CN108848991A - A kind of breeding of passion fruit high position grafting and implantation methods - Google Patents

A kind of breeding of passion fruit high position grafting and implantation methods Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108848991A
CN108848991A CN201810925795.5A CN201810925795A CN108848991A CN 108848991 A CN108848991 A CN 108848991A CN 201810925795 A CN201810925795 A CN 201810925795A CN 108848991 A CN108848991 A CN 108848991A
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grafting
fruit
passion fruit
stock
high position
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CN108848991B (en
Inventor
邱文武
苏伟强
刘业强
王小媚
蔡昭艳
李恒锐
董龙
方位宽
任惠
黄章保
郭凌飞
卢美瑛
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Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Horticultural Research Institute of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/05Fruit crops, e.g. strawberries, tomatoes or cucumbers

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of breeding of passion fruit high position grafting and implantation methods, belong to passion fruit grafting field of planting.Passion fruit high position grafting breeding of the invention and implantation methods, include the following steps:(1) selection of stock seed;(2) the nursery culture of stock;(3) processing of stock;(4) selection and grafting of scion;(5) sterilization processing after grafting;(6) Cultivate administration after grafting;(7) pest control management.The present invention, which is used, grafts different high position graftings from traditional low level, while hanging string with fruiting and combining, and effective anti-system can be carried out to stem rot, reduces the disease incidence of stem rot, while improving the yield of grafting passion fruit.

Description

A kind of breeding of passion fruit high position grafting and implantation methods
Technical field
The invention belongs to passion fruits to graft field of planting, and in particular to a kind of breeding of passion fruit high position grafting and plantation side Method.
Background technique
Currently, a key factor for restricting passion fruit production is passion fruit base rot disease pandemic.
The position of passion fruit base rot disease infringement is mainly the plant basal part of stem apart from 5~10cm of ground, seedling and strain It can fall ill.Seedling is susceptible, and plant is wilted, and blade, which just will appear, to fall off and fade, and then whole strain seedling is withered;Strain is susceptible, At the initial stage of morbidity, plant basal part of stem will appear auburn scab, and then the cortex of disease sites can soften, occur slight crack and It rots, epidermis is easily separated from, and in the biggish situation of humidity ratio, will appear pink mustiness object on the surface of sick skin.Basal part of stem Gradually lateral circular stem extends scab, if basal part of stem scab does not reach one week around stem, still remains some health When epidermis, overground part shows the wilting of blade and moves back green, and in the unfavorable disease development of natural environment and climate condition, plant is continued to It survives and is extended to next season of growth, but seriously affect yield and quality.If basal part of stem scab reaches around stem's extension At one week, the blade and branches and tendrils on top will appear wilting and yellow, and then whole strain occurs withered and dead, and weather conditions are relatively more suitable The time that should be fallen ill, the tendril of plant it is wilting to the withered time can be shorter.
And it is being that stock grows to 15~20cm progress low level grafting, low level grafting that traditional passion fruit stock grafting technology, which is all, There are the problem of:Grafting easy infection stem rot, stem rot occur influences growth, influences productivity and yield.Low level is grafted easily Under germ infect, the process of pollination is also easy to infect the easily lower germ of low level, causes base rot disease.
The onset peak period of passion fruit base rot disease is the high-temperature high humidity season in 5~July, general disease incidence 20~ 30%, serious plot reaches 50% or more, and infectiousness is strong, and extension sprawling rapidly, causes orchard to be short of seedling seriously in orchard, Yield per unit area decline.Humidity is very high, soil permeability is poor, impeded drainage, acidification and the bad passion fruit of translucency Plantation morbidity is serious.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of breeding of passion fruit high position grafting and implantation methods, uses and transferred with traditional low level Different high position graftings is connect, while hanging string with fruiting and combining, effective anti-system can be carried out to stem rot, reduces stem rot Disease incidence, while improving the yield of grafting passion fruit.
