CN103069997A - Water-saving irrigation method applicable to close-planting crop - Google Patents

Water-saving irrigation method applicable to close-planting crop Download PDF

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CN103069997A
CN103069997A CN2013100385620A CN201310038562A CN103069997A CN 103069997 A CN103069997 A CN 103069997A CN 2013100385620 A CN2013100385620 A CN 2013100385620A CN 201310038562 A CN201310038562 A CN 201310038562A CN 103069997 A CN103069997 A CN 103069997A
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irrigation
furrow
water
crop
last time
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CN103069997B (en
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师长海
刘孟雨
赵治海
董宝娣
乔匀周
张秋英
管晓庆
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中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所
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Abstract

The invention discloses a water-saving irrigation method applicable to close-planting crop. The water-saving irrigation method is particularly applicable to wheat and hybrid millet and comprises the procedures that A, soil preparation, sowing and fertilization are carried out; B, a separate-field limited irrigation method is adopted to carry out irrigation when the crop is in the jointing-booting stage, and two adjacent fields are respectively irrigated with the normal water quantity and one third to two thirds of the normal water quantity; and the normal water quantity is 40-100 mm; and C, the separate-field limited irrigation method is adopted to carry out irrigation when the crop is in the filling stage, and the two adjacent fields are respectively irrigated with one third to two thirds of the normal water quantity and the normal water quantity, namely the field which is irrigated with the normal water quantity last time is irrigated with one third to two thirds of the normal water quantity this time, and the field which is irrigated with one third to two thirds of the normal water quantity last time is irrigated with the normal water quantity this time. According to the water-saving irrigation method applicable to close-planting crop, the water consumption used for irrigation is greatly reduced, and a certain yield-increasing effect is also played on the crop.

Description

A kind of water-saving irrigation method that is applicable to the dense planting crop

Technical field

The present invention relates to the agricultural planting water-saving technology field, relate in particular to a kind of water-saving irrigation method that is applicable to the dense planting crop.

Background technology

Primary agricultural and ecological problem that the water resources shortage whole world faces, arid is global problem, seriously influenced world food safety, and Global climate change makes this situation more critical.The United Nations's science and education literary composition organizes the portion report of announcement to point out in the 5th the water resource forum, and do not utilize validity if water resource is not improved in the whole world, to the year two thousand thirty, global half population will be lived in the environment of lack of water.In following significant period of time, the water resource of some arid and semi-arid lands lacks and can produce significant impact to movement of population, and expectation will have 2,400 ten thousand to 700,000,000 people to leave the native place because of lack of water.

The water resource of China per capita with occupancy volume per mu far below world average level, be one of 13 poor-water states in the world.There is the arable land in the whole nation 26% in the North of Yangtze River area, but only has 19% water resource.The agricultural lack of water reaches more than 80%, and water scarcity becomes the key constraints of China's farming grain security.It is the drought-resistant crops of north dry season and drought-hit area growth that winter wheat and hybridization millet are in respectively, also is the important cereal crops in China arid and semi-arid district.North of China recurs arid this year, and 50 years one droughts of meeting have occured the 2008-2009 winter-spring season especially, and the drought-hit area area constantly enlarges.Grow in intensity in Global climate change, the arid climate occurrence frequency sharply increases, and in the situation of irrigation water resource-constrained, in order to tackle severe water resources crisis, sets up a water-saving society, and Development of Water-Saving Irrigation is a kind of inevitable choice of agricultural sustainable development.

Root-divided alternative irrigation is that root system of plant is divided into two parts, makes their alternating growths in comparatively dry soil region, and the root system in the dry section produces the water stress signal and is delivered to Stoma of Leaves, thereby effectively regulate stomatal movement because suction is limited; And the root system that is in the humid region absorbs water from soil and satisfies the minimum needs of life, reaches thus the purpose of water saving.Root-divided alternative irrigation is used horticultural crop and the wide row cereal crops of part, has played the good result of water saving, and certain yield increasing effect is arranged.But the present irrigation method of this theory of successful Application on not drought-enduring in winter wheat, hybridization millet etc., the high yield dense planting crop still.

