CN103069997B - Water-saving irrigation method applicable to close-planting crop - Google Patents

Water-saving irrigation method applicable to close-planting crop Download PDF

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CN103069997B
CN103069997B CN201310038562.0A CN201310038562A CN103069997B CN 103069997 B CN103069997 B CN 103069997B CN 201310038562 A CN201310038562 A CN 201310038562A CN 103069997 B CN103069997 B CN 103069997B
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irrigation
furrow
water
normal water
crop
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CN201310038562.0A
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CN103069997A (en
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师长海
刘孟雨
赵治海
董宝娣
乔匀周
张秋英
管晓庆
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中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所
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Abstract

The invention discloses a water-saving irrigation method applicable to close-planting crop. The water-saving irrigation method is particularly applicable to wheat and hybrid millet and comprises the procedures that A, soil preparation, sowing and fertilization are carried out; B, a separate-field limited irrigation method is adopted to carry out irrigation when the crop is in the jointing-booting stage, and two adjacent fields are respectively irrigated with the normal water quantity and one third to two thirds of the normal water quantity; and the normal water quantity is 40-100 mm; and C, the separate-field limited irrigation method is adopted to carry out irrigation when the crop is in the filling stage, and the two adjacent fields are respectively irrigated with one third to two thirds of the normal water quantity and the normal water quantity, namely the field which is irrigated with the normal water quantity last time is irrigated with one third to two thirds of the normal water quantity this time, and the field which is irrigated with one third to two thirds of the normal water quantity last time is irrigated with the normal water quantity this time. According to the water-saving irrigation method applicable to close-planting crop, the water consumption used for irrigation is greatly reduced, and a certain yield-increasing effect is also played on the crop.

Description

A kind of water-saving irrigation method that is applicable to dense planting crop

Technical field

The present invention relates to agricultural planting water-saving technology field, relate in particular to a kind of water-saving irrigation method that is applicable to dense planting crop.

Background technology

Primary agricultural and ecological problem that the water resources shortage whole world faces, arid is global problem, serious impact world food safety, and Global climate change makes this situation more critical.In Wu Jie water resource forum, the portion report of the United Nations's science and education literary composition tissue announcement is pointed out, if water resource is not improved in the whole world, do not utilize validity, to the year two thousand thirty, global half population will be lived in the environment of lack of water.In following significant period of time, the water resource of some arid and semi-arid lands lacks and can produce significant impact to movement of population, and expectation will have 2,400 ten thousand to 700,000,000 people to leave the native place because of lack of water.

The water resource of China per capita with occupancy volume per mu far below world average level, be one of 13Ge poor-water state in the world.There is the arable land in the whole nation 26% in North of Yangtze River area, but only has 19% water resource.Agricultural lack of water reaches more than 80%, and water scarcity becomes the key constraints of China's agriculture grain security.Winter wheat and hybridization millet are in respectively the important cereal crops in the drought-resistant crops ,Ye Shi China's arid and semi-arid district that is north dry season and drought-hit area growth.North of China recurs arid this year, and 50 years one droughts of meeting have occurred 2008-2009 winter-spring season especially, and drought-hit area area constantly expands.In Global climate change, grow in intensity, arid climate occurrence frequency sharply increases, and in the situation of irrigation water resource-constrained, in order to tackle severe water resources crisis, sets up a water-saving society, and Development of Water-Saving Irrigation is a kind of inevitable choice of agricultural sustainable development.

Root-divided alternative irrigation is that root system of plant is divided into two parts, makes their alternating growths in comparatively dry soil region, and the root system in dry section, because water suction is limited, produces water stress signal and is delivered to Stoma of Leaves, thereby effectively regulate stomatal movement; And root system in humid region absorbs water and meets the minimum needs of life from soil, reach thus the object of water saving.Root-divided alternative irrigation is applied on horticultural crop and the wide row cereal crops of part, has played the good result of water saving, and has had certain yield increasing effect.But current this theoretical irrigation method of successful Application on not drought-enduring in winter wheat, hybridization millet etc., high yield dense planting crop still.

Summary of the invention

The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of water-saving irrigation method that is applicable to dense planting crop, is particularly useful for the field planting of wheat, hybridization millet, not only can significantly reduce irrigation water capacity, can also play certain production-increasing function to crop simultaneously.

For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the technical solution used in the present invention is as follows.

Be applicable to a water-saving irrigation method for dense planting crop, be particularly useful for wheat, hybridization millet, its step comprises:

A: consolidation, sowing, fertilising: enter sowing before the winter, before sowing, consolidation is become to the bar shaped furrow of m specification of (1-2) m * (8-24), apply base manure;

B, crop once irrigate during to booting stage in jointing, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, and adjacent two furrow water respectively the 1/3-2/3 of the normal water yield and the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm;

C, crop are once irrigated when the pustulation period, employing is every furrow Limited Irrigation method, when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, exchange, watered the 1/3-2/3 that this time waters the normal water yield of the normal water yield last time, and that watered the normal water yield 1/3-2/3 last time this time waters the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm.