The purpose of the present invention is what is be achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of breeding of passion fruit high position grafting and implantation methods, include the following steps:
(1) selection of stock seed:Golden fruit seed without mildew, no disease and pests harm is placed in water and impregnates 20-30 Hour, the seed of floating on the water is removed, remaining seed is pulled out in the germinating box for being laid in constant temperature and humidity, is sprayed simultaneously Then 800~1000 times of thiophanate methyl liquid carry out vernalization processing, obtain the seed of natural cracking;
(2) the nursery culture of stock:Seedling bed uses pearlite interstitial substance, carries out spray washing to matrix in advance, keeps base Humidity in matter is maintained at 50-80%;The stock seed of natural cracking is open by the hole for digging out a depth 1-3cm in the substrate It sows downward, the method that seed after planting uses spray washing is cultivated;
(3) processing of stock:Select the golden fruit seedling rootstock seedling culture of no disease and pests harm, upgrowth situation health to 90- 100cm, 70-80cm eminence is grown at it, is cut off stock stock, while other side shoots all being removed;Use 800~1000 Times thiophanate methyl liquid carries out sterilizing to stock;
(4) selection and grafting of scion:Select hundred perfume that no disease and pests harm, upgrowth situation are healthy, yield is high, best in quality Fruit plant, selects that bud point is full, leaf color is dark green, the seed bud of healthy no disease and pests harm or height reach the passion fruit of 5cm or more Seedling is grafted as scion seedling using cut-grafting method;Normal water and fertilizer management is carried out after grafting survival, uses conventional scaffolding Frame plantation;Passion fruit seedling can be using the excellent passion fruit plant of other kinds as scion in this step;
(5) sterilization processing after grafting:30 days after grafting and 60 days after grafting, respectively to the root of passion fruit into Preservative treatment of row, is sprayed using root of the anti-corrosion agent to passion fruit, and it is wet to be subject to stem;
(6) management after grafting:Using conventional grafting Cultivate administration mode, when branch result on frame, The branch for forming fruit on canopy is hung down, the truncation when 4~6 fruits of knot on branch;Make fruit canopy ventilated, sunlight is down According to, avoid fruit from being clipped on canopy in fruit leaf, raising integral utilization space, raising fruit frame utilization rate;
(7) pest control management:When graft fruit seedling there is aphid when, spray 10% imidacloprid wettable powder 1500~ 1200-1800 times of liquid of 2500 times of liquid or 4.5% Beta-cypermethrin EC is prevented and treated;When fruit seedling foxiness is grafted in discovery When disease, stem rot occur, 1000~1500 times of liquid or 30% hymexazol aqua of 75% thiophanate-methyl wettable powder are sprayed 600~1200 times of liquid or 80% mancozeb wettable powder 800~1700 times of liquid;And use No. 3 missible oil 1000 of hundred phosphorus The 1000 times of liquid mixing of times liquid and sterilized solution spray processing.
As the further preferred of technical solution, the spray agent prescription of step (2) spray washing is:Urea 40%, Potassium nitrate 35%, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate 8%, magnesium sulfate 14%, boric acid 2%, zinc sulfate 1%;500kg water is matched in every 1kg spray agent.Into The growth that can promote scion seedling when promoting the circulation of qi mist spray using spray agent, gives nutrient required for scion seedling is grown.Wherein zinc The synthesis that can participate in auxin heteroauxin, since zinc can promote the synthesis tryptophan of indoles and serine, and tryptophan is then The predecessor of synthetic auxin, therefore zinc affects the formation of auxin indirectly, the supplement of zinc can promote the growth of seed.Sulfuric acid Magnesium is the essential elements for synthesizing chlorophyll, adds magnesium sulfate in spray agent, the blade of rootstock seedling can be made more dark green, promote The growth of stock.Other spray agent prescriptions are even more element necessary to plant growth.As the further preferred of technical solution, institute It states matrix to need to carry out pre- spray process to matrix using spray agent before being sowed, matrix is made to keep wet.To matrix into The pre- spray of row can build a better environment, promote the growth of scion seedling.
As the further preferred of technical solution, the step (2) need to be maintained in the humidity for carrying out after planting matrix 80% or more.Higher humidity is needed after germination to promote to grow.
As the further preferred of technical solution, the temperature in the step (2) is maintained at 25-32 DEG C.Suitable temperature It is grown in promotion.
As the further preferred of technical solution, the golden fruit seedling of the step (3) selects the fruit with anti-base rot disease Seedling is as stock.Golden fruit seedling is wooden seedling, and other fruit seedlings are meat branch bars, and wooden golden fruit seedling hardness is high, is not easy to be invaded Morbidity, especially head is not easy root of hair maize ear rot.
As the further preferred of technical solution, using bactericidal agent, (use is traditional in the market after grafting in the step (4) Plant bactericidal agent glutaraldehyde, Peracetic acid, ethyl alcohol etc..) to being sprayed at graft union, then reuse methyl α-naphthyl acetate, indoles Each 1g of acetic acid is watered 1L, to spraying at grafting.It carries out disinfection sterilization after grafting to interface, then sprays somatotrophic naphthalene Acetic acid, heteroauxin improve survival rate to promote the growth of scion.
As the further preferred of technical solution, 250 times of liquid of potassium dihydrogen phosphate are used in the step (4) after grafting survival Spray process is carried out to whole tree.The growth of scion can be promoted by spraying potassium dihydrogen phosphate after grafting survival again.