Summary of the invention

The technical problem to be solved in the present invention provides a kind of water-saving irrigation method that is applicable to the dense planting crop, is particularly useful for the field planting of wheat, hybridization millet, not only can significantly reduce irrigation water capacity, can also play certain production-increasing function to crop simultaneously.

For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the technical solution used in the present invention is as follows.

A kind of water-saving irrigation method that is applicable to the dense planting crop is particularly useful for wheat, hybridization millet, and its step comprises:

A: consolidation, sowing, fertilising: enter sowing before the winter, before the sowing consolidation become the bar shaped furrow of m specification of (1-2) m * (8-24),, apply base manure;

Once irrigate when B, crop are in jointing-booting stage, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, adjacent two furrow water respectively the 1/3-2/3 of the normal water yield and the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm;

C, when being in the pustulation period, crop once irrigates, employing is every furrow Limited Irrigation method, the 1/3-2/3 that this time waters the normal water yield of the normal water yield was namely watered in exchange last time when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time watered, and that watered the normal water yield 1/3-2/3 last time this time waters the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm.

As a kind of optimal technical scheme of the present invention, its step comprises:

A: consolidation, sowing, fertilising: enter sowing before the winter, before the sowing consolidation become the bar shaped furrow of m specification of (1-2) m * (8-24),, apply base manure;

Once irrigate when B, crop are in jointing-booting stage, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, adjacent two furrow water respectively the 1/3-2/3 of the normal water yield and the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm;

When being in heading-flowering stage, C, crop once irrigate, employing is every furrow Limited Irrigation method, the exchange when irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, be the 1/3-2/3 that this time waters the normal water yield that watered the normal water yield last time, that watered the normal water yield 1/3-2/3 last time this time waters the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm;

D, when being in the pustulation period, crop once irrigates, employing is every furrow Limited Irrigation method, the 1/3-2/3 that this time waters the normal water yield of the normal water yield was namely watered in exchange last time when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time watered, and that watered the normal water yield 1/3-2/3 last time this time waters the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm.

As a kind of optimal technical scheme of the present invention, the irrigation quantity of described minimizing determines according to the wide and normal irrigation amount of furrow, and when furrow are wide when being 40-60mm for 1.5-2m or normal irrigation amount, the irrigation quantity that reduces in the adjacent furrow is the 1/2-2/3 of normal irrigation amount; When furrow are wide when being 60-100mm for 1-1.5m or normal irrigation amount, the irrigation quantity that reduces in the adjacent furrow is the 1/3-1/2 of normal irrigation amount.

As a kind of optimal technical scheme of the present invention, its step comprises:

A: consolidation, sowing, fertilising: enter sowing before the winter, before the sowing consolidation become the bar shaped furrow of m specification of (1-2) m * (8-24),, apply base manure;

Once irrigate when B, crop are in jointing-booting stage, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, adjacent two furrow pour water respectively 40mm and 20mm;

C, once irrigate when crop is in the pustulation period, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, exchange when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, that namely watered 40mm last time this time waters 20mm, and that watered 20mm last time this time waters 40mm.

As a kind of optimal technical scheme of the present invention, its step comprises:

A: consolidation, sowing, fertilising: enter sowing before the winter, before the sowing consolidation become the bar shaped furrow of m specification of (1-2) m * (8-24),, apply base manure;

Once irrigate when B, crop are in jointing-booting stage, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, adjacent two furrow pour water respectively 40mm and 20mm;

Once irrigate when C, crop are in heading-flowering stage, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, exchange when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, that namely watered 40mm last time this time waters 20mm, and that watered 20mm last time this time waters 40mm;

D, once irrigate when crop is in the pustulation period, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, exchange when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, that namely watered 40mm last time this time waters 20mm, and that watered 20mm last time this time waters 40mm.

The beneficial effect that adopts technique scheme to produce is: of the present invention very little every furrow Limited Irrigation method yield effect to the dense planting crop in water saving, even improve output.Of the present invention production has very large realistic meaning to water-saving agriculture every furrow Limited Irrigation method, will be applied in dense planting crop genetics kinds such as winter wheat, hybridization millets.Its concrete experimental data embodiment that vide infra.

