CN103250546B - Large-ridge and double-line under-film drip-irrigation water-saving cultivation method of winter and early spring potatoes - Google Patents

Large-ridge and double-line under-film drip-irrigation water-saving cultivation method of winter and early spring potatoes Download PDF

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CN103250546B
CN103250546B CN201310225373.4A CN201310225373A CN103250546B CN 103250546 B CN103250546 B CN 103250546B CN 201310225373 A CN201310225373 A CN 201310225373A CN 103250546 B CN103250546 B CN 103250546B
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potato
water
ridge
saving
drip irrigation
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CN103250546A (en
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李燕山
隋启君
白建明
姚春光
普红梅
卢丽丽
潘哲超
包丽仙
杨琼芬
徐宁生
李先平
王颖
刘凌云
尹自友
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INSTITUTE OF INDUSTRIAL CROP YUNNAN ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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Abstract

The invention discloses a large-ridge and double-line under-film drip-irrigation water-saving cultivation method of winter and early spring potatoes. The method comprises the following steps of (1) potato seed selection and treatment, (2) seeding, (3) drip-irrigation equipment laying and plastic film mulching, and (4) field management. The cultivation method is a water-saving irrigation technology combining a large-ridge and double-line technology, a plastic film mulching technology and a drip-irrigation technology organically, has a particularly remarkable effect in arid and semi-arid regions, integrates the edge line advantage, maintenance of the optimum water content of root regions, effective improvement of the ground temperature, evaporation suppression and water saving, has the characteristics of preserving soil moisture, maintaining fertilizers, keeping warm, remarkably improving utilization of optical energy, water and the fertilizers, saving the water, saving labor, increasing a yield and improving the efficiency, and has the advantages of saving the water and the labor, increasing the yield and improving the efficiency.

