CN108967070B - Method for planting passion fruit by soil renovation in next year - Google Patents

Method for planting passion fruit by soil renovation in next year Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108967070B
CN108967070B CN201810925811.0A CN201810925811A CN108967070B CN 108967070 B CN108967070 B CN 108967070B CN 201810925811 A CN201810925811 A CN 201810925811A CN 108967070 B CN108967070 B CN 108967070B
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passion fruit
planting
seedlings
soil
vines
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CN108967070A (en
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邱文武
苏伟强
刘业强
王小媚
蔡昭艳
李恒锐
董龙
方位宽
任惠
黄章保
郭凌飞
卢美瑛
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Guangxi Haiyin Agricultural Technology Co., Ltd
Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Guangxi Haiyin Agricultural Technology Co Ltd
Horticultural Research Institute of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/05Fruit crops, e.g. strawberries, tomatoes or cucumbers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for cultivating passion fruit by soil renovation in the next year, and belongs to the field of plant cultivation. Which comprises the following steps: cultivating healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings, soil renovation, building a shed frame, planting, cultivating and managing. According to the method, healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings are selected for planting, a multi-shed structural shed frame and a planting mode of soil renovation once a year are adopted, the probability of breeding pathogenic bacteria infecting the passion fruit is reduced from the source, and the growing environment required by passion fruit planting is met. The method can delay the trend of the spread of virus diseases and the outbreak of stem base rot of the passion fruit, and achieves the purpose of high quality, high efficiency and high yield of the passion fruit.

Description

Method for planting passion fruit by soil renovation in next year
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of plant cultivation, and particularly relates to a passion fruit planting method, in particular to a passion fruit next year soil renovation planting method.
Background
Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) with the scientific name of passion flower, Passiflora family, Passiflora genus, is tropical and subtropical perennial evergreen vine berry fruit tree, and is named due to the strong fragrance of more than ten kinds of fruits such as pomegranate, pineapple, strawberry, lemon, mango, plum, and the like. The passion fruit contains rich protein, fat, alkali and acid, as well as sugar, vitamins, phosphorus, calcium, iron, potassium and other compounds and 17 amino acids, and has the effects of diminishing inflammation, relieving pain, promoting blood circulation, strengthening body constitution, reducing blood fat and blood pressure, nourishing yin, tonifying kidney, refreshing, relieving hangover, relieving fatigue, removing toxic substance, caring skin, enhancing immunity and the like.
The passion fruit belongs to a heterosexual plant, and can bloom in 7 months and can harvest in 9 months in the year. The flowers can be opened in 5-6 batches in one year, the flowers in each batch are separated by about 20 days, 60-70 days are needed from the flowering to the fruit ripening, and the fruits are harvested for 4 months. However, there are some problems in the planting process of passion fruit, so that the produced passion fruit cannot meet the market demand. The problems existing in the planting process of the passion fruit are as follows:
1. most of the passion fruit seedlings adopt a direct sowing planting mode, so that the seeds directly germinate and grow in a passion fruit greenhouse field, the passion fruit seedlings have weak resistance to diseases and insect pests, the problems of various diseases and insect pests and pathogen infection are easy to occur, even a large number of cases of death from illness occur, and the seedling management workload at the early stage is large;
2. in the passion fruit cultivation, a trellis needs to be built to obtain high yield, however, a plurality of passion fruit greenhouses adopt single-layer greenhouses, the growth space of the passion fruit is limited, the growth of the passion fruit is limited, the lighting of the passion fruit is influenced, and the yield and the quality of the passion fruit are influenced;
3. pure chemical fertilizer is selected in the planting of the passion fruit, the nutrition requirement of the passion fruit cannot be completely met, the fruit quality is poor, in addition, the soil is degraded, and the quality of the passion fruit is further influenced;
4. the life of the passion fruit plant is about 20 years, the economic life is generally 8-10 years, and therefore, the planting mode of planting for one year and bearing fruits for many years is mostly adopted at present. However, since the soil is not renovated and disinfected for many years, a large amount of germs are latent in the soil, and the quality, the setting rate and the like of the passion fruit in the last years are seriously affected.
The passion fruit planting industry and the passion fruit processing industry are well-developed, and the passion fruit planting method has great development potential. Passion fruit is a rough-growing and basic-growing sprawling plant, and can grow well as long as the environmental conditions are suitable. The passion fruit has strong pest resistance to diseases and pests, but is easily infected and damaged by nearby migratory flying invasive pests and plant germs in the large-scale planting process. Therefore, there is a need to provide a method suitable for large-scale planting of passion fruit that overcomes the above problems.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a passion fruit next-year soil renovation planting method, which comprises the steps of selecting healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings cultivated in a greenhouse for planting, adopting a multi-shed structural shed frame, matching with all-round measures such as fertilizer and water management, vine leading and pruning, field weeding, pest control and the like, and adopting a reasonable planting mode of soil renovation once a year, so that the probability of breeding pathogenic bacteria infecting the passion fruit is reduced from the source, the occurrence of basal rot of the passion fruit in the planting process is avoided to a certain extent, the effect of preventing and controlling the breeding of germs is achieved, and the growth environment required by passion fruit planting is met. The method can delay the trend of the spread of virus diseases and the outbreak of stem base rot of the passion fruit, and achieves the purpose of high quality, high efficiency and high yield of the passion fruit.
The technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
the next year soil renovation planting method of the passion fruit comprises the following steps:
(1) cultivating healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings: starting greenhouse planting in the middle ten days of 8 months, planting the grafted seedlings into nutrient cups, and fertilizing, deinsectizing and preventing diseases according to a conventional method; the nutrient cups are filled with field mud, coarse sand and organic fertilizer, and each nutrient cup is inserted with a bamboo rod with the height of 1.5-1.8 m;
preferably, the diameter of the nutrition cup is 25-30 cm; the filling of the nutrition cup comprises the steps of firstly placing a layer of field mud (usually 5-15cm) at the bottom, then placing a layer of organic fertilizer of 2-3cm, then placing a layer of field mud of 3-10cm, then placing a layer of coarse sand of 2-3cm, and finally placing a layer of organic fertilizer of 1-2cm at the top; the height of the nutrition cup is determined according to the filling requirement;
(2) soil renovation: picking fruits every year, cutting off all old seedlings, cleaning out a garden, spreading lime, soaking the garden in water for 5-7 days, draining the water, turning over the harrowing field when the soil humidity is 40% -60%, uniformly spreading dazomet on the ground surface, immediately covering the land with plastic cloth after spreading, compacting four sides of the plastic cloth with soil, uncovering the plastic cloth after 12-15 days, soaking the field in new water for 5-7 days, draining the water until the soil humidity is 40% -50%, opening furrows in the field, wherein the width of each furrow is 1.6-2.0m, the length of each furrow is 8.0-16.0m, the interval of each furrow is 2.5-3.0m, and the pedestrian path in the middle of each furrow is 0.6-0.8 m;
preferably, the dosage of the lime is 140-170 kg/mu, and the dosage of the dazomet is 20-30 kg/mu;
(3) building a shed frame: adopting a multi-shed structure shed frame, inserting and burying steel pipes with the length of 3.1-6.5m into the ground for 0.9-1m according to the plant spacing of 5-6m and the row spacing of 3-4m, fixing, ensuring that the height of the steel pipes on the ground part reaches 2.2-5.5m, and then using a steel wire rope to draw, straighten and tighten the steel pipes according to the transverse direction and the longitudinal direction of the steel pipes; building 3-6 layers of sheds, wherein the width of the 1 st layer is 1.6-1.8m, the width of the 2 nd layer is 1.4-1.6m, the width of the 3 rd-6 th layer is 1.2-1.6m, and the distance between every two layers is 0.7-0.9 m; the canopy frame is illuminated in an east-west orientation;
(4) planting: transplanting virus-free healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings (with the seedling height of 2-2.4m and the diameter of 0.5-2.0cm) 10-15 days before and after spring beginning to the field, planting the seedlings on the left and right sides of the field separately, digging planting holes according to the plant spacing of 3.0-3.5m, wherein the width of the planting holes is 65-75cm, and the depth is 45-55 cm; firstly, applying base fertilizer to the bottom of a planting hole, wherein the application amount is 8-12 kg/hole, then covering soil for 3-5cm, then planting the virus-free healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings into the planting hole, continuously covering the soil, and watering the planting water; arranging a vertical column with the length of 2.7-6.5m at a position 5-10cm away from the root of the passion fruit seedlings according to the number of layers of the greenhouse, guiding the virus-free healthy and strong seedlings of the passion fruit to spread and grow to the greenhouse frame through the vertical column, arranging 1, 3 and 5 layers of greenhouses on the left seedlings, and arranging 2, 4 and 6 layers of greenhouses on the right seedlings;
preferably, the base fertilizer is one or more of sheep manure, cattle manure or pig manure;
(5) cultivation management:
managing fertilizer and water: after planting and survival, applying a phosphorus-potassium water-soluble fertilizer and a bean bran fermented fertilizer to the roots of passion fruit seedlings, and simultaneously spraying 2000-fold 5000-fold potassium phosphate and 4000-fold 8000-fold microelement nutrient solution foliar fertilizers, so that the plant leaves are wet and do not drip water for 2-3 times per month; after the passion fruit blooms, dressing fertilizer for 1 time for each batch of flowers, dressing 0.2-0.4kg of ternary compound fertilizer (N, P, K), 0.2-0.4kg of potassium sulfate and 0.8-1.2kg of peanut bran for composting according to the strength of plants, spraying 4000 times of potassium chloride and 3000 times of monopotassium phosphate on leaf surfaces, adding 6000 times of microelement nutrient solution, spraying for 4-5 times by taking leaf surface wetting as a standard, and spacing for 10-15 days;
the trace element nutrient solution used in the invention is a mixed solution of 5-10% of ferric sulfate, 5-7% of calcium superphosphate, 2-5% of zinc sulfate, 0.5-3% of magnesium chloride, 0.8-1.6% of manganese sulfate, 0.8-1.4% of sodium molybdate, 0.2-0.6% of copper nitrate and 0.01-0.08% of boric acid powder;
when drought occurs during the growth period of the passion fruit seedlings, the seedlings need to be irrigated in time, and drainage needs to be carried out in time in rainy season, so that the water content of the matrix soil is kept at 60% -70%;
secondly, leading vines and trimming: 3-5 days after planting, spraying the passion fruit seedlings by using 800-time thiophanate methyl, removing axillary buds of the main vines at any time, only reserving terminal buds of the main vines, topping and pinching after the main vines are stretched to 8-10 sections, and reserving 6-8 first-level lateral vines; topping the first-stage lateral vines when 8-10 leaves grow on the first-stage lateral vines, growing second-stage lateral vines, and reserving 6-8 buds of each first-stage lateral vine to grow into second-stage lateral vines as fruiting vines; reserving 6-8 buds of each second-stage lateral vine to grow into third-stage lateral vines as fruiting vines; meanwhile, trimming redundant fruitless tendrils in time;
③ weeding in the field: weeds in the open field are removed in time;
and fourthly, pest control: the pruning and garden cleaning are carried out, diseased branches, diseased leaves and diseased fruits are removed from the orchard, and the disease sources are reduced; the soil is sterilized and disinfected, and the insects are repelled and killed;
in the process of preventing and controlling the plant diseases and insect pests, 95 percent of hymexazol crude powder of 3000 times liquid, 50 percent of carbendazim of 500 times liquid, 500 times liquid or 800 times liquid of thiram of 500 times liquid are used for sterilizing and disinfecting the roots of the soil every 20 to 30 days, and various medicaments are used alternately; meanwhile, insect pests are physically prevented and controlled by adopting a yellow plate, a trap lamp or a sex attractant, and the relatively serious disease condition can be prevented and controlled by adopting 500-fold liquid spray of 45 percent or 50 percent malathion missible oil and 1000-fold liquid spray;
harvesting fruits: placing a honey beehive in the greenhouse every 20-30m when the first batch of flowers begin to bloom on the passion fruit until the flowering phase is finished; harvesting when the fruit color changes to purple and has slight fragrance, and picking up fruit drop within 1-3 days.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
(1) according to the method, healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings cultivated in a greenhouse are selected for planting, and the height of the seedlings is 2.0-2.4 m. By adopting the large seedling planting, passion fruit plants can be put on the shelf in advance, blooming and fruiting are advanced, and the annual fruit batch number and yield of a field are increased; moreover, the seedling supporting workload is greatly reduced, the replacement and the supplement of seedlings are convenient, the stability of the total number of blossoming and fruiting seedlings is ensured, and the realization of high yield is ensured; in addition, the land cost is greatly reduced.