As the further preferred of technical solution, the anti-corrosion agent of step (5) preservative treatment uses root guard spirit, more bacterium Spirit, root-rot are one or more of peaceful.Root guard spirit, carbendazim, root-rot rather can be bought directly from the market.The present invention Can preferably base rot disease preferably be prevented and be handled using secondary preservative treatment.
As the further preferred of technical solution, the anti-corrosion agent of step (5) preservative treatment uses root guard spirit, more bacterium Spirit, root-rot rather use 1:1:2-3 is used cooperatively.
The invention has the advantages that:
1, the present invention is grafted using golden fruit seedling as stock, and disease resistance power is strong;Golden fruit seedling is wooden seedling, and Other fruit seedlings are meat branch bars, and wooden golden fruit seedling hardness is high, are not easy to be invaded morbidity, especially head is not easy root of hair maize ear rot.It is yellow The resistance to raw phase of golden fruit seedling is long, and general 3 years or more or strong luxuriant seedling are not easy dead seedling;
2, absorption ability of nutrient is strong;Golden fruit seedling has a main root and supporting root as stock grafting seedling, and root is big and hard, and it is strong to penetrate soil power, Well developed root system, suction fertilizer is fast and more, and it is sufficient to supply leaf fruit rich water on rattan, so that the big quality of fruit is good, yield height is profitable.
3, plantation stock grafting seedling yield is high.Common planting method per mu yield is generally at 4000 jin or so, using height of the invention Position grafting implantation methods can make per mu yield reach 6,000 to 10,000 jin
4, the method that the present invention uses high position grafting, stock height reach 70-80cm, are different from the side of traditional low level grafting Method, height are only 20cm hereinafter, method of the invention can drop to avoid from underground, cuttage branch is infectd in sprawling with germ is lowered The generation of low base rot disease.
5, the present invention carries out secondary preservative treatment to root after grafting, can effectively prevent and prevent base rot disease Occur, reduces the disease incidence of base rot disease, while can effectively limit its biography to other fruit seedlings in base rot disease morbidity Dye.
6, the present invention also carries out Pest management to fruit seedling after grafting, and mode that can be more scientific and reasonable carries out fruit seedling Management prevents and treats the pest and disease damage encountered in fruit seedling growth course, improves the growth efficiency of fruit seedling, further to improve The yield of fruit seedling.
7, the present invention cultivates scion seedling using the method for spray washing, and the method for spray washing can build a humidity phase To higher environment, nutrient needed for promoting the growth of scion seedling, the use of cooperation spray agent that can provide its growth with this is mentioned Its high speed of growth, while being held essentially constant using the temperature in its environment of spray washing, the growth of scion seedling can be promoted.
Specific embodiment
Below by embodiment, the invention will be further described, so that advantages and features of the invention are easier to be managed Solution, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to these embodiments.
Embodiment 1
A kind of breeding of passion fruit high position grafting and implantation methods, include the following steps:
(1) selection of stock seed:Golden fruit seed without mildew, no disease and pests harm is placed in water and impregnates 20-25 Hour, the seed of floating on the water is removed, remaining seed is pulled out in the germinating box for being laid in constant temperature and humidity, is sprayed simultaneously Then 800~1000 times of thiophanate methyl liquid carry out vernalization processing, obtain the seed of natural cracking;
(2) the nursery culture of stock:Seedling bed uses pearlite interstitial substance, carries out spray washing to matrix in advance, and matrix exists It needs to carry out pre- spray process to matrix using spray agent before being sowed, so that matrix is kept wet, temperature is maintained at 25-28 DEG C, keep the humidity of Medium Culture to be maintained at 70-80%;The hole for digging out a depth 1-3cm in the substrate, by the stock of natural cracking The opening down sowing of seed, the method that seed after planting uses spray washing are cultivated;The spray agent prescription of spray washing is: Urea 40%, potassium nitrate 35%, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate 8%, magnesium sulfate 14%, boric acid 2%, zinc sulfate 1%;Every 1kg spray agent is matched 500kg water;
(3) processing of stock:Select no disease and pests harm, upgrowth situation health, gold passion fruit with anti-base rot disease Rootstock seedling culture grows to 70-73cm eminence at it, cuts off stock stock to 90-100cm, while other side shoots all being removed; Sterilizing is carried out to stock using 800~1000 times of thiophanate methyl liquid;
(4) selection and grafting of scion:Select no disease and pests harm, upgrowth situation health, yield is high, gold best in quality Passion fruit plant, selection bud point is full, leaf color is dark green, the seed bud of healthy no disease and pests harm or height reach the hundred of 5cm or more Fragrant fruit seedling is grafted as scion seedling using cut-grafting method;Normal water and fertilizer management is carried out after grafting survival, uses routine Frame of puing up a shed is planted;Methyl α-naphthyl acetate, indoles are then reused to spraying at graft union using bactericidal agent (30% ethyl alcohol) after grafting Each 1g of acetic acid is watered 1L, to spraying at grafting;Whole tree is sprayed using 250 times of liquid of potassium dihydrogen phosphate after grafting survival Processing;