Description

A kind of winter is spring sowing potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method early
Technical field
The present invention relates to proportion of crop planting agronomic technique field, specifically early spring sowing potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method of a kind of winter.
Background technology
Potato is cereal crops, is economic crops again, generally plants all over the world.Development southwest spring sowing potato morning in winter not only can increase cropping index, increases total output of grain, and can fill up the neutral gear of northern potato supply, to ensureing national food security further, promotes that increasing peasant income are significant.In recent years, the winter, early spring sowing potato was rapid in southern area development, was defined as the key area of Science in Future in China potato development by National agricultural portion.But nearly 3 years, southwest occurred that serious autumn, winter, spring connect gas dry days, irrigation conditions has lacked in addition, causes winter early spring sowing potato Severe Reduction, and arid has become the southwestern most of bottleneck problem that early spring in region winter, potato produced of restriction.
The development trend of arid frequently increases, and expanded range, becomes normalization.The moisture environment that the growth needs of potato is certain, under the prerequisite ensureing output, can farthest economize on water, this carries out manual control with regard to needing to the water environment in potato production process.Traditional irrigation canals and ditches flood irrigation mode, water resource waste is comparatively large, and these regional irrigating facility conditions lack relatively in addition, has been not suitable with the demand for development in spring sowing potato producing region morning in winter.In recent years, the plantation of southwest potato, although there has been larger development in technology, kind, at adaptation arid climate environmentally, has still seemed weaker.
Summary of the invention
Object of the present invention is exactly for the arid climatic conditions lower winter early technical problem that exists of spring sowing potato high moisture in the soil covering cultivation method and defect, early spring sowing potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method of a kind of winter is provided, to the area relatively lacked at irrigation conditions, manpower and agricultural chemicals input can be reduced, improve the availability of limited water resources, utilize drip irrigation technique while effective suppression evaporation, improve the drought-resistant ability of potato yield and whole process of growth, water saving, saving of labor, to increase production and improve productivity.
In order to make full use of limited water resource, improve potato yield and adapt to the ability of drought environment, the winter early spring sowing potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method of the present invention's exploitation, the method is a kind of water-saving irrigation technique large-ridge double-row, plastic mulching, drip irrigation technique organically combined, especially particularly remarkable in arid, semiarid zone effect, there is water saving, saving of labor, the advantage that increases production and improves productivity.
A kind of winter of the present invention early spring sowing potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method comprise the steps:
(1) potato seed is selected and process: the virus-free seed potato suiting measures to local conditions to select precocity, strong stress resistance, high yield, high-quality, potato seed was taken out from warehouse in 10 ~ 15 days prior to seeding, reject disease, worm, rotten potato, be placed on indoor vernalization, broadcast first 2 ~ 3 days and the potato block being greater than 75g is carried out stripping and slicing process, each stripping and slicing should contain 2 eyes, potato kind land plaster after stripping and slicing adds agricultural streptomycin and adds carbendazim, proportions is: 90:5:5, even seed dressing, Mexician scammony ratio is 1.5:100, and carries out airing, cicatrizes a wound;
(2) sow: finish at the beginning of by the end of December to 1 month, adopt double line width ridge, wide row space 70cm, little line-spacing 40cm, ridge is planted 2 row potatos, and spacing in the rows is 30cm, potato seed put after using farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer as the disposable deep placement of base manure, after planting play high ridge;
(3) drip irrigation equipment is laid and plastic mulching: install drip irrigation equipment in field after ridging, lay that water delivery is responsible for, is in charge of successively, bypass cock, irrigate band, dropper band is laid on the centre in each face, ridge, by water dropper and potato plant one_to_one corresponding, before overlay film, herbicide spraying, then artificial overlay film is carried out, mulch film requires the film of fabric width 90 ~ 100cm, accomplishes that face earthing is tight, evenly;
(4) field management before emerging: potato water of emerging carried out drip irrigation at after planting 10 ~ 15 days, reached 60 ~ 65% to soil inflitration;
(5) field management after emerging: 1. potato carries out rupture of membranes in time and draws seedling, to avoid seedling by burn after emerging; 2. pour water: when pouring water except grasping except Potato Cultivars water-requiring property in good time, growing stage, soil types, Rainfall redistribution and yield level are considered, potato growing stage is different, also different to the requirement of soil moisture content, come up to the soil moisture content that group period is suitable be 60 ~ 65%; The tiller phase is 75 ~ 80% to the soil moisture content that the knot potato phase is suitable, the soil moisture content that the knot potato later stage is suitable for is 60 ~ 65%, irrigate in time according to growth of seedling situation, soil moisture status, climate condition after emerging, can be controlled in about 7 ~ 10 days irrigation frequency, potato is poured water 8 ~ 10 times the time of infertility, and irrigation quantity is about 150 ~ 180 m 3/ 667m 2.
The advantage of winter of the present invention early spring sowing potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method is:
(1) film-covering planting, ground temperature change is more stable, is conducive to crop and early emerges, go out full stand.According to land for growing field crops observation under-film drip irrigation comparatively normal irrigation to emerge ahead of time 7 ~ 15d, emergence rate is up to more than 95%.
(2) under-film drip irrigation can supply water by timely and appropriate discovery, and water-saving result is obvious, potato under-film drip irrigation in time of infertility use water 171 m 3/ 667m 2, more traditional ditch canal irrigation 320 m 3/ 667m 2, economize on water 149 m 3/ 667m 2, water saving reaches 46.6%, volume increase 30 ~ 50%, and commodity potato rate improves about 20%.
(3) under-film drip irrigation, due to plant in the ranks without irrigation moisture, thus weeds than gross area irrigates few, can reduce weeding throwing work.(4) effectively can suppress the propagation of damage by disease and insect, crop disease and insect occurs few.
(5) low cost, every 667m 2the input increased on the original basis only about 280 ~ 300 yuan, the equipment use phase can reach about 2 ~ 3 years.