Embodiment

Following examples describe the present invention in detail.Various raw material used in the present invention and items of equipment are conventional commercially available prod, all can buy directly by market to obtain.The present invention has the crucial characteristics that need the water phase according to crop self, and according to the actual soil moisture content of field soil, carry out every the furrow Limited Irrigation any period in shooting stage-booting stage of crop, heading-flowering stage, pustulation period.

Embodiment 1, winter wheat every the furrow Limited Irrigation

Be that stone is new 828 for the examination winter wheat variety, in sowing on October 14th, 2011, thickness of sowing is 200,000/mu.According to urea 450kg/hm 2, diammonium hydrogen phosphate 225kg/hm 2Basal dressing.Furrow specification every the furrow Limited Irrigation is 1*16m 2, contrast furrow specification is 8*8m 2After planting measure the soil moisture content of 0-160cm soil layer with the Neutron Moisture analyzer, do not carry out winter irrigation, the time of infertility, effective precipitation was 79.1mm.According to following test requirements document, need the water phase carry out irrigating every border irrigation accordingly in the key of winter wheat.

Carry out first on April 11st, (1) 2012 (jointing-booting stage) and irrigate, every the adjacent furrow of furrow Limited Irrigation (T) 40mm(T1 that pours water respectively) and 20mm(T2), the contrast 40mm(CK that pours water).

Carry out the second time on May 14th, (2) 2012 (pustulation period) and irrigate, every irrigation quantity and exchange last time of furrow Limited Irrigation, i.e. the furrow T1 20mm that waters, the furrow T2 40mm that waters contrasts the 40mm that pours water.

Each is irrigated and processes 3 repetitions (namely setting three same experimental field districts), and except irrigating the water yield, other control measures are identical.During the winter wheat harvesting, measure biomass, output consists of the indexs such as profit and loss of three factors and the soil water.

1. every the impact of furrow Limited Irrigation on winter wheat biomass and harvest index

During harvesting, get one meter sample prescription and measure output, biomass, calculate harvest index.The data obtained is processed with excel and spss software, adopts ANOVA to carry out multiple variance analysis, every the furrow Limited Irrigation impact of winter wheat biomass and harvest index is seen Table 1.

Biomass and the harvest index of table 1. under furrow Limited Irrigation condition

The different letter representations of same row with to impinging upon significant difference on 0.05 level.

Every the furrow Limited Irrigation stalk amount of winter wheat unit are is significantly reduced, and seed amount and total biomass difference are not remarkable.In this case, make the harvest index of winter wheat improve 10.3% every the furrow Limited Irrigation, and significant difference.This shows, promoted the assimilation products of winter wheat plant to the transhipment of seed every the furrow Limited Irrigation, make more assimilation substance effectively be converted into output.

2. the impact that every the furrow Limited Irrigation winter wheat yields is consisted of

By measuring one meter spike number in the sample prescription, calculate the spike density of winter wheat.Measure the grain number per spike of continuous 15 strain winter wheat, 1000 of random number are weighed 3 groups in the seed of one meter sample prescription sample, calculate thousand kernel weight, and according to seed re-computation output.The data obtained is processed with excel and spss software, adopts ANOVA to carry out multiple variance analysis, every the furrow Limited Irrigation impact that winter wheat yields consists of is seen Table 2.

The output of table 2. winter wheat under furrow Limited Irrigation condition consists of

The different letter representations of same row with to impinging upon significant difference on 0.05 level.

The spike density of winter wheat significantly reduces under furrow are limited the quantity of condition, and the difference between grain number per spike and contrast is not remarkable, and thousand kernel weight significantly increases.Although difference is not remarkable between output, every the furrow Limited Irrigation output of winter wheat is slightly improved.This shows, although reduced the winter wheat tiller number every the furrow Limited Irrigation, increased thousand kernel weight, the increase and decrease of these two factors during output formation three is wanted is cancelled out each other, and making between output and contrast does not have significant difference, even slightly increases.And the minimizing of ineffective tillering can reduce the transpiration of moisture.