(5) sterilization processing after grafting:30 days after grafting and 60 days after grafting, respectively to the root of passion fruit into Preservative treatment of row, is sprayed using root of the anti-corrosion agent to passion fruit, and it is wet to be subject to stem;Anti-corrosion agent uses Root guard spirit, carbendazim, root-rot rather use 1:1:3 are used cooperatively;
(6) management after grafting:Using conventional grafting Cultivate administration mode, when branch result on frame, The branch for forming fruit on canopy is hung down, the truncation when 4~6 fruits of knot on branch;Make fruit canopy ventilated, sunlight is down According to, avoid fruit from being clipped on canopy in fruit leaf, raising integral utilization space, raising fruit frame utilization rate;
(7) pest control management:When graft fruit seedling there is aphid when, spray 10% imidacloprid wettable powder 1500~ 2500 times of liquid are prevented and treated;When discovery grafting fruit seedling foxiness disease, stem rot occur when, 30% hymexazol aqua 600~ 1200 times of liquid;And processing is sprayed using the 1000 times of liquid mixing of hundred phosphorus 3,1000 times of missible oil liquid and sterilized solution.
Chongzuo passion fruit garden, using high position grafting implantation methods of the invention, the incidence of root rot be 0.2% with Under, and the survival rate of grafting reaches 99.8% or more, passion fruit makes per mu yield reach 9,000 to 10,000 jin.Its is stock of the invention resistance to The raw phase is long, and plantation 3 years or more are still strong luxuriant seedling, is not easy dead seedling.
Embodiment 2
A kind of breeding of passion fruit high position grafting and implantation methods, include the following steps:
(1) selection of stock seed:Golden fruit seed without mildew, no disease and pests harm is placed in water and impregnates 28-30 Hour, the seed of floating on the water is removed, remaining seed is pulled out in the germinating box for being laid in constant temperature and humidity, is sprayed simultaneously Then 800~1000 times of thiophanate methyl liquid carry out vernalization processing, obtain the seed of natural cracking;
(2) the nursery culture of stock:Seedling bed uses pearlite interstitial substance, carries out spray washing to matrix in advance, and matrix exists It needs to carry out pre- spray process to matrix using spray agent before being sowed, so that matrix is kept wet, temperature is maintained at 30-32 DEG C, keep the humidity of Medium Culture to be maintained at 50-60%;The hole for digging out a depth 1-3cm in the substrate, by the stock of natural cracking The opening down sowing of seed, the method that seed after planting uses spray washing are cultivated;The spray agent prescription of spray washing is: Urea 40%, potassium nitrate 35%, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate 8%, magnesium sulfate 14%, boric acid 2%, zinc sulfate 1%;Every 1kg spray agent is matched 500kg water;
(3) processing of stock:Select no disease and pests harm, upgrowth situation health, gold passion fruit with anti-base rot disease Rootstock seedling culture is cut off stock stock to 90-100cm when it grows to 78-80cm high, while other side shoots all being removed; Sterilizing is carried out to stock using 800~1000 times of thiophanate methyl liquid;
(4) selection and grafting of scion:Select no disease and pests harm, upgrowth situation health, yield it is high, best in quality all over the sky Star passion fruit plant, selection bud point is full, leaf color is dark green, the seed bud of healthy no disease and pests harm or height reach 5cm's or more Passion fruit seedling is grafted as scion seedling using cut-grafting method;Normal water and fertilizer management is carried out after grafting survival, uses routine Scaffolding frame plantation;Naphthalene second is then reused to spraying at graft union using bactericidal agent (0.1% Peracetic acid) after grafting Acid, each 1g of heteroauxin are watered 1L, to spraying at grafting;Using 250 times of liquid of potassium dihydrogen phosphate to whole tree after grafting survival Carry out spray process;
(5) sterilization processing after grafting:30 days after grafting and 60 days after grafting, respectively to the root of passion fruit into Preservative treatment of row, is sprayed using root of the anti-corrosion agent to passion fruit, and it is wet to be subject to stem;Anti-corrosion agent uses Root guard spirit, carbendazim, root-rot rather use 1:1:2 are used cooperatively;
(6) management after grafting:Using conventional grafting Cultivate administration mode, when branch result on frame, The branch for forming fruit on canopy is hung down, the truncation when 4~6 fruits of knot on branch;Make fruit canopy ventilated, sunlight is down According to, avoid fruit from being clipped on canopy in fruit leaf, raising integral utilization space, raising fruit frame utilization rate;
(7) pest control management:When aphid occurs in grafting fruit seedling, the 1200- of 4.5% Beta-cypermethrin EC is sprayed 1800 times of liquid are prevented and treated;When discovery grafting fruit seedling foxiness disease, stem rot occur, 80% Mancozeb wettable powder is sprayed 800~1700 times of liquid of agent;And processing is sprayed using the 1000 times of liquid mixing of hundred phosphorus 3,1000 times of missible oil liquid and sterilized solution.