Method of the present invention integrates Dominance in border row, maintains root district optimum moisture content, effectively improves ground temperature, suppresses evaporation, economizes on water.There is soil moisture conservation, fertilizer conservation, be incubated, significantly improve luminous energy and liquid manure utilization, water saving, saving of labor, the feature that increases production and improves productivity.
Embodiment
The present invention has carried out potato productive experiment in early spring in winter in little one hundred houses town in Luliang County, Qujing City of Yunnan Province, respond well.Specific practice is:
(1) potato seed is selected and process: select kind breeding time at about 75 ~ 90 days, strong stress resistance, potato shape is good, and eye is shallow, the virus-free seed potato of the improved seeds that commodity rate is high.The potato block being greater than 75g is carried out stripping and slicing process in 2 ~ 3 days before broadcasting by potato seed, and each stripping and slicing should contain 2 eyes, and the potato kind land plaster after stripping and slicing adds agricultural streptomycin and adds carbendazim, proportions is: 90:5:5, evenly dresses seed, and Mexician scammony ratio is 1.5:100, and carry out airing, cicatrize a wound;
(2) at the beginning of 1 month, complete sowing, adopt large-ridge double-row pattern during sowing, manually can ditch and also can ditch by animal power, row spacing is 1.1m wide row space 70cm, and little line-spacing 40cm ridge is planted 2 row potatos, and spacing in the rows is 30cm.Then farmyard manure and urea, superphosphate, compound potassium sulfate fertilizer apply as base manure is disposable after putting by potato seed, and wherein farmyard manure consumption is 1000Kg/667m 2, urea 20 Kg/667m 2, superphosphate 75 Kg/667m 2, compound potassium sulfate fertilizer 40Kg/667m 2, boron fertilizer 2 Kg/667m 2.Play the high ridge of about 25cm after seeding and fertilizing, make face, ridge be shallow U-shaped.
(3) drip irrigation equipment is laid and plastic mulching: lay drip irrigation equipment and mulch film afterwards, lays that water delivery is responsible for, is in charge of, irrigate band successively; Water delivery supervisor is arranged in the middle of drip irrigation system, is in charge of cloth on face, ridge, is in charge of connection irrigate band, irrigate band extends along ridge body to both sides, dropper band is laid on the centre in each face, ridge, by water dropper and potato plant one_to_one corresponding, irrigate band is stretching, can not give a discount, and water dropper down, to arrange while irrigate band covering with plastic film on face, ridge, before overlay film, herbicide spraying, the plastic film of 100cm fabric width selected by mulch film, carry out artificial overlay film, accomplish that face earthing is tight, evenly;
(4) field management before emerging: after planting 10 ~ 15 days drip irrigations are emerged water, open dropper system and irrigate 2 ~ 3 hours, water dropper flow control is 3L/h, reaches 60% to soil relative water content, be beneficial to potato early emerge, emerge neat, emergence rate is high.
(5) field management after emerging: 1. the potato seeding stage will be carried out rupture of membranes in time and drawn seedling, to avoid seedling by burn, requires that every day puts seedling seedling stage, until seedling all sprouts; 2. pour water: due to kind law of needing the water, the soil texture, between breeding time, weather is different, and irrigation quantity is also different with interval time of pouring water in good time.Come up to the soil moisture content that group period is suitable be about 60%; The tiller phase is 75% to the soil moisture content that the knot potato phase is suitable, and the soil moisture content that the knot potato later stage is suitable for is 60%; Under-film drip irrigation potato generally to be poured water and to be advisable for 8 times the time of infertility, and can be controlled in about 7 days irrigation frequency, irrigation quantity is 150 m 3/ 667m 2, finally enter Routine Management and results.
Embodiment 2:
(1) potato seed is selected and process: select kind breeding time at about 75 ~ 90 days, strong stress resistance, potato shape is good, and eye is shallow, the virus-free seed potato of the improved seeds that commodity rate is high.The potato block being greater than 75g is carried out stripping and slicing process in 2 ~ 3 days before broadcasting by potato seed, and each stripping and slicing should contain 2 eyes, and the potato kind land plaster after stripping and slicing adds agricultural streptomycin and adds carbendazim, proportions is: 90:5:5, evenly dresses seed, and Mexician scammony ratio is 1.5:100, and carry out airing, cicatrize a wound;
(2) at the beginning of 1 month, complete sowing, adopt large-ridge double-row pattern during sowing, manually can ditch and also can ditch by animal power, row spacing is 1.1m wide row space 70cm, and little line-spacing 40cm ridge is planted 2 row potatos, and spacing in the rows is 30cm.Then farmyard manure and urea, superphosphate, compound potassium sulfate fertilizer apply as base manure is disposable after putting by potato seed, and wherein farmyard manure consumption is 1500Kg/667m 2, urea 25 Kg/667m 2, superphosphate 75 Kg/667m 2, compound potassium sulfate fertilizer 50 Kg/667m 2, boron fertilizer 2 Kg/667m 2.Play the high ridge of about 30cm after seeding and fertilizing, make face, ridge be shallow U-shaped.
(3) drip irrigation equipment is laid and plastic mulching: lay drip irrigation equipment and mulch film afterwards, lays that water delivery is responsible for, is in charge of, irrigate band successively; Water delivery supervisor is arranged in the middle of drip irrigation system, is in charge of cloth on face, ridge, is in charge of connection irrigate band, irrigate band extends along ridge body to both sides, dropper band is laid on the centre in each face, ridge, by water dropper and potato plant one_to_one corresponding, irrigate band is stretching, can not give a discount, and water dropper down, to arrange while irrigate band covering with plastic film on face, ridge, before overlay film, herbicide spraying, the plastic film of 100cm fabric width selected by mulch film, carry out artificial overlay film, accomplish that face earthing is tight, evenly;
(4) field management before emerging: after planting 10 ~ 15 days drip irrigations are emerged water, open dropper system and irrigate 2 ~ 3 hours, water dropper flow control is 3L/h, reaches 65% to soil relative water content, be beneficial to potato early emerge, emerge neat, emergence rate is high.
(5) field management after emerging: 1. the potato seeding stage will be carried out rupture of membranes in time and drawn seedling, to avoid seedling by burn, requires that every day puts seedling seedling stage, until seedling all sprouts; 2. pour water: due to kind law of needing the water, the soil texture, between breeding time, weather is different, and irrigation quantity is also different with interval time of pouring water in good time.Come up to the soil moisture content that group period is suitable be about 65%; The tiller phase is 80% to the soil moisture content that the knot potato phase is suitable, and the soil moisture content that the knot potato later stage is suitable for is 65%; Under-film drip irrigation potato generally to be poured water and to be advisable for 10 times the time of infertility, and can be controlled in about 10 days irrigation frequency, irrigation quantity is 180 m 3/ 667m 2, finally enter Routine Management and results.