(2) The invention adopts the next year soil renovation planting mode, soaks the field with water every year, renovates the soil, disinfects and sterilizes the soil with lime and dazomet, eliminates the virus and germs of diseases and pests in the soil, changes the virus and germs into new soil, solves the occurrence of virus diseases of passion fruit from the source, particularly the occurrence of stem base rot which is easy to occur in the passion fruit planting process, and ensures the proper growth environment required by the growth of the passion fruit.
(3) The invention adopts a multi-shed type structure shed frame, 3-6 layers of sheds are built, the height of each layer of shed is 0.7-0.9m, the condition that passion fruit on other layers is shielded from irradiating sunlight due to luxuriant branches and leaves of the passion fruit is avoided, space resources are fully utilized, land resources are saved, and land cost is reduced; the plants are planted on the left side and the right side separately, seedlings on the left side and the right side are planted on the greenhouse separately, and due to the planting mode, the passion fruit plants have sufficient growth space and sunlight irradiation, and the passion fruit orchard is not dense enough in the passion fruit growth vigorous period, so that the occurrence frequency of plant diseases and insect pests is reduced, and the improvement of the quality and the yield of the passion fruit is facilitated.
(4) The invention applies organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer to passion fruit plants in different growth and development periods: the base fertilizer is applied with sheep manure, cattle manure and pig manure, which not only can not pollute soil, but also can provide long-acting nutrition supply for passion fruit plants, and has low cost; during topdressing, a phosphorus-potassium water-soluble fertilizer and a bean bran fermented fertilizer are applied to roots, and potassium phosphate and a trace element nutrient solution foliar fertilizer are sprayed on leaf surfaces, so that the nutrient elements necessary for normal growth of passion fruit plants are ensured, and the nutrition is balanced; after flowering, the root is applied with a ternary compound fertilizer, potassium sulfate and peanut bran retting fertilizer, and the leaf surface is sprayed with water fertilizers of potassium chloride, monopotassium phosphate and trace element nutrient solution, so that the flowering rate and the fruiting rate are ensured.
Detailed Description
The present invention is further illustrated by the following examples in order that the advantages and features of the present invention may be more readily understood, but the scope of the invention is not limited to these examples.
Example 1
The next year soil renovation planting method of the passion fruit comprises the following steps:
(1) cultivating healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings: in the middle ten days of 8 months, greenhouse planting in a greenhouse is started, wherein a layer of 10cm of field mud is placed at the bottom of a nutrition cup with the diameter of 27cm, a layer of 2.5cm of organic fertilizer is placed, a layer of 7cm of field mud is placed, a layer of 2.5cm of coarse sand is placed, and a layer of 1.5cm of organic fertilizer is placed at the top; planting the grafted seedlings into nutrition cups, and inserting a bamboo rod with the height of 1.7m into each nutrition cup; fertilizing, deinsectizing and preventing diseases according to a conventional method;
(2) soil renovation: after picking fruits every year, cutting all old seedlings off, cleaning out a garden, spreading 160 kg/mu of lime, soaking the garden in water for 6 days, draining the water, turning over and harrowing the garden when the soil humidity is 50%, uniformly spreading 27 kg/mu of dazomet on the ground surface, immediately covering the land with plastic cloth after spreading, compacting four sides of the plastic cloth with soil, uncovering the plastic cloth after 14 days, soaking the field in new water for 6 days, draining the water until the soil humidity is 43%, opening furrows in the field, wherein the width of the furrows is 1.8m, the length of the furrows is 12.0m, the interval of each furrow is 2.7m, and the pedestrian path in the middle of the furrow is 0.7 m;
(3) building a shed frame: adopting a multi-shed structure shed frame, inserting and burying steel pipes with the length of 3.1m into the ground for 0.9m according to the plant spacing of 6m and the row spacing of 4m, fixing, ensuring that the height of the steel pipes on the ground part reaches 2.2m, and then using a steel wire rope to draw, straighten and tighten the steel pipes according to the transverse direction and the longitudinal direction of the steel pipes; building 3 layers of sheds, wherein the width of the 1 st layer is 1.7m, the width of the 2 nd layer is 1.6m, the width of the 3 rd layer is 1.5m, and the distance between every two layers is 0.7 m; the canopy frame is illuminated in an east-west orientation;
(4) planting: transplanting virus-free healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings (with the seedling height of 2-2.4m and the diameter of 0.5-2.0cm) to the left and right sides of a field for planting 12 days before and after spring beginning, digging planting holes according to the plant spacing of 3.2m, wherein the width of each planting hole is 70cm, and the depth of each planting hole is 50 cm; firstly, 1/2 sheep manure and 1/2 cattle manure are applied to the bottom of a planting hole, the application amount is 10 kg/hole, then soil is covered for 4cm, then passion fruit healthy and strong seedlings are planted in the planting hole, soil is continuously covered, and planting water is poured; arranging a vertical column with the length of 2.7m at a position 7cm away from the root of the passion fruit seedling according to the number of layers of the greenhouse, guiding the healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings to spread and grow on the greenhouse frame through the vertical column, wherein 1, 3 layers of greenhouse are arranged on the left seedlings, and the 2 nd layer of greenhouse is arranged on the right seedlings;
(5) cultivation management:
managing fertilizer and water: after the seedlings of the passion fruits are planted and survived, applying a phosphorus-potassium water-soluble fertilizer and a bean bran fermented fertilizer to the roots of the passion fruit seedlings, and spraying 4000 times of potassium phosphate and 6000 times of a trace element nutrient solution foliar fertilizer simultaneously, so that the leaves of the plants are moist and do not drip water, and 3 times a month are needed; after the passion fruit blooms, applying a fertilizer for 1 time for each batch of flowers, applying 0.3kg of ternary compound fertilizer (N, P, K), 0.3kg of potassium sulfate and 1.0kg of peanut bran for retting the fertilizer for each hundred flowers according to the plant strength, spraying 3000-time potassium chloride and 4000-time potassium dihydrogen phosphate water fertilizers to leaf surfaces, adding 5000-time microelement nutrient solution, spraying 5 times according to the wetting of the leaf surfaces, and performing interval of 13 days each time;
the used microelement nutrient solution is a mixed solution of 8% of ferric sulfate, 6% of calcium superphosphate, 4% of zinc sulfate, 2% of magnesium chloride, 1.2% of manganese sulfate, 1.1% of sodium molybdate, 0.4% of copper nitrate and 0.05% of boric acid powder;
when drought occurs during the growth period of the passion fruit seedlings, the seedlings need to be irrigated in time, and drainage needs to be carried out in time in rainy season, so that the water content of the matrix soil is kept at 65%;
secondly, leading vines and trimming: 4 days after planting, spraying the passion fruit seedlings by 900 times of thiophanate methyl, removing axillary buds of the main vines at any time, only remaining terminal buds of the main vines, topping and pinching after the main vines are stretched to 9 sections on a greenhouse, and remaining 7 first-level lateral vines; topping the first-stage lateral vines when 9 leaves grow on the first-stage lateral vines, growing second-stage lateral vines, and reserving 7 buds of each first-stage lateral vine to grow into second-stage lateral vines as fruiting vines; reserving 7 buds of each second-stage lateral vine to grow into third-stage lateral vines as fruiting vines; meanwhile, trimming redundant fruitless tendrils in time;
③ weeding in the field: weeds in the open field are removed in time;
and fourthly, pest control: the pruning and garden cleaning are carried out, diseased branches, diseased leaves and diseased fruits are removed from the orchard, and the disease sources are reduced; the soil is sterilized and disinfected, and the insects are repelled and killed;
in the process of preventing and treating the plant diseases and insect pests, 95 percent of hymexazol crude powder 2500 times liquid, 50 percent of carbendazim 550 times liquid, thiram 550 times liquid or thiophanate methyl 800 times liquid is used for sterilizing and disinfecting the root of the soil every 25 days, and various medicaments are used alternately; meanwhile, insect pests are physically prevented and treated by adopting a yellow plate hanging mode, a trap lamp mode or a sex attractant mode, and the disease condition can be relatively seriously prevented and treated by adopting a 800-time liquid spray of malathion missible oil of 45 percent or 50 percent;
harvesting fruits: placing a honeybee hive every 25m in the greenhouse when the first batch of flowers begin to bloom on the passion fruit until the flowering phase is finished; when the fruit color changes to purple and has slight fragrance, the fruit can be picked up in 1 day.
By adopting the method, the occurrence of the stem base rot of the passion fruit is zero, the occurrence of the virus disease of the passion fruit is delayed, and meanwhile, the yield of the passion fruit is improved by 28 percent and the commodity fruit rate is improved by 37 percent compared with the traditional planting method.
Example 2
The next year soil renovation planting method of the passion fruit comprises the following steps:
(1) cultivating healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings: in the middle ten days of 8 months, greenhouse planting in a greenhouse is started, wherein a layer of 8cm of field mud is placed at the bottom of a nutrition cup with the diameter of 28cm, a layer of 2.2cm of organic fertilizer is placed, a layer of 5cm of field mud is placed, a layer of 3cm of coarse sand is placed, and a layer of 2cm of organic fertilizer is placed at the top; planting the grafted seedlings into nutrition cups, and inserting a bamboo rod with the height of 1.6m into each nutrition cup; fertilizing, deinsectizing and preventing diseases according to a conventional method;
(2) soil renovation: after picking fruits every year, cutting all old seedlings off, cleaning out a garden, spreading 150 kg/mu of lime, soaking the garden in water for 7 days, draining the water, turning over and harrowing the garden when the soil humidity is 55%, uniformly spreading 25 kg/mu of dazomet on the ground surface, immediately covering the land after spreading, compacting four sides of the plastic cloth with soil, uncovering the plastic cloth after 13 days, soaking the field in new water for 6 days, draining the water until the soil humidity is 47%, opening furrows in the field, wherein the width of the furrow is 1.7m, the length of the furrow is 10.0m, the interval of each furrow is 2.8m, and the pedestrian path in the middle of the furrow is 0.6 m;
(3) building a shed frame: adopting a multi-shed type structural shed frame, inserting and burying steel pipes with the length of 4.2m into the ground for 0.9m according to the plant spacing of 5m and the row spacing of 3m, fixing, ensuring that the height of the steel pipes on the ground part reaches 3.3m, and then using a steel wire rope to draw, straighten and tighten the steel pipes according to the transverse direction and the longitudinal direction of the steel pipes; building 4 layers of sheds, wherein the width of the 1 st layer is 1.8m, the width of the 2 nd layer is 1.6m, the width of the 3 rd layer is 1.5m, the width of the 4 th layer is 1.4m, and the distance between every two layers is 0.8 m; the canopy frame is illuminated in an east-west orientation;