3. every the impact of furrow Limited Irrigation on Water Consumption of Winter Wheat amount and water use efficiency (WUE)

The Soil Water Content of 0-160cm soil layer during by mensuration sowing, harvesting, the profit and loss amount of the calculating soil water.The amount of irrigation water be twice irrigation quantity adding and, the time of infertility water consumption be adding of rainfall, irrigation water and underground water profit and loss amount and.The irrigation water water use efficiency is the ratio of yield per unit area and irrigation water, the water use efficiency of total water consumption be yield per unit area and the time of infertility total water consumption ratio.The data obtained is processed with excel and spss software, adopts ANOVA to carry out multiple variance analysis, every the furrow Limited Irrigation impact of Water Consumption of Winter Wheat amount and water use efficiency is seen Table 3.

Table 3. is Water Consumption of Winter Wheat amount and water use efficiency under furrow Limited Irrigation condition

The different letter representations of same row with to impinging upon significant difference on 0.05 level.

Process the soil water loss that has reduced 16.8mm every the furrow Limited Irrigation, twice irrigation amounts to and reduces the 20mm irrigation water, and the time of infertility, water consumption reduced 36.8mm, and the water use efficiency of irrigation water improves 40.1%, the water use efficiency raising of total water consumption reaches 18.4%, and significant difference.This shows, not only save irrigation water every the furrow Limited Irrigation, and the waste of underground water is reduced.

4. winter wheat is every the water-saving benefit analysis of furrow Limited Irrigation

By the analysis to above-mentioned data, can obtain every the furrow Limited Irrigation with respect to the contrast water saving, put forward the effect situation.Winter wheat sees Table 4 every the water-saving benefit of furrow Limited Irrigation.

Table 4. is every the water-saving benefit analysis of furrow Limited Irrigation

Make the few loss 9.01% of the soil water every the furrow Limited Irrigation, save irrigation water 25.0%, economize on water 11.25% the time of infertility, and output increased 4.96%.The irrigation water water use efficiency improves 40.07%, and the water use efficiency of total water consumption improves 18.37%.This shows, be water saving, volume increase, improve the water effect every the comprehensive effect of furrow Limited Irrigation.

Winter wheat and hybridization millet the many places, main producing region in the arid and semi-arid district, the resource of pouring water anxiety.And be in especially the winter-spring season of drought the breeding time of winter wheat, and the water requirement that output forms is large, one period the groundwater decrement amount larger.The furrow that reduce irrigation quantity in the furrow Limited Irrigation is processed not only can need the water water demand of sufficient crop that expires in key, and because irrigation quantity reduces, can also reduce the moisture evaporation of native face; The minimizing of simultaneously ineffective tillering has reduced the transpiration of poor efficiency moisture; And the furrow that capacity is poured water can ooze the moisture that provides late growing stage required by side.Saving irrigation water every the furrow Limited Irrigation, when reducing groundwater decrement, promoting assimilation substance to transport to seed, improving harvest index and water use efficiency, output does not only reduce, and slightly increases on the contrary.Therefore, have water saving, volume increase, improve the comprehensive effect that water is imitated every furrow Limited Irrigation mode, in the arid and semi-arid district, the grain producing region promotion potential of irrigation water anxiety is large, and is significant to the development of water-saving agriculture.

Foregoing description only proposes as the enforceable technical scheme of the present invention, not as the Single restriction condition to its technical scheme itself.

Claims (5)

1. a water-saving irrigation method that is applicable to the dense planting crop is particularly useful for wheat, hybridization millet, and its characterization step comprises:
A: consolidation, sowing, fertilising: enter sowing before the winter, before the sowing consolidation become the bar shaped furrow of m specification of (1-2) m * (8-24),, apply base manure;
Once irrigate when B, crop are in jointing-booting stage, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, adjacent two furrow water respectively the 1/3-2/3 of the normal water yield and the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm;
C, when being in the pustulation period, crop once irrigates, employing is every furrow Limited Irrigation method, the 1/3-2/3 that this time waters the normal water yield of the normal water yield was namely watered in exchange last time when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time watered, and that watered the normal water yield 1/3-2/3 last time this time waters the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm.
2. the water-saving irrigation method that is applicable to the dense planting crop according to claim 1, its characterization step comprises:
A: consolidation, sowing, fertilising: enter sowing before the winter, before the sowing consolidation become the bar shaped furrow of m specification of (1-2) m * (8-24), apply base manure;
Once irrigate when B, crop are in jointing-booting stage, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, adjacent two furrow water respectively the 1/3-2/3 of the normal water yield and the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm;
When being in heading-flowering stage, C, crop once irrigate, employing is every furrow Limited Irrigation method, the exchange when irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, be the 1/3-2/3 that this time waters the normal water yield that watered the normal water yield last time, that watered the normal water yield 1/3-2/3 last time this time waters the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm;
D, when being in the pustulation period, crop once irrigates, employing is every furrow Limited Irrigation method, the 1/3-2/3 that this time waters the normal water yield of the normal water yield was namely watered in exchange last time when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time watered, and that watered the normal water yield 1/3-2/3 last time this time waters the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm.
3. the water-saving irrigation method that is applicable to the dense planting crop according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: the irrigation quantity of described minimizing is determined with the normal irrigation amount according to furrow are wide, when furrow are wide when being 40-60mm for 1.5-2m or normal irrigation amount, the irrigation quantity that reduces in the adjacent furrow is the 1/2-2/3 of normal irrigation amount; When furrow are wide when being 60-100mm for 1-1.5m or normal irrigation amount, the irrigation quantity that reduces in the adjacent furrow is the 1/3-1/2 of normal irrigation amount.
4. the water-saving irrigation method that is applicable to the dense planting crop according to claim 1, its characterization step comprises:
A: consolidation, sowing, fertilising: enter sowing before the winter, before the sowing consolidation become the bar shaped furrow of m specification of (1-2) m * (8-24),, apply base manure;
Once irrigate when B, crop are in jointing-booting stage, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, adjacent two furrow pour water respectively 40mm and 20mm;
C, once irrigate when crop is in the pustulation period, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, exchange when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, that namely watered 40mm last time this time waters 20mm, and that watered 20mm last time this time waters 40mm.
5. the water-saving irrigation method that is applicable to the dense planting crop according to claim 2, its characterization step comprises:
A: consolidation, sowing, fertilising: enter sowing before the winter, before the sowing consolidation become the bar shaped furrow of m specification of (1-2) m * (8-24),, apply base manure;
Once irrigate when B, crop are in jointing-booting stage, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, adjacent two furrow pour water respectively 40mm and 20mm;
Once irrigate when C, crop are in heading-flowering stage, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, exchange when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, that namely watered 40mm last time this time waters 20mm, and that watered 20mm last time this time waters 40mm;
D, once irrigate when crop is in the pustulation period, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, exchange when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, that namely watered 40mm last time this time waters 20mm, and that watered 20mm last time this time waters 40mm.
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CN103430811A (en) * 2013-07-01 2013-12-11 扬州大学 Irrigation method of controlling low-limit soil water of wheat
CN103430811B (en) * 2013-07-01 2015-07-15 扬州大学 Irrigation method of controlling low-limit soil water of wheat
CN103814727A (en) * 2013-12-17 2014-05-28 张家口市农业科学院 Method for water-saving planting of hybrid millet in extremely arid area
CN103814727B (en) * 2013-12-17 2015-07-01 张家口市农业科学院 Method for water-saving planting of hybrid millet in extremely arid area
CN104718933A (en) * 2015-02-12 2015-06-24 潘小胜 Annual continuous cropping wide-furrow corn yield prediction method and irrigation quality evaluation method
CN104718937A (en) * 2015-02-25 2015-06-24 滨州市作物研究所 Wheat high-low furrow growing method
CN105027923A (en) * 2015-07-28 2015-11-11 太仓市天开林果专业合作社 Energy-saving and consumption-reducing cultivation method for spring wheat capable of effectively utilizing wheat stubble straws
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