Nanning passion fruit garden, using high position grafting implantation methods of the invention, the incidence of root rot be 0.5% with Under, and the survival rate of grafting reaches 99% or more, passion fruit makes per mu yield reach 8,000 to 10,000 jin.Its resistance to life of stock of the invention Phase is long, and plantation 3 years or more are still strong luxuriant seedling, is not easy dead seedling.
Embodiment 3
A kind of breeding of passion fruit high position grafting and implantation methods, include the following steps:
(1) selection of stock seed:Golden fruit seed without mildew, no disease and pests harm is placed in water and impregnates 25-28 Hour, the seed of floating on the water is removed, remaining seed is pulled out in the germinating box for being laid in constant temperature and humidity, is sprayed simultaneously Then 800~1000 times of thiophanate methyl liquid carry out vernalization processing, obtain the seed of natural cracking;
(2) the nursery culture of stock:Seedling bed uses pearlite interstitial substance, carries out spray washing to matrix in advance, and matrix exists It needs to carry out pre- spray process to matrix using spray agent before being sowed, so that matrix is kept wet, temperature is maintained at 28-30 DEG C, keep the humidity of Medium Culture to be maintained at 60-70%;The hole for digging out a depth 1-3cm in the substrate, by the stock of natural cracking The opening down sowing of seed, the method that seed after planting uses spray washing are cultivated;The spray agent prescription of spray washing is: Urea 40%, potassium nitrate 35%, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate 8%, magnesium sulfate 14%, boric acid 2%, zinc sulfate 1%;Every 1kg spray agent is matched 500kg water;
(3) processing of stock:Select no disease and pests harm, upgrowth situation health, gold passion fruit with anti-base rot disease Rootstock seedling culture is cut off stock stock to 90-100cm when it grows to 70-80cm high, while other side shoots all being removed; Sterilizing is carried out to stock using 800~1000 times of thiophanate methyl liquid;
(4) selection and grafting of scion:Select the purple that no disease and pests harm, upgrowth situation are healthy, yield is high, best in quality fragrant No.1 passion fruit plant, selection bud point is full, leaf color is dark green, the seed bud of healthy no disease and pests harm or height reach 5cm or more Passion fruit seedling grafted as scion seedling using cut-grafting method;Normal water and fertilizer management is carried out after grafting survival, using normal The scaffolding frame of rule is planted;Naphthalene second is then reused to spraying at graft union using bactericidal agent (20g/L glutaraldehyde) after grafting Acid, each 1g of heteroauxin are watered 1L, to spraying at grafting;Using 250 times of liquid of potassium dihydrogen phosphate to whole tree after grafting survival Carry out spray process;
(5) sterilization processing after grafting:30 days after grafting and 60 days after grafting, respectively to the root of passion fruit into Preservative treatment of row, is sprayed using root of the anti-corrosion agent to passion fruit, and it is wet to be subject to stem;Anti-corrosion agent uses Carbendazim, root-rot rather use 1:1:2.5 are used cooperatively;
(6) management after grafting:Using conventional grafting Cultivate administration mode, when branch result on frame, The branch for forming fruit on canopy is hung down, the truncation when 4~6 fruits of knot on branch;Make fruit canopy ventilated, sunlight is down According to, avoid fruit from being clipped on canopy in fruit leaf, raising integral utilization space, raising fruit frame utilization rate;
(7) pest control management:When graft fruit seedling there is aphid when, spray 10% imidacloprid wettable powder 1500~ 2500 times of liquid are prevented and treated;When discovery grafting fruit seedling foxiness disease, stem rot occur, 75% thiophanate-methyl wettable is sprayed 1000~1500 times of liquid of pulvis;And processing is sprayed using the 1000 times of liquid mixing of hundred phosphorus 3,1000 times of missible oil liquid and sterilized solution.