(4) planting: transplanting virus-free healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings (the height of the seedlings is 2-2.4m, the diameter is 0.5-2.0cm) 13 days before and after spring beginning to the field, planting the seedlings on the left side and the right side of the field separately, digging planting holes according to the plant spacing of 3.3m, wherein the width of each planting hole is 72cm, and the depth of each planting hole is 52 cm; firstly, 1/2 pig manure and 1/2 cattle manure are applied to the bottom of a planting hole, the application amount is 11 kg/hole, then 4cm of soil is covered, then passion fruit healthy and strong seedlings are planted into the planting hole, soil is continuously covered, and planting water is poured; arranging a vertical column with the length of 3.9m at a position 8cm away from the root of the passion fruit seedlings according to the number of layers of the greenhouse, guiding the passion fruit strong seedlings to spread and grow to the greenhouse frame through the vertical column, wherein 1 and 3 layers of the greenhouse are arranged on the seedlings on the left side, and 2 and 4 layers of the greenhouse are arranged on the seedlings on the right side;
(5) cultivation management:
managing fertilizer and water: after the seedlings of the passion fruits are planted and survived, applying a phosphorus-potassium water-soluble fertilizer and a bean bran fermented fertilizer to the roots of the passion fruit seedlings, and spraying 3000 times of potassium phosphate and 7000 times of a trace element nutrient solution foliar fertilizer at the same time, so that the leaves of the plants are moist and do not drip, and 3 times a month are needed; after the passion fruit blooms, applying a fertilizer for 1 time for each batch of flowers, applying 0.3kg of ternary compound fertilizer (N, P, K), 0.3kg of potassium sulfate and 1.1kg of peanut bran for retting the fertilizer for each hundred flowers according to the plant strength, spraying 3500-time potassium chloride and 3500-time potassium dihydrogen phosphate water fertilizers on leaf surfaces, adding 5500-time microelement nutrient solution, spraying 5 times with the leaf surface wetting as standard, and spacing for 12 days each time;
the used microelement nutrient solution is a mixed solution of 7% of ferric sulfate, 6% of calcium superphosphate, 3% of zinc sulfate, 1.5% of magnesium chloride, 1.0% of manganese sulfate, 1.2% of sodium molybdate, 0.5% of copper nitrate and 0.04% of boric acid powder;
when drought occurs during the growth period of the passion fruit seedlings, the seedlings need to be irrigated in time, and drainage needs to be carried out in time in rainy season, so that the water content of the matrix soil is kept at 63%;
secondly, leading vines and trimming: 4 days after planting, spraying the passion fruit seedlings by 850 times of thiophanate methyl, removing axillary buds of the main vines at any time, only remaining terminal buds of the main vines, topping and pinching after the main vines are stretched to 9 sections on a shed, and remaining 7 first-level lateral vines; topping the first-stage lateral vines when 9 leaves grow on the first-stage lateral vines, growing second-stage lateral vines, and reserving 7 buds of each first-stage lateral vine to grow into second-stage lateral vines as fruiting vines; reserving 7 buds of each second-stage lateral vine to grow into third-stage lateral vines as fruiting vines; meanwhile, trimming redundant fruitless tendrils in time;
③ weeding in the field: weeds in the open field are removed in time;
and fourthly, pest control: the pruning and garden cleaning are carried out, diseased branches, diseased leaves and diseased fruits are removed from the orchard, and the disease sources are reduced; the soil is sterilized and disinfected, and the insects are repelled and killed;
in the process of preventing and treating the plant diseases and insect pests, 95 percent of hymexazol raw powder 2000 times liquid, 50 percent of carbendazim 600 times liquid, thiram 550 times liquid or thiophanate methyl 800 times liquid is used for sterilizing and disinfecting the root of the soil every 22 days, and various medicaments are used alternately; meanwhile, insect pests are physically controlled by adopting a yellow plate, a trap lamp or a sex attractant, and the conditions are relatively serious by adopting 900-time liquid spray of 45 percent or 50 percent malathion missible oil for controlling;
harvesting fruits: placing a honeybee hive every 22m in the greenhouse when the first batch of flowers begin to bloom on the passion fruit until the flowering phase is finished; when the fruit color changes to purple and has slight fragrance, the fruit can be picked up and fallen within 2 days.
By adopting the method, the occurrence of the stem base rot of the passion fruit is zero, the occurrence of the virus disease of the passion fruit is delayed, and meanwhile, the yield of the passion fruit is improved by 27 percent and the commodity fruit rate is improved by 35 percent compared with the traditional planting method.
Example 3
The next year soil renovation planting method of the passion fruit comprises the following steps:
(1) cultivating healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings: in the middle ten days of 8 months, greenhouse planting in a greenhouse is started, a layer of 12cm of field mud is placed at the bottom of a nutrition cup with the diameter of 29cm, a layer of 3cm of organic fertilizer is placed, a layer of 8cm of field mud is placed, a layer of 2cm of coarse sand is placed, and finally a layer of 1cm of organic fertilizer is placed at the top; planting the grafted seedlings into nutrition cups, and inserting a bamboo rod with the height of 1.7m into each nutrition cup; fertilizing, deinsectizing and preventing diseases according to a conventional method;
(2) soil renovation: after picking fruits every year, cutting all old seedlings, cleaning out a garden, spreading 155 kg/mu of lime, soaking the garden in water for 5.5 days, draining the water, turning over and harrowing the garden when the soil humidity is 45%, uniformly spreading 23 kg/mu of dazomet on the ground surface, immediately covering the land with plastic cloth after spreading, compacting four sides of the plastic cloth with soil, uncovering the plastic cloth after 14 days, soaking the field in new water for 6.5 days, draining the water until the soil humidity is 42%, opening furrows in the field when the furrows are 1.9m wide and 14.0m long, wherein the interval between every two furrows is 2.6m, and the pedestrian path in the middle of each furrow is 0.8 m;