Claims (5)

1. a winter early spring sowing potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method, is characterized in that the method comprises the following steps:
(1) potato seed is selected and process: select kind breeding time good 75 ~ 90 days precocities, strong stress resistance, potato shape, eye is shallow, the virus-free seed potato of high yield, high-quality, broadcast first 2 ~ 3 days and the potato block being greater than 75g is carried out stripping and slicing process, each stripping and slicing should contain 2 eyes, potato kind with medicament after stripping and slicing is evenly dressed seed, and Mexician scammony ratio is 1.5:100, and carries out airing, cicatrize a wound, medicament is that land plaster adds agricultural streptomycin and adds carbendazim proportions and be: 90:5:5;
(2) sow: at the beginning of by the end of December to 1 month, complete sowing and ridging, the mode of large-ridge double-row is adopted to sow, row spacing is 1.1m, wide row space 70cm, little line-spacing 40cm, ridge is planted 2 row potatos, spacing in the rows is 30cm, potato seed put after using farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer as the disposable deep placement of base manure, after planting play high ridge, the high 25 ~ 30cm in ridge;
(3) drip irrigation equipment is laid and plastic mulching: install drip irrigation equipment after ridging, be laid on by dropper band in the middle of face, ridge, by water dropper and potato plant one_to_one corresponding, before overlay film, and herbicide spraying, and then overlay film,
(4) field management before emerging: water of emerging carried out drip irrigation at after planting 10 ~ 15 days, reached 60 ~ 65% to soil moisture content;
(5) field management after emerging: 1. potato carries out rupture of membranes in time and draws seedling, to avoid seedling by burn after emerging; 2. pour water: after emerging, irrigation frequency controls at 7 ~ 10 days, potato is poured water 8 ~ 10 times the time of infertility, and irrigation quantity is 150 ~ 180 m in good time 3/ 667m 2.
2. winter according to claim 1 early spring sowing potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method, it is characterized in that: the chemical fertilizer in the base manure described in step (2) comprises urea, superphosphate, compound potassium sulfate fertilizer, borax four kinds, and wherein farmyard manure consumption is 1000 ~ 1500Kg/667m 2, urea 20 ~ 25 Kg/667m 2, superphosphate 75 Kg/667m 2, compound potassium sulfate fertilizer 40 ~ 50 Kg/667m 2, borax 2 Kg/667m 2.
3. winter according to claim 1 early spring sowing potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method, it is characterized in that: the water dropper described in step (3) and potato plant one_to_one corresponding, dripper spacing and potato spacing in the rows are 30cm.
4. winter according to claim 1 early spring sowing potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method, is characterized in that: the water of emerging of the potato described in step (4) carried out drip irrigation at after planting 10 ~ 15 days, and water dropper flow control is 3L/h.
5. winter according to claim 1 early spring sowing potato large-ridge double-row under-film drip irrigation water-saving cultivation method, it is characterized in that: the amount of dripping that each growing stage of potato described in step (5) is suitable for is: Seedling Stage is 60 ~ 65% to the soil moisture content that group's phase is suitable, the tiller phase is 75 ~ 80% to the soil moisture content that the knot potato phase is suitable, and the soil moisture content that the knot potato later stage is suitable for is 60 ~ 65%.
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