of soil width is 4-6mm; The soil saturation moisture content is 60% o'clock, and the interstices of soil width is 7-10mm.
3. paddy rice in cold region high-efficiency water-saving cultivation method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the local govern-house-variety of on producing, selecting suitable, best in quality, the high and stable yields of ripe phase, strong stress resistance for use.
4. paddy rice in cold region high-efficiency water-saving cultivation method according to claim 1; It is characterized in that: temperature surpasses 5-6 ℃ and begins sowing; Rice transplanting should not be later than early June the latest; Guarantee to get into ear differentiation at the beginning of 67 months the end of month of paddy rice, safety heading at the beginning of 78 months the end of month, safety is ripe September on, before the middle ten days, temperature dropped to 13 ℃.
5. paddy rice in cold region high-efficiency water-saving cultivation method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: big-and-middle canopy is educated strong seedling, is the basis with the rice seedling on upland field; Early planting light seeding is prerequisite; Temperature adjustment control water is means, adopts big or middle canopy seedling, and the harvesting back is prepared bed soil and done bed, ultra light seeding kind; Control temperature, control water planting are educated the strong seedling of many tillers, are with the tiller rice transplanting in good time.
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CN104115728A (en) * 2014-07-14 2014-10-29 广东省水利水电科学研究院 Irrigation method enabling soil moisture content to be appropriate for mangos
CN104718952A (en) * 2015-01-21 2015-06-24 四川省农业科学院水稻高粱研究所 Rice planting water management method for improving water storage of winter paddy field
CN104823780A (en) * 2015-05-06 2015-08-12 肥西县农业技术推广中心 Water-saving planting method for paddy rice
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CN106105928A (en) * 2016-07-20 2016-11-16 郑戈利 A kind of high yielding culture of rice method
CN106258815A (en) * 2016-08-08 2017-01-04 浙江省水利河口研究院 A kind of water-saving and yield-increasing making full use of natural rainfall reduces discharging rice irrigation method
CN107197728A (en) * 2017-06-21 2017-09-26 黑龙江省农垦科学院 The water-saving irrigation method that northern cold area is regulated and controled based on paddy rice leaf age
CN107896880A (en) * 2017-12-07 2018-04-13 黑龙江省农垦科学院 A kind of paddy rice in cold region standardizes dry rice seedling method

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Cited By (14)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103069997A (en) * 2013-01-30 2013-05-01 中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所 Water-saving irrigation method applicable to close-planting crop
CN103069997B (en) * 2013-01-30 2014-02-12 中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所 Water-saving irrigation method applicable to close-planting crop
CN103461049A (en) * 2013-10-14 2013-12-25 吴海涛 Protective cultivation technique for rice
CN103461049B (en) * 2013-10-14 2014-12-10 韩凤 Protective cultivation technique for rice
CN104115728A (en) * 2014-07-14 2014-10-29 广东省水利水电科学研究院 Irrigation method enabling soil moisture content to be appropriate for mangos
CN104115728B (en) * 2014-07-14 2016-01-20 广东省水利水电科学研究院 The soil moisture content that mango is suitable and irrigation method
CN104718952A (en) * 2015-01-21 2015-06-24 四川省农业科学院水稻高粱研究所 Rice planting water management method for improving water storage of winter paddy field
CN104823780A (en) * 2015-05-06 2015-08-12 肥西县农业技术推广中心 Water-saving planting method for paddy rice
CN105900755A (en) * 2016-04-02 2016-08-31 梅河口吉洋种业有限责任公司 Accurate cultivation technology of japonica rice in cold rice region
CN105900755B (en) * 2016-04-02 2019-10-18 梅河口吉洋种业有限责任公司 The accurate cultivation technique of the cold rice region japonica rice
CN106105928A (en) * 2016-07-20 2016-11-16 郑戈利 A kind of high yielding culture of rice method
CN106258815A (en) * 2016-08-08 2017-01-04 浙江省水利河口研究院 A kind of water-saving and yield-increasing making full use of natural rainfall reduces discharging rice irrigation method
CN107197728A (en) * 2017-06-21 2017-09-26 黑龙江省农垦科学院 The water-saving irrigation method that northern cold area is regulated and controled based on paddy rice leaf age
CN107896880A (en) * 2017-12-07 2018-04-13 黑龙江省农垦科学院 A kind of paddy rice in cold region standardizes dry rice seedling method

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