(3) building a shed frame: adopting a multi-shed structure shed frame, inserting and burying 5.1m long steel pipes into the ground for 1m according to 6m plant spacing and 4m row spacing, fixing to ensure that the height of the steel pipes on the ground part reaches 4.1m, and then using a steel wire rope to draw, straighten and tighten the steel pipes according to the transverse direction and the longitudinal direction of the steel pipes; building 5 layers of sheds, wherein the width of the 1 st layer is 1.8m, the width of the 2 nd layer is 1.6m, the width of the 3 rd layer is 1.5m, the width of the 4 th layer is 1.4m, the width of the 5 th layer is 1.3m, and the distance between every two layers is 0.8 m; the canopy frame is illuminated in an east-west orientation;
(4) planting: transplanting virus-free healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings (the height of the seedlings is 2-2.4m, the diameter is 0.5-2.0cm) 11 days before and after spring beginning to the field, planting the seedlings on the left side and the right side of the field separately, digging planting holes according to the plant spacing of 3.4m, wherein the width of each planting hole is 73cm, and the depth of each planting hole is 48 cm; firstly, 1/3 pig manure, 1/3 cattle manure and 1/3 sheep manure are applied to the bottom of a planting hole, the application amount is 9 kg/hole, then 4cm of soil is covered, then passion fruit healthy and strong seedlings are planted into the planting hole, soil is continuously covered, and planting water is poured; arranging a vertical column with the length of 4.9m at a position 9cm away from the root of the passion fruit seedling according to the number of layers of the greenhouse, guiding the healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings to spread and grow on the greenhouse frame through the vertical column, arranging 1, 3 and 5 layers of greenhouses on the left seedlings, and arranging 2 and 4 layers of greenhouses on the right seedlings;
(5) cultivation management:
managing fertilizer and water: after the seedlings of the passion fruits are planted and survive, applying a phosphorus-potassium water-soluble fertilizer and a bean bran fermented fertilizer to the roots of the passion fruit seedlings, and spraying 3500 times of potassium phosphate and 6500 times of a trace element nutrient solution foliar fertilizer simultaneously, so that the leaves of the plants are moist and do not drip water, and 2 times a month; after the passion fruit blooms, applying fertilizer for 1 time for each batch of flowers, applying 0.3kg of ternary compound fertilizer (N, P, K), 0.3kg of potassium sulfate and 0.9kg of peanut bran for retting fertilizer according to the strength of plants for each hundred flowers, spraying 2000 times of potassium chloride and 4000 times of potassium dihydrogen phosphate water fertilizer on leaf surfaces, adding 4000 times of microelement nutrient solution, spraying 5 times with the leaf surface wetting as the standard, and spraying 11 days at intervals;
the used microelement nutrient solution is a mixed solution of 6% of ferric sulfate, 7% of calcium superphosphate, 4% of zinc sulfate, 2.5% of magnesium chloride, 0.9% of manganese sulfate, 0.9% of sodium molybdate, 0.3% of copper nitrate and 0.07% of boric acid powder;
when drought occurs during the growth period of the passion fruit seedlings, the seedlings need to be irrigated in time, and drainage needs to be carried out in time in rainy season, so that the water content of the matrix soil is kept at 68%;
secondly, leading vines and trimming: 4 days after planting, spraying the passion fruit seedlings by 1000 times of thiophanate methyl, removing axillary buds of the main vines at any time, only remaining terminal buds of the main vines, topping and pinching after the main vines are stretched to 8 sections on a greenhouse, and remaining 6 first-level lateral vines; topping the first-stage lateral vines when 8 leaves grow on the first-stage lateral vines, then growing second-stage lateral vines, and reserving 6 buds of each first-stage lateral vine to grow into second-stage lateral vines as fruiting vines; reserving 6 buds of each second-stage lateral vine to grow into third-stage lateral vines as fruiting vines; meanwhile, trimming redundant fruitless tendrils in time;
③ weeding in the field: weeds in the open field are removed in time;
and fourthly, pest control: the pruning and garden cleaning are carried out, diseased branches, diseased leaves and diseased fruits are removed from the orchard, and the disease sources are reduced; the soil is sterilized and disinfected, and the insects are repelled and killed;
in the process of pest control, 3000 times of 95% hymexazol raw powder solution, 500 times of 50% carbendazim solution, 600 times of thiram solution or 800 times of thiophanate methyl solution is used for sterilizing and disinfecting the root of soil every 27 days, and various medicaments are used alternately; meanwhile, insect pests are physically controlled by adopting a yellow plate, a trap lamp or a sex attractant, and the disease condition can be controlled by adopting 45 percent or 50 percent malathion missible oil 600-time liquid spray when the disease condition is relatively serious;
harvesting fruits: placing a honeybee hive every 28m in the greenhouse when the first batch of flowers begin to bloom on the passion fruit until the flowering phase is finished; when the fruit color changes to purple and has slight fragrance, the fruit can be picked up and fallen within 2 days.
By adopting the method, the occurrence of the stem base rot of the passion fruit is zero, the occurrence of the virus disease of the passion fruit is delayed, and meanwhile, the yield of the passion fruit is improved by 27 percent and the commodity fruit rate is improved by 34 percent compared with the traditional planting method.