As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, its step comprises:

A: consolidation, sowing, fertilising: enter sowing before the winter, before sowing, consolidation is become to the bar shaped furrow of m specification of (1-2) m * (8-24), apply base manure;

B, crop once irrigate during to booting stage in jointing, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, and adjacent two furrow water respectively the 1/3-2/3 of the normal water yield and the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm;

C, crop are once irrigated when earing to flowering stage, employing is every furrow Limited Irrigation method, the exchange when irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, be the 1/3-2/3 that this time waters the normal water yield that watered the normal water yield last time, that watered the normal water yield 1/3-2/3 last time this time waters the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm;

D, crop are once irrigated when the pustulation period, employing is every furrow Limited Irrigation method, when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, exchange, watered the 1/3-2/3 that this time waters the normal water yield of the normal water yield last time, and that watered the normal water yield 1/3-2/3 last time this time waters the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm.

As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, the irrigation quantity of described minimizing determines according to the wide and normal irrigation amount of furrow, and when furrow are wide while being 40-60mm for 1.5-2m or normal irrigation amount, the irrigation quantity reducing in adjacent furrow is the 1/2-2/3 of normal irrigation amount; When furrow are wide while being 60-100mm for 1-1.5m or normal irrigation amount, the irrigation quantity reducing in adjacent furrow is the 1/3-1/2 of normal irrigation amount.

As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, its step comprises:

A: consolidation, sowing, fertilising: enter sowing before the winter, before sowing, consolidation is become to the bar shaped furrow of m specification of (1-2) m * (8-24), apply base manure;

B, crop once irrigate during to booting stage in jointing, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method adjacent two furrow pour water respectively 40mm and 20mm;

C, crop are once irrigated when the pustulation period, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, exchange, and that watered 40mm last time this time waters 20mm, and that watered 20mm last time this time waters 40mm.

As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, its step comprises:

A: consolidation, sowing, fertilising: enter sowing before the winter, before sowing, consolidation is become to the bar shaped furrow of m specification of (1-2) m * (8-24), apply base manure;

B, crop once irrigate during to booting stage in jointing, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method adjacent two furrow pour water respectively 40mm and 20mm;

C, crop are once irrigated when earing to flowering stage, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, exchange, and that watered 40mm last time this time waters 20mm, and that watered 20mm last time this time waters 40mm;

D, crop are once irrigated when the pustulation period, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, exchange, and that watered 40mm last time this time waters 20mm, and that watered 20mm last time this time waters 40mm.

The beneficial effect that adopts technique scheme to produce is: of the present invention very little to the yield effect of dense planting crop in water saving every furrow Limited Irrigation method, even improve output.Of the present invention every furrow Limited Irrigation method, to water-saving agriculture, production has very large realistic meaning, will be applied in dense planting crop genetics kinds such as winter wheat, hybridization millets.Its specific experiment data embodiment that vide infra.

Embodiment

Following examples describe the present invention in detail.Various raw material used in the present invention and items of equipment are conventional commercially available prod, all can be bought directly and be obtained by market.The present invention has the advantages that according to crop self key needs the water phase, according to the actual soil moisture content of field soil, in shooting stage to the booting stage of crop, any period of earing to flowering stage, pustulation period, carries out every furrow Limited Irrigation.

Embodiment 1, winter wheat every furrow Limited Irrigation

For examination winter wheat variety, be that stone is new 828, in sowing on October 14th, 2011, thickness of sowing is 200,000/mu.According to urea 450kg/hm 2, diammonium hydrogen phosphate 225kg/hm 2basal dressing.Furrow specification every furrow Limited Irrigation is 1*16m 2, contrast furrow specification is 8*8m 2.After planting with Neutron Moisture analyzer, measure the soil moisture content of 0-160cm soil layer, do not carry out winter irrigation, the time of infertility, effective precipitation was 79.1mm.According to following test requirements document, in the key of winter wheat, need the water phase to carry out every border irrigation, irrigating accordingly.

Carry out the first irrigation on April 11st, (1) 2012 (jointing is to booting stage), every the adjacent furrow of furrow Limited Irrigation (T) 40mm(T1 that pours water respectively) and 20mm(T2), the contrast 40mm(CK that pours water).

Irrigate on May 14th, (2) 2012 (pustulation period) for the second time, every the irrigation quantity of furrow Limited Irrigation and exchange last time, i.e. and the furrow T1 20mm that waters, the furrow T2 40mm that waters, the contrast 40mm that pours water.

Each is irrigated and processes 3 repetitions (setting three same experimental field districts), and except duty, other control measures are identical.During winter wheat harvesting, measure biomass, output forms the indexs such as profit and loss of three factors and the soil water.

1. the impact on winter wheat biomass and harvest index every furrow Limited Irrigation

During harvesting, get one meter of sample prescription and measure output, biomass, calculate harvest index.The data obtained is processed with excel and spss software, adopts ANOVA to carry out multiple variance analysis, every furrow Limited Irrigation on the impact of winter wheat biomass and harvest index in Table 1.

Biomass and the harvest index of table 1. under furrow Limited Irrigation condition

The different letter representations of same row with to impinging upon significant difference in 0.05 level.

Every furrow Limited Irrigation, the stalk amount of winter wheat unit are is significantly reduced, and seed amount and total biomass difference are not remarkable.In this case, every furrow Limited Irrigation, make the harvest index of winter wheat improve 10.3%, and significant difference.As can be seen here, every furrow Limited Irrigation, promoted the assimilation products of winter wheat plant to the transhipment of seed, made more assimilation substance effectively be converted into output.

2. the impact every furrow Limited Irrigation, winter wheat yields being formed

By measuring one meter of spike number in sample prescription, calculate the spike density of winter wheat.Measure the grain number per spike of continuous 15 strain winter wheat, in the seed of one meter of sample prescription sample, 1000 of random number are weighed 3 groups, calculate thousand kernel weight, and according to seed re-computation output.The data obtained is processed with excel and spss software, adopts ANOVA to carry out multiple variance analysis, and impact winter wheat yields being formed every furrow Limited Irrigation is in Table 2.

The output of table 2. winter wheat under furrow Limited Irrigation condition forms

The different letter representations of same row with to impinging upon significant difference in 0.05 level.

Under furrow are limited the quantity of condition, the spike density of winter wheat significantly reduces, and grain number per spike is not remarkable with the difference between contrasting, and thousand kernel weight significantly increases.Although difference is not remarkable between output, every furrow Limited Irrigation, the output of winter wheat is slightly improved.As can be seen here, although reduced winter wheat tiller number every furrow Limited Irrigation, increased thousand kernel weight, output forms the increase and decrease of three these two factors in wanting cancels out each other, and there is no significant difference, even slightly increase between making output and contrasting.And the minimizing of ineffective tillering can reduce the transpiration of moisture.

3. the impact on Water Consumption of Winter Wheat amount and water use efficiency (WUE) every furrow Limited Irrigation

The Soil Water Content of 0-160cm soil layer when sowing, gathering in by mensuration, the profit and loss amount of the calculating soil water.The amount of irrigation water be twice irrigation quantity adding and, the time of infertility water consumption be adding of rainfall, irrigation water and underground water profit and loss amount and.Irrigation water water use efficiency is the ratio of yield per unit area and irrigation water, the water use efficiency of total water consumption be yield per unit area and the time of infertility total water consumption ratio.The data obtained is processed with excel and spss software, adopts ANOVA to carry out multiple variance analysis, every furrow Limited Irrigation on the impact of Water Consumption of Winter Wheat amount and water use efficiency in Table 3.

Table 3. is Water Consumption of Winter Wheat amount and water use efficiency under furrow Limited Irrigation condition

The different letter representations of same row with to impinging upon significant difference in 0.05 level.

Every furrow Limited Irrigation, process the soil water loss that has reduced 16.8mm, twice irrigation amounts to and reduces 20mm irrigation water, and the time of infertility, water consumption reduced 36.8mm, and the water use efficiency of irrigation water improves 40.1%, the water use efficiency raising of total water consumption reaches 18.4%, and significant difference.As can be seen here, every furrow Limited Irrigation, not only save irrigation water, and the waste of underground water is reduced.

4. winter wheat is every the water-saving benefit analysis of furrow Limited Irrigation

By the analysis to above-mentioned data, can obtain every furrow Limited Irrigation with respect to contrast water saving, put forward effect situation.Winter wheat every the water-saving benefit of furrow Limited Irrigation in Table 4.

Table 4. is every the water-saving benefit analysis of furrow Limited Irrigation

Every furrow Limited Irrigation, make the few loss 9.01% of the soil water, save irrigation water 25.0%, economize on water 11.25% the time of infertility, and output improves 4.96%.Irrigation water water use efficiency improves 40.07%, and the water use efficiency of total water consumption improves 18.37%.As can be seen here, the comprehensive effect every furrow Limited Irrigation is water saving, volume increase, raising water effect.

Winter wheat and hybridization millet many places, main producing region in arid and semi-arid district, the resource of pouring water anxiety.And the breeding time of winter wheat the winter-spring season in drought especially, and the water requirement that output forms is large, one period groundwater decrement amount larger.The furrow that reduce irrigation quantity in furrow Limited Irrigation is processed not only can need in key the water demand of the expired sufficient crop of water, and because irrigation quantity reduces, can also reduce the moisture evaporation of native face; The minimizing of ineffective tillering simultaneously, has reduced the transpiration of poor efficiency moisture; And enough furrow of pouring water can ooze the moisture that provides late growing stage required by side.Every furrow Limited Irrigation, when saving irrigation water, reducing groundwater decrement, promote assimilation substance to transport to seed, improve harvest index and water use efficiency, output does not only reduce, and slightly increases on the contrary.Therefore, every furrow Limited Irrigation mode, have water saving, volume increase, improve the comprehensive effect , arid and semi-arid district that water is imitated, the grain producing region promotion potential of irrigation water anxiety is large, significant to the development of water-saving agriculture.

Foregoing description only proposes as the enforceable technical scheme of the present invention, not as the Single restriction condition to its technical scheme itself.

Claims (5)

1. be applicable to a water-saving irrigation method for dense planting crop, be particularly useful for wheat, hybridization millet, its characterization step comprises:
A: consolidation, sowing, fertilising: enter sowing before the winter, before sowing, consolidation is become to the bar shaped furrow of m specification of (1-2) m * (8-24), apply base manure;
B, crop once irrigate during to booting stage in jointing, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, and adjacent two furrow water respectively the 1/3-2/3 of the normal water yield and the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm;
C, crop are once irrigated when the pustulation period, employing is every furrow Limited Irrigation method, when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, exchange, watered the 1/3-2/3 that this time waters the normal water yield of the normal water yield last time, and that watered the normal water yield 1/3-2/3 last time this time waters the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm.
2. the water-saving irrigation method that is applicable to dense planting crop according to claim 1, its characterization step comprises:
A: consolidation, sowing, fertilising: enter sowing before the winter, before sowing, consolidation is become to the bar shaped furrow of m specification of (1-2) m * (8-24), apply base manure;
B, crop once irrigate during to booting stage in jointing, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, and adjacent two furrow water respectively the 1/3-2/3 of the normal water yield and the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm;
C, crop are once irrigated when earing to flowering stage, employing is every furrow Limited Irrigation method, the exchange when irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, be the 1/3-2/3 that this time waters the normal water yield that watered the normal water yield last time, that watered the normal water yield 1/3-2/3 last time this time waters the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm;
D, crop are once irrigated when the pustulation period, employing is every furrow Limited Irrigation method, when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, exchange, watered the 1/3-2/3 that this time waters the normal water yield of the normal water yield last time, and that watered the normal water yield 1/3-2/3 last time this time waters the normal water yield; The described normal water yield is 40-100mm.
3. the water-saving irrigation method that is applicable to dense planting crop according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: the irrigation quantity of described minimizing is determined with normal irrigation amount according to furrow are wide, when furrow are wide while being 40-60mm for 1.5-2m or normal irrigation amount, the irrigation quantity reducing in adjacent furrow is the 1/2-2/3 of normal irrigation amount; When furrow are wide while being 60-100mm for 1-1.5m or normal irrigation amount, the irrigation quantity reducing in adjacent furrow is the 1/3-1/2 of normal irrigation amount.
4. the water-saving irrigation method that is applicable to dense planting crop according to claim 1, its characterization step comprises:
A: consolidation, sowing, fertilising: enter sowing before the winter, before sowing, consolidation is become to the bar shaped furrow of m specification of (1-2) m * (8-24), apply base manure;
B, crop once irrigate during to booting stage in jointing, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method adjacent two furrow pour water respectively 40mm and 20mm;
C, crop are once irrigated when the pustulation period, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, exchange, and that watered 40mm last time this time waters 20mm, and that watered 20mm last time this time waters 40mm.
5. the water-saving irrigation method that is applicable to dense planting crop according to claim 2, its characterization step comprises:
A: consolidation, sowing, fertilising: enter sowing before the winter, before sowing, consolidation is become to the bar shaped furrow of m specification of (1-2) m * (8-24), apply base manure;
B, crop once irrigate during to booting stage in jointing, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method adjacent two furrow pour water respectively 40mm and 20mm;
C, crop are once irrigated when earing to flowering stage, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, exchange, and that watered 40mm last time this time waters 20mm, and that watered 20mm last time this time waters 40mm;
D, crop are once irrigated when the pustulation period, adopt every furrow Limited Irrigation method, when the irrigation quantity of adjacent two furrow and last time water, exchange, and that watered 40mm last time this time waters 20mm, and that watered 20mm last time this time waters 40mm.
CN201310038562.0A 2013-01-30 2013-01-30 Water-saving irrigation method applicable to close-planting crop CN103069997B (en)

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