Liuzhou passion fruit garden, using high position grafting implantation methods of the invention, the incidence of root rot be 0.5% with Under, and the survival rate of grafting reaches 97% or more, it is very heavy that passion fruit makes per mu yield reach 8 thousand to 9.Its resistance to life of stock of the invention Phase is long, and plantation 3 years or more are still strong luxuriant seedling, is not easy dead seedling.
Embodiment 4
A kind of breeding of passion fruit high position grafting and implantation methods, include the following steps:
(1) selection of stock seed:Golden fruit seed without mildew, no disease and pests harm is placed in water and impregnates 20-30 Hour, the seed of floating on the water is removed, remaining seed is pulled out in the germinating box for being laid in constant temperature and humidity, is sprayed simultaneously Then 800~1000 times of thiophanate methyl liquid carry out vernalization processing, obtain the seed of natural cracking;
(2) the nursery culture of stock:Seedling bed uses pearlite interstitial substance, carries out spray washing to matrix in advance, and matrix exists It needs to carry out pre- spray process to matrix using spray agent before being sowed, so that matrix is kept wet, temperature is maintained at 28-32 DEG C, keep the humidity of Medium Culture to be maintained at 65-80%;The hole for digging out a depth 1-3cm in the substrate, by the stock of natural cracking The opening down sowing of seed, the method that seed after planting uses spray washing are cultivated;The spray agent prescription of spray washing is: Urea 40%, potassium nitrate 35%, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate 8%, magnesium sulfate 14%, boric acid 2%, zinc sulfate 1%;Every 1kg spray agent is matched 500kg water;
(3) processing of stock:Select no disease and pests harm, upgrowth situation health, gold passion fruit with anti-base rot disease Rootstock seedling culture is cut off stock stock to 90-100cm when it grows to 73-76cm high, while other side shoots all being removed; Sterilizing is carried out to stock using 800~1000 times of thiophanate methyl liquid;
(4) selection and grafting of scion:Select no disease and pests harm, upgrowth situation health, yield is high, platform agriculture best in quality No.1 passion fruit plant, selection bud point is full, leaf color is dark green, the seed bud of healthy no disease and pests harm or height reach 5cm or more Passion fruit seedling grafted as scion seedling using cut-grafting method;Normal water and fertilizer management is carried out after grafting survival, using normal The scaffolding frame of rule is planted;After grafting using bactericidal agent (30% ethyl alcohol) to being sprayed at graft union, then reuse methyl α-naphthyl acetate, Each 1g of heteroauxin is watered 1L, to spraying at grafting;Whole tree is carried out using 250 times of liquid of potassium dihydrogen phosphate after grafting survival Spray process;
(5) sterilization processing after grafting:30 days after grafting and 60 days after grafting, respectively to the root of passion fruit into Preservative treatment of row, is sprayed using root of the anti-corrosion agent to passion fruit, and it is wet to be subject to stem;Anti-corrosion agent uses Root guard spirit, carbendazim use 1:1 is used cooperatively;
(6) management after grafting:Using conventional grafting Cultivate administration mode, when branch result on frame, The branch for forming fruit on canopy is hung down, the truncation when 4~6 fruits of knot on branch;Make fruit canopy ventilated, sunlight is down According to, avoid fruit from being clipped on canopy in fruit leaf, raising integral utilization space, raising fruit frame utilization rate;
(7) pest control management:When aphid occurs in grafting fruit seedling, the 1200- of 4.5% Beta-cypermethrin EC is sprayed 1800 times of liquid are prevented and treated;When discovery grafting fruit seedling foxiness disease, stem rot occur, 80% Mancozeb wettable powder is sprayed 800~1700 times of liquid of agent;And processing is sprayed using the 1000 times of liquid mixing of hundred phosphorus 3,1000 times of missible oil liquid and sterilized solution.
Chongzuo passion fruit garden, using high position grafting implantation methods of the invention, the incidence of root rot be 0.8% with Under, and the survival rate of grafting reaches 98% or more, it is very heavy that passion fruit makes per mu yield reach 7 thousand to 8.Its resistance to life of stock of the invention Phase is long, and plantation 3 years or more are still strong luxuriant seedling, is not easy dead seedling.