Example 4
The next year soil renovation planting method of the passion fruit comprises the following steps:
(1) cultivating healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings: in the middle ten days of 8 months, greenhouse planting in a greenhouse is started, a layer of 15cm of field mud is placed at the bottom of a nutrition cup with the diameter of 30cm, a layer of 3cm of organic fertilizer is placed, a layer of 10cm of field mud is placed, a layer of 3cm of coarse sand is placed, and finally a layer of 1cm of organic fertilizer is placed at the top; planting the grafted seedlings into nutrition cups, and inserting a bamboo rod with the height of 1.8m into each nutrition cup; fertilizing, deinsectizing and preventing diseases according to a conventional method;
(2) soil renovation: after picking fruits every year, cutting all old seedlings off, cleaning out a garden, spreading 170 kg/mu of lime, soaking the garden in water for 5 days, draining the water, turning over and harrowing the garden when the soil humidity is 40%, uniformly spraying 20 kg/mu of dazomet on the ground surface, immediately covering the land after spreading, compacting four sides of the plastic cloth with soil, uncovering the plastic cloth after 15 days, soaking the field in new water for 7 days, draining the water until the soil humidity is 40%, opening furrows in the field, wherein the width of the furrow is 1.6m, the length of the furrow is 8.0m, the interval of each furrow is 3.0m, and the pedestrian path in the middle of the furrow is 0.6 m;
(3) building a shed frame: adopting a multi-shed type structural shed frame, inserting and burying steel pipes with the length of 6.5m into the ground for 1m according to the plant spacing of 6m and the row spacing of 4m, fixing, ensuring that the height of the steel pipes on the ground part reaches 5.5m, and then using a steel wire rope to draw, straighten and tighten the steel pipes according to the transverse direction and the longitudinal direction of the steel pipes; building 6 layers of sheds, wherein the width of the 1 st layer is 1.8m, the width of the 2 nd layer is 1.6m, the width of the 3 rd layer is 1.5m, the width of the 4 th layer is 1.4m, the width of the 5 th layer is 1.3m, the width of the 6 th layer is 1.2m, and the distance between every two layers is 0.9 m; the canopy frame is illuminated in an east-west orientation;
(4) planting: transplanting virus-free healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings (with the seedling height of 2-2.4m and the diameter of 0.5-2.0cm) 15 days before and after spring beginning to the field, planting the seedlings on the left and right sides of the field separately, digging planting holes according to the plant spacing of 3.5m, wherein the width of each planting hole is 75cm, and the depth of each planting hole is 55 cm; firstly, applying pig fertilizer at the bottom of a planting hole, wherein the application amount is 12 kg/hole, then covering soil for 5cm, then planting the passion fruit healthy and strong seedlings into the planting hole, continuously covering the soil, and watering the planting water; arranging a vertical column with the length of 6.5m at a position 10cm away from the root of the passion fruit seedling according to the number of layers of the greenhouse, guiding the healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings to spread and grow on the greenhouse frame through the vertical column, arranging 1, 3 and 5 layers of greenhouses on the left seedlings, and arranging 2, 4 and 6 layers of greenhouses on the right seedlings;
(5) cultivation management:
managing fertilizer and water: after the seedlings of the passion fruits are planted and survived, applying a phosphorus-potassium water-soluble fertilizer and a bean bran fermented fertilizer to the roots of the passion fruit seedlings, and spraying 2000 times of potassium phosphate and 8000 times of a trace element nutrient solution foliar fertilizer simultaneously, so that the leaves of the plants are moist and do not drip water, and 2 times a month are needed; after the passion fruit blooms, applying a fertilizer for 1 time for each batch of flowers, applying 0.4kg of ternary compound fertilizer (N, P, K), 0.2kg of potassium sulfate and 1.2kg of peanut bran for retting the fertilizer for each hundred flowers according to the plant strength, spraying 2000 times of potassium chloride and 5000 times of monopotassium phosphate water fertilizer on leaf surfaces, adding 5000 times of microelement nutrient solution, spraying 4 times with the leaf surface wetting as the standard, and spraying 15 days at intervals each time;
the used microelement nutrient solution is a mixed solution of 10% of ferric sulfate, 5% of calcium superphosphate, 5% of zinc sulfate, 0.5% of magnesium chloride, 0.8% of manganese sulfate, 1.4% of sodium molybdate, 0.2% of copper nitrate and 0.08% of boric acid powder;
when drought occurs during the growth period of the passion fruit seedlings, the seedlings need to be irrigated in time, and drainage needs to be carried out in time in rainy season, so that the water content of the matrix soil is kept at 70%;
secondly, leading vines and trimming: 5 days after planting, spraying the passion fruit seedlings by using 800 times of thiophanate methyl, removing axillary buds of the main vines at any time, only remaining terminal buds of the main vines, topping and pinching after the main vines are stretched to 10 sections on a greenhouse, and remaining 8 first-level lateral vines; topping the first-stage lateral vines when 10 leaves grow on the first-stage lateral vines, then growing second-stage lateral vines, reserving 8 buds of each first-stage lateral vine to grow into second-stage lateral vines as fruiting vines; each second-level lateral vine leaves 8 buds to grow into a third-level lateral vine as a fruiting vine; meanwhile, trimming redundant fruitless tendrils in time;
③ weeding in the field: weeds in the open field are removed in time;
and fourthly, pest control: the pruning and garden cleaning are carried out, diseased branches, diseased leaves and diseased fruits are removed from the orchard, and the disease sources are reduced; the soil is sterilized and disinfected, and the insects are repelled and killed;
in the process of preventing and treating the diseases and insect pests, 95 percent of hymexazol raw powder of 2000 times liquid, 50 percent of carbendazim of 600 times liquid, 500 times liquid of thiram or 800 times liquid of thiophanate methyl are used for sterilizing and disinfecting the root of the soil every 20 days, and various medicaments are used alternately; meanwhile, insect pests are physically controlled by adopting a yellow plate, a trap lamp or a sex attractant, and the disease condition can be controlled by adopting 1000-time liquid spray of 45 percent or 50 percent malathion missible oil when the disease condition is relatively serious;
harvesting fruits: placing a honeybee hive every 20m in the greenhouse when the passion fruit starts to bloom for the first time until the flowering phase is finished; when the fruit color changes to purple and has slight fragrance, the fruit can be picked up in 1 day.
By adopting the method, the occurrence of the stem base rot of the passion fruit is zero, the occurrence of the virus disease of the passion fruit is delayed, and meanwhile, the yield of the passion fruit is improved by 26 percent and the commodity fruit rate is improved by 34 percent compared with the traditional planting method.
