CN105900792B - A kind of water-saving irrigation method based on Winter-wheat Seedling Circumstances and soil moisture content - Google Patents

A kind of water-saving irrigation method based on Winter-wheat Seedling Circumstances and soil moisture content Download PDF

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CN105900792B
CN105900792B CN201610407992.9A CN201610407992A CN105900792B CN 105900792 B CN105900792 B CN 105900792B CN 201610407992 A CN201610407992 A CN 201610407992A CN 105900792 B CN105900792 B CN 105900792B
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irrigation
less
water content
irrigated
winter
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CN201610407992.9A
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CN105900792A (en
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李科江
党红凯
曹彩云
马俊永
郑春莲
李伟
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河北省农林科学院旱作农业研究所
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of water-saving irrigation method based on Winter-wheat Seedling Circumstances and soil moisture content,Belong to agricultural irrigation technology,The irrigation method is in the winter wheat sowing seeding stage,Wintering Period,Period of seedling establishment,Jointing stage,Blooming stage and pustulation period carry out 0-20cm respectively,0-40cm,0-60cm,0-60cm,The detection of the relative water content of 0-80cm and 0-80cm deep soils,The numerical value of detection is as soil moisture content index,And in period of seedling establishment and jointing stage by Winter-wheat Seedling Circumstances index according to stem number,Single plant tiller,More than three leaves big tillers and secondary root item number index are divided into prosperous seedling,A kind of seedling,Two class seedlings and three classes seedling,The judgement irrigated according to the soil moisture content index of winter wheat different growing stage,And in the judgement that period of seedling establishment and jointing stage irrigate soil moisture content index and growth of cereal crop seedlings index,The irrigation method can make the maximum water demand amount of soil moisture content holding crop,To ensure that the growth of winter wheat is not limited by moisture,And avoid waste caused by regular quantifying irrigation and inefficient.

Description

A kind of water-saving irrigation method based on Winter-wheat Seedling Circumstances and soil moisture content

Technical field

The invention belongs to agricultural irrigation technologies, and in particular to a kind of water-saving based on Winter-wheat Seedling Circumstances and soil moisture content Irrigation method.

Background technology

Staple food crop of the wheat as China, cultivated area is relatively broad, is concentrated mainly on North Plain Region, this The long-term precipitation in a little regions is in 500-700mm and is concentrated mainly on summer, and the precipitation of Winter Wheat-Growing can only meet it The 30%-40% of demand, irrigation water become the main source of moisture needed for winter wheat.In recent years, with shortage of water resources, water How rationally resource pollution and underground water exhaustive exploitation, irrigation water have been increasingly becoming agricultural planting urgent problem, It irrigates, improve water use efficiency and per unit area yield, ensure that grain and ecological safety become technical barrier urgently to be resolved hurrily.

Existing irrigation technique mostly uses fixed irrigation time and irrigation quantity, and natural precipitation and soil moisture content are not It matches, it is difficult to water-saving and high yield unification is realized, in view of the above-mentioned problems, having in existing improvement with the opposite of certain depth soil Water content is (relative water content is the percentage that soil moisture content accounts for field capacity) that moisturizing target is irrigated, but this Method ignores great influence of the growth of cereal crop seedlings to wheat water consumption and yield composition, and soil moisture in the soil between different year, different plot Feelings differ greatly, it is difficult to form rational irrigation norm.

Invention content

The present invention overcomes the deficiencies of existing irrigation method, provide a kind of section based on Winter-wheat Seedling Circumstances and soil moisture content Water irrigation method, the irrigation method disclosure satisfy that different times, different growing way winter wheat water requirement, avoid irrigation water Waste, plays water saving effect caused by unordered use.

The specific technical solution of the present invention is:

A kind of water-saving irrigation method based on Winter-wheat Seedling Circumstances and soil moisture content, key point are that the irrigation method is small in the winter The wheat insemination and emergence phase detects the relative water content in 0-20cm deep soils, is irrigated when relative water content is less than 70%;

In Wintering Period, the relative water content in 0-40cm deep soils is detected, when relative water content is less than 65% and day is flat It is irrigated when equal mercury dropped is to 3 DEG C;

Relative water content in period of seedling establishment to jointing stage detects 0-60cm deep soils, when winter wheat stem number is more than 1000000/mu, single plant tiller are detected more than when more than 7.5, three leaves big tiller is more than 11 more than 5.5, secondary root item number Relative water content be less than 55% when irrigated in jointing stage mid-term, the relative water content detected (is free of in 55%-65% 65%) it is irrigated in the later stage jointing stage when, without irrigating when the relative water content detected is more than 65%;When winter wheat stem Number (being free of 80) -100 ten thousand/mus that are 80, single plant tiller be 5.5 (being free of 5.5) -7.5, more than three leaves tiller is 3.5 (to be free of greatly 3.5) -5.5, secondary root item number is when being 8 (be free of 8) -11, the relative water content detected is irrigated when being less than 55%, The relative water content detected is irrigated at 55%-65% (being free of 65%) in jointing stage mid-term, and what is detected contains relatively Without irrigating when water is more than 65%;When winter wheat stem number is ten thousand/mus of 60-80, single plant tiller is 3.5-5.5, three leaves with When upper big tiller is 2.5-3.5, secondary root item number is 6-8, the relative water content detected is irrigated when being less than 65%, is examined The relative water content measured is irrigated at 65%-70% (being free of 70%) at initial stage jointing stage;When winter wheat stem number is less than 600000/mu, single plant tiller are detected less than when more than 3.5, three leaves big tiller is less than 6 less than 2.5, secondary root item number Relative water content is irrigated when being less than 70%;

In blooming stage, the relative water content in 0-80cm deep soils is detected, is carried out when relative water content is less than 65% It irrigates;

In the watery stage, the relative water content in 0-80cm deep soils is detected, is carried out when relative water content is less than 60% It irrigates.

The irrigation is that small border irrigation is irrigate or micro spray irrigation, the irrigation quantity per acre that small border irrigation is irrigate are 40-50m3, microspray irrigation The irrigation quantity per acre irrigate is 30-40m3

The duty of the pustulation period is 30-40m3

The period of seedling establishment to the jointing stage carries out top dressing when being irrigated, and rain top dressing is taken advantage of when without irrigating.

The period of seedling establishment to the jointing stage, when winter wheat stem number is less than 600,000/mu, single plant tiller be less than 3.5, three leaves with Upper big tiller is less than 6 less than 2.5, secondary root item number, and 0-60cm soil layer soil relative water contents are irrigated when being less than 70%, Hoe draws soil moisture conservation after irrigation.

The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:The present invention is irrigated using the soil moisture content of winter wheat different times as guidance Judge index, and combine the growth of cereal crop seedlings and soil moisture content to be used as irrigation index, the more accurate conjunction of guidance in period of seedling establishment and jointing stage Reason, is irrigated in the range of winter wheat demand, plays water-saving purpose, caused by avoiding regular quantifying irrigation Irrigate water waste.

Specific implementation mode

The present invention relates to a kind of water-saving irrigation method based on Winter-wheat Seedling Circumstances and soil moisture content, the water-saving irrigation method are According to crop species and soil types, representative plot is selected in the main planting area of crop according to a certain percentage, Regular fixed point monitoring soil moisture content and crop growing state, in conjunction with Study on Crop Water Requirement Rules and meteorological condition, according to soil moisture content and crop Damage caused by a drought grading evaluation index is analyzed and is judged to farmland moisture condition and crop damage caused by a drought, proposes specific irrigation guidance program.Shadow Ring crop growth soil water content index, be with it is actually being stored in soil, for crop utilization water how much For according to water regime of soil is differentiated, the irrigation method in the present invention accounts for the percentage of field capacity using soil moisture content Number, i.e. soil relative water content index indicate.

Specific embodiment, the present invention, which chooses the North China Plain, has the loam class winter wheat-summer maize system of irrigation conditions to yield two crops a year Growing area carries out the water-saving irrigation of winter wheat, and in winter wheat different growing stage, the soil moisture content index for detecting different depth is come It indicates soil moisture content situation, is divided into:Suitable, slight water shortage, moderate water shortage and severe water shortage are total to level Four, winter wheat as shown in table 1 Soil moisture content index.

1 different times winter wheat soil moisture content index of table

The relative water content in 0-20cm deep soils is detected to ensure fertilizer spraying in the winter wheat sowing seeding stage, when Relative water content carries out irrigation moisture creating when being less than 70%, irrigates as micro spray irrigation, and irrigation quantity is 30-40m per acre3

In Wintering Period, the winter wheat of fertilizer spraying detects 0-40cm deep soils without winter irrigation, but when grab moisture sowing In relative water content, when soil moisture content reach 1 moderate water shortage of table i.e. relative water content be less than 65%, and daily mean temperature stablize The irrigation of overwintering water is carried out when dropping to 3 DEG C;Northern area can carry out winter irrigation for frost damage prevention.

Relative water content in period of seedling establishment and jointing stage detect 0-60cm deep soils, and by the growthdevelopmental stage Winter wheat is classified according to the growth of cereal crop seedlings, respectively prosperous seedling, Yi Leimiao, two class seedlings and three classes seedling, and specific classification indicators are referring to table 2, table 2 Winter wheat period of seedling establishment and jointing stage growth of cereal crop seedlings index.

2 different times Winter-wheat Seedling Circumstances index of table

Classification Management is carried out according to the different growth of cereal crop seedlings and soil moisture content, following irrigation method is used according to growth of cereal crop seedlings preferential principle:

1) prosperous seedling Tanaka, i.e. winter wheat stem number are big more than more than 7.5, three leaves big tillers more than 1,000,000/mu, single plant tiller When 5.5, secondary root item number are more than 11, turn green and reach what severe water shortage in table 1 detected to jointing stage soil moisture content Relative water content is irrigated when being less than 55% in jointing stage mid-term;What soil moisture content reached that moderate water shortage detects opposite contains Water is irrigated at 55%-65% (being free of 65%) in later stage jointing stage, and using micro spray irrigation, irrigation quantity is 30- per acre 40m3;Without irrigating when the relative water content detected is more than 65%, but the timely top dressing of rain should be taken advantage of;

2) Tanaka of a kind of seedling, i.e. winter wheat stem number be 80 (without 80) -100 ten thousand/mus, single plant tiller is 5.5 (to be free of 5.5) -7.5, more than three leaves big tiller be 3.5 (being free of 3.5) -5.5, when secondary root item number is 8 (without 8) -11, turn green Reach when the relative water content that 1 severe water shortage of table detects is less than 55% to jointing stage soil moisture content and is irrigated;In reaching Degree water shortage is that the relative water content detected is irrigated at 55%-65% (being free of 65%) in jointing stage mid-term, and use is micro- Sprinkling irrigation is irrigate, and irrigation quantity is 30-40m per acre3;Reach when the relative water content that slight water shortage detects is more than 65% without filling It irrigates, but the timely top dressing of rain should be taken advantage of;

3) Tanaka of two class seedlings, i.e. winter wheat stem number are ten thousand/mus of 60-80, single plant tiller is 3.5-5.5, more than three leaves When big tiller is 2.5-3.5, secondary root item number is 6-8, turning green reaches moderate water shortage in table 1 to jointing stage soil moisture content and examines The relative water content measured is irrigated when being less than 65%;Reach relative water content that slight water shortage detects in 65%- It is irrigated at initial stage jointing stage when 70% (being free of 70%), using micro spray irrigation, irrigation quantity is 30-40m per acre3;Soil moisture in the soil Feelings suitable for when, without irrigating, but the timely top dressing of rain should be taken advantage of;

4) Tanaka of three classes seedling, i.e. winter wheat stem number are less than 600,000/mu, single plant tiller less than more than 3.5, three leaves big tillers When being less than 6 less than 2.5, secondary root item number, turns green and reach what 1 mild or moderate water shortage of table detected to jointing stage soil moisture content Relative water content is irrigated when being less than 70%, and using micro spray irrigation, irrigation quantity is 30-40m per acre3, carry out drawing hoe after irrigation Soil moisture conservation improves ground temperature;Soil moisture content suitable for when, without irrigating, but the timely top dressing of rain should be taken advantage of.

In blooming stage, the relative water content in 0-80cm deep soils is detected, when soil moisture content reaches 1 moderate water shortage of table i.e. Relative water content is irrigated when being less than 65%, and using micro spray irrigation, irrigation quantity is 30-40m per acre3

In the watery stage, the relative water content in 0-80cm deep soils is detected, when soil moisture content reaches 1 moderate water shortage of table i.e. Relative water content is irrigated when being less than 60%, is irrigated using small quota, using micro spray irrigation, irrigation quantity 30-40m per acre3, avoid Broad irrigation prevents the lodging of later stage winter wheat.

The judge index that the present invention is irrigated using the soil moisture content of winter wheat different times as guidance, and it is different The depth of soil that period detects soil moisture content is different, and the main growth depth of Main Basiss plant growth different times root, which is used as, to be referred to It leads, the insemination and emergence phase detects 0-20cm depth, and Wintering Period detects 0-40cm depth, and Wintering Period is deep to jointing stage detection 0-60cm Degree, blooming stage and pustulation period then detect 0-80cm depth, and detecting depth and Testing index can preferably react winter wheat not With the water requirement of growth period, in addition, in period of seedling establishment and jointing stage herein in connection with growth of cereal crop seedlings index and soil moisture content index as irrigation Guidance is capable of the adjusting of more accurate reasonably progress water requirement in the critical period of wheat growth, in the model of winter wheat demand Enclose it is interior irrigated, the irrigation requirement of winter wheat different times can not only be met, and accomplished not waste, irrigation water use Rate is steadily in higher level, water-saving purpose is played, caused by avoiding regular quantifying irrigation in the prior art Irrigate water waste.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of irrigation method based on Winter-wheat Seedling Circumstances and soil moisture content, it is characterised in that:The irrigation method is broadcast in winter wheat The kind seeding stage detects the relative water content in 0-20cm deep soils, is irrigated when relative water content is less than 70%;
In Wintering Period, the relative water content in 0-40cm deep soils is detected, when relative water content is less than 65% and per day gas Temperature is irrigated when dropping to 3 DEG C;
Relative water content in period of seedling establishment to jointing stage detects 0-60cm deep soils, when winter wheat stem number be more than 1,000,000/ More than when more than 7.5, three leaves big tiller is more than 11 more than 5.5, secondary root item number, what is detected is opposite for mu, single plant tiller Water content is irrigated when being less than 55% in jointing stage mid-term, and the relative water content detected is 55%-65% (being free of 65%) When irrigated in later stage jointing stage, the relative water content detected be more than 65% when without irrigate;When winter wheat stem number is 80 (being free of 80) -100 ten thousand/mus, single plant tiller are 5.5 (being free of 5.5) -7.5, more than three leaves big tiller is 3.5 (being free of 3.5) - 5.5, secondary root item number is when being 8 (be free of 8) -11, the relative water content detected is irrigated when being less than 55%, is detected Relative water content irrigated in jointing stage mid-term at 55%-65% (be free of 65%), the relative water content detected is big Without irrigating when 65%;When winter wheat stem number is ten thousand/mus of 60-80, single plant tiller is 3.5-5.5, more than three leaves big tillers For when 2.5-3.5 is a, secondary root item number is 6-8, the relative water content detected is irrigated when being less than 65%, is detected Relative water content is irrigated at 65%-70% (being free of 70%) at initial stage jointing stage;When winter wheat stem number be less than 600,000/ Mu, single plant tiller are less than 3.5, more than three leaves big tiller is less than 2.5, secondary root item number is when being less than 6, and what is detected opposite contains Water is irrigated when being less than 70%;
In blooming stage, the relative water content in 0-80cm deep soils is detected, is irrigated when relative water content is less than 65%;
In the watery stage, the relative water content in 0-80cm deep soils is detected, is irrigated when relative water content is less than 60%.
2. a kind of irrigation method based on Winter-wheat Seedling Circumstances and soil moisture content according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Institute The irrigation stated is that small border irrigation is irrigate or micro spray irrigation, the irrigation quantity per acre that small border irrigation is irrigate are 40-50m3, the filling per acre of micro spray irrigation Water is 30-40m3
3. a kind of irrigation method based on Winter-wheat Seedling Circumstances and soil moisture content according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Institute The duty per acre for the pustulation period stated is 30-40m3
4. a kind of irrigation method based on Winter-wheat Seedling Circumstances and soil moisture content according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Institute The period of seedling establishment stated to the jointing stage carries out top dressing when being irrigated, and rain top dressing is taken advantage of when without irrigating.
5. a kind of irrigation method based on Winter-wheat Seedling Circumstances and soil moisture content according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Institute The period of seedling establishment stated is to the jointing stage, when winter wheat stem number is less than 600,000/mu, single plant tiller is less than less than more than 3.5, three leaves big tillers 2.5, secondary root item number be less than 6,0-60cm soil layer soil relative water contents be less than 70% when irrigated, carried out after irrigation Hoe draws soil moisture conservation.
CN201610407992.9A 2016-06-12 2016-06-12 A kind of water-saving irrigation method based on Winter-wheat Seedling Circumstances and soil moisture content CN105900792B (en)

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CN108901687A (en) * 2018-07-27 2018-11-30 河南省水利科学研究院 A kind of winter wheat Precision Irrigation water optimizing method
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