Embodiment 5
A kind of breeding of passion fruit high position grafting and implantation methods, include the following steps:
(1) selection of stock seed:Golden fruit seed without mildew, no disease and pests harm is placed in water and impregnates 20-25 Hour, the seed of floating on the water is removed, remaining seed is pulled out in the germinating box for being laid in constant temperature and humidity, is sprayed simultaneously Then 800~1000 times of thiophanate methyl liquid carry out vernalization processing, obtain the seed of natural cracking;
(2) the nursery culture of stock:Seedling bed uses pearlite interstitial substance, carries out spray washing to matrix in advance, and matrix exists It needs to carry out pre- spray process to matrix using spray agent before being sowed, so that matrix is kept wet, temperature is maintained at 25-28 DEG C, keep the humidity of Medium Culture to be maintained at 70-80%;The hole for digging out a depth 1-3cm in the substrate, by the stock of natural cracking The opening down sowing of seed, the method that seed after planting uses spray washing are cultivated;The spray agent prescription of spray washing is: Urea 40%, potassium nitrate 35%, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate 8%, magnesium sulfate 14%, boric acid 2%, zinc sulfate 1%;Every 1kg spray agent is matched 500kg water;
(3) processing of stock:Select no disease and pests harm, upgrowth situation health, gold passion fruit with anti-base rot disease Rootstock seedling culture grows to 70-73cm eminence at it, cuts off stock stock to 90-100cm, while other side shoots all being removed; Sterilizing is carried out to stock using 800~1000 times of thiophanate methyl liquid;
(4) selection and grafting of scion:Select no disease and pests harm, upgrowth situation health, yield is high, gold best in quality Passion fruit plant, selection bud point is full, leaf color is dark green, the seed bud of healthy no disease and pests harm or height reach the hundred of 5cm or more Fragrant fruit seedling is grafted as scion seedling using cut-grafting method;Normal water and fertilizer management is carried out after grafting survival, uses routine Frame of puing up a shed is planted;Methyl α-naphthyl acetate, indoles are then reused to spraying at graft union using bactericidal agent (30% ethyl alcohol) after grafting Each 1g of acetic acid is watered 1L, to spraying at grafting;Whole tree is sprayed using 250 times of liquid of potassium dihydrogen phosphate after grafting survival Processing;
(5) sterilization processing after grafting:30 days after grafting and 60 days after grafting, respectively to the root of passion fruit into Preservative treatment of row, is sprayed using root of the anti-corrosion agent to passion fruit, and it is wet to be subject to stem;Anti-corrosion agent uses Root-rot is peaceful;
(6) management after grafting:Using conventional grafting Cultivate administration mode, when branch result on frame, The branch for forming fruit on canopy is hung down, the truncation when 4~6 fruits of knot on branch;Make fruit canopy ventilated, sunlight is down According to, avoid fruit from being clipped on canopy in fruit leaf, raising integral utilization space, raising fruit frame utilization rate;
(7) pest control management:When graft fruit seedling there is aphid when, spray 10% imidacloprid wettable powder 1500~ 1200-1800 times of liquid of 2500 times of liquid or 4.5% Beta-cypermethrin EC is prevented and treated;When fruit seedling foxiness is grafted in discovery When disease, stem rot occur, 1000~1500 times of liquid of 75% thiophanate-methyl wettable powder are sprayed;And use No. 3 creams of hundred phosphorus The 1000 times of liquid mixing of oily 1000 times of liquid and sterilized solution spray processing.
Chongzuo passion fruit garden, using high position grafting implantation methods of the invention, the incidence of root rot be 2% hereinafter, And the survival rate of grafting reaches 95% or more, it is very heavy that passion fruit makes per mu yield reach 6 thousand to 8.Its resistance to raw phase of stock of the invention Long, plantation 3 years or more are still strong luxuriant seedling, are not easy dead seedling.
Anti-corrosion agent can be replaced with root guard spirit or carbendazim by the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of passion fruit high position grafting breeding and implantation methods, it is characterised in that:Include the following steps:
(1) selection of stock seed:Golden fruit seed without mildew, no disease and pests harm is placed in water and impregnates 20-30 hour, The seed of floating on the water is removed, remaining seed is pulled out in the germinating box for being laid in constant temperature and humidity, while sprinkling 800~ Then 1000 times of thiophanate methyl liquid carry out vernalization processing, obtain the seed of natural cracking;
(2) the nursery culture of stock:Seedling bed uses pearlite interstitial substance, carries out spray washing to matrix in advance, keeps Medium Culture Humidity be maintained at 50-80%;The hole of a depth 1-3cm is dug out in the substrate, the stock seed of natural cracking is opening down Sowing, the method that seed after planting uses spray washing are cultivated;
(3) processing of stock:Select the gold passion fruit rootstock seedling culture of no disease and pests harm, upgrowth situation health to 90-100cm, It in its 70-80cm eminence, cuts off stock stock, while other side shoots all being removed;Use 800~1000 times of thiophanate methyl liquid Sterilizing is carried out to stock;
(4) selection and grafting of scion:The passion fruit that no disease and pests harm, upgrowth situation are healthy, yield is high, best in quality is selected to plant Strain selects the passion fruit branch that bud point is full, leaf color is dark green, healthy no disease and pests harm, length reach 5cm or more there are two bud point, As scion, grafted using cut-grafting method;Normal water and fertilizer management is carried out after grafting survival, uses conventional scaffolding frame kind It plants;
(5) sterilization processing after grafting:30 days after grafting and 60 days after grafting, carry out one to the root of passion fruit respectively Secondary preservative treatment is sprayed using root of the anti-corrosion agent to passion fruit, and it is wet to be subject to stem;
(6) Cultivate administration after grafting:Using conventional grafting Cultivate administration mode, when branch result on frame, By on canopy the branch of result involve and hang it down, the truncation when 4~6 fruits of knot on branch;Make fruit canopy ventilated, sunlight Down according to, avoid fruit from being clipped on canopy in fruit leaf, improve integral utilization space, improve fruit frame utilization rate;
(7) pest control management:When aphid occurs in grafting fruit seedling, the 1500~2500 of 10% imidacloprid wettable powder are sprayed 1200-1800 times of liquid of times liquid or 4.5% Beta-cypermethrin EC is prevented and treated;When discovery grafting fruit seedling foxiness disease, stem Maize ear rot occur when, spray 75% thiophanate-methyl wettable powder 1000~1500 times of liquid or 30% hymexazol aqua 600 800~1700 times of liquid of~1200 times of liquid or 80% mancozeb wettable powder;And using hundred phosphorus 3,1000 times of missible oil liquid and 1000 times of liquid mixing of sterilized solution spray processing.
2. passion fruit high position grafting breeding according to claim 1 and implantation methods, it is characterised in that:The step (2) The spray agent prescription of spray washing is:Urea 40%, potassium nitrate 35%, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate 8%, magnesium sulfate 14%, boric acid 2%, Zinc sulfate 1%;500kg water is matched in every 1kg spray agent.
3. passion fruit high position grafting breeding according to claim 2 and implantation methods, it is characterised in that:The matrix into It needs to carry out pre- spray process to matrix using spray agent before row sowing, matrix is made to keep wet.
4. passion fruit high position grafting breeding according to claim 1 and implantation methods, it is characterised in that:The step (2) 80% or more need to be maintained in the humidity for carrying out after planting matrix.
5. passion fruit high position grafting breeding according to claim 1 and implantation methods, it is characterised in that:The step (2) In temperature be maintained at 25-32 DEG C.
6. passion fruit high position grafting breeding according to claim 1 and implantation methods, it is characterised in that:The step (3) Golden fruit seedling select have anti-base rot disease fruit seedling as stock.
7. passion fruit high position grafting breeding according to claim 1 and implantation methods, it is characterised in that:The step (4) It using bactericidal agent to being sprayed at graft union after middle grafting, then reuses each 1g of methyl α-naphthyl acetate, heteroauxin and is watered 1L, to transferring The place of connecing is sprayed.
8. passion fruit high position grafting breeding according to claim 1 and implantation methods, it is characterised in that:The step (4) Spray process is carried out to whole tree using 250 times of liquid of potassium dihydrogen phosphate after middle grafting survival.
9. passion fruit high position grafting breeding according to claim 1 and implantation methods, it is characterised in that:The step (5) The anti-corrosion agent of preservative treatment is one or more of peaceful using root guard spirit, carbendazim, root-rot.
10. passion fruit high position grafting breeding according to claim 9 and implantation methods, it is characterised in that:The step (5) The anti-corrosion agent of preservative treatment rather uses 1 using root guard spirit, carbendazim, root-rot:1:2-3 is used cooperatively.
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CN110024632A (en) * 2019-04-12 2019-07-19 广西壮族自治区农业科学院生物技术研究所 A kind of passion fruit growth promotion increases yield and promotes the cultural method of quality
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CN111527900A (en) * 2020-05-20 2020-08-14 广西壮族自治区农业科学院 Double-root-cutting grafting seedling method for passion fruits
CN112514743A (en) * 2020-11-06 2021-03-19 广西壮族自治区农业科学院 Method for improving breeding efficiency of passion fruit
CN114616992A (en) * 2022-03-11 2022-06-14 中国热带农业科学院海口实验站 Passion fruit top grafting and head changing method and application thereof in character screening
CN114616992B (en) * 2022-03-11 2024-03-15 中国热带农业科学院热带作物品种资源研究所 High-grafting head-changing method for passion fruits and application of high-grafting head-changing method in character screening

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