Example 5
The next year soil renovation planting method of the passion fruit comprises the following steps:
(1) cultivating healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings: in the middle ten days of 8 months, greenhouse planting in a greenhouse is started, a layer of 5cm of field mud is placed at the bottom of a nutrition cup with the diameter of 25cm, a layer of 2cm of organic fertilizer is placed, a layer of 3cm of field mud is placed, a layer of 2cm of coarse sand is placed, and a layer of 2cm of organic fertilizer is placed at the top; planting the grafted seedlings into nutrition cups, and inserting a bamboo rod with the height of 1.5m into each nutrition cup; fertilizing, deinsectizing and preventing diseases according to a conventional method;
(2) soil renovation: after picking fruits every year, cutting all old seedlings off, cleaning out a garden, spreading 140 kg/mu of lime, soaking the garden in water for 7 days, draining the water, turning over and harrowing the garden when the soil humidity is 60%, uniformly spreading 30 kg/mu of dazomet on the ground surface, immediately covering the land after spreading, compacting four sides of the plastic cloth with soil, removing the plastic cloth after 12 days, soaking the field in new water for 5 days, draining the water until the soil humidity is 50%, opening furrows in the field, wherein the furrow width is 2.0m, the length is 16.0m, the interval between every two furrows is 2.5m, and the pedestrian path in the middle of the furrow is 0.8 m;
(3) building a shed frame: adopting a multi-shed type structural shed frame, inserting and burying steel pipes with the length of 6.5m into the ground for 1m according to the plant spacing of 5m and the row spacing of 3m, fixing, ensuring that the height of the steel pipes on the ground part reaches 5.5m, and then using a steel wire rope to draw, straighten and tighten the steel pipes according to the transverse direction and the longitudinal direction of the steel pipes; building 6 layers of sheds, wherein the width of the 1 st layer is 1.8m, the width of the 2 nd layer is 1.6m, the width of the 3 rd layer is 1.5m, the width of the 4 th layer is 1.4m, the width of the 5 th layer is 1.3m, the width of the 6 th layer is 1.2m, and the distance between every two layers is 0.7 m; the canopy frame is illuminated in an east-west orientation;
(4) planting: transplanting virus-free healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings (the height of the seedlings is 2-2.4m, the diameter is 0.5-2.0cm) to the left and right sides of a field for planting 10 days before and after spring beginning, digging planting holes according to the plant spacing of 3.0m, wherein the width of each planting hole is 65cm, and the depth of each planting hole is 45 cm; firstly, applying pig fertilizer to the bottom of a planting hole, wherein the application amount is 8 kg/hole, then covering soil for 3cm, then planting the passion fruit healthy and strong seedlings into the planting hole, continuously covering the soil, and watering the planting water; arranging a vertical column with the length of 6.5m at a position 5cm away from the root of the passion fruit seedlings according to the number of layers of the greenhouse, guiding the passion fruit strong seedlings to spread and grow to the greenhouse frame through the vertical column, arranging 1, 3 and 5 layers of the greenhouse on the seedlings on the left side, and arranging 2, 4 and 6 layers of the greenhouse on the seedlings on the right side;
(5) cultivation management:
managing fertilizer and water: after the seedlings of the passion fruits are planted and survived, applying a phosphorus-potassium water-soluble fertilizer and a bean bran fermented fertilizer to the roots of the passion fruit seedlings, and spraying 5000 times of potassium phosphate and 4000 times of a trace element nutrient solution foliar fertilizer simultaneously, so that the leaves of the plants are moist and do not drip, and 3 times a month are needed; after the passion fruit blooms, applying fertilizer for 1 time for each batch of flowers, applying 0.2kg of ternary compound fertilizer (N, P, K), 0.4kg of potassium sulfate and 0.8kg of peanut bran for retting fertilizer for each hundred flowers according to the plant strength, spraying 4000-times potassium chloride and 3000-times monopotassium phosphate water fertilizer on leaf surfaces, adding 4000-times microelement nutrient solution, spraying 5 times with the leaf surface wetting as the standard, and spraying 10 days at intervals each time;
the used microelement nutrient solution is a mixed solution of 5% of ferric sulfate, 7% of calcium superphosphate, 2% of zinc sulfate, 3% of magnesium chloride, 1.6% of manganese sulfate, 0.8% of sodium molybdate, 0.6% of copper nitrate and 0.01% of boric acid powder;
when drought occurs during the growth period of the passion fruit seedlings, the seedlings need to be irrigated in time, and drainage needs to be carried out in time in rainy season, so that the water content of the matrix soil is kept at 60%;
secondly, leading vines and trimming: 3 days after planting, spraying the passion fruit seedlings by 1000 times of thiophanate methyl, removing axillary buds of the main vines at any time, only remaining terminal buds of the main vines, topping and pinching after the main vines are stretched to 8 sections on a greenhouse, and remaining 6 first-level lateral vines; topping the first-stage lateral vines when 8 leaves grow on the first-stage lateral vines, then growing second-stage lateral vines, and reserving 6 buds of each first-stage lateral vine to grow into second-stage lateral vines as fruiting vines; reserving 6 buds of each second-stage lateral vine to grow into third-stage lateral vines as fruiting vines; meanwhile, trimming redundant fruitless tendrils in time;
③ weeding in the field: weeds in the open field are removed in time;
and fourthly, pest control: the pruning and garden cleaning are carried out, diseased branches, diseased leaves and diseased fruits are removed from the orchard, and the disease sources are reduced; the soil is sterilized and disinfected, and the insects are repelled and killed;
in the process of preventing and treating the plant diseases and insect pests, 3000 times of 95 percent hymexazol raw powder solution, 500 times of 50 percent carbendazim solution, 600 times of thiram solution or 800 times of thiophanate methyl solution are used for sterilizing and disinfecting the root of the soil every 30 days, and various medicaments are used alternately; meanwhile, insect pests are physically controlled by adopting a yellow plate, a trap lamp or a sex attractant, and the disease condition can be controlled by adopting 500-time liquid spray of 45 percent or 50 percent malathion missible oil when the disease condition is relatively serious;
harvesting fruits: placing a honeybee hive every 30m in the greenhouse when the passion fruit starts to bloom for the first time until the flowering phase is finished; harvesting when the fruit color changes to purple and has slight fragrance, and picking up the fruit within 3 days.
By adopting the method, the occurrence of the stem base rot of the passion fruit is zero, the occurrence of the virus disease of the passion fruit is delayed, and meanwhile, the yield of the passion fruit is improved by 25 percent and the commodity fruit rate is improved by 34 percent compared with the traditional planting method.

Claims (8)

1. The next-year soil renovation planting method for the passion fruit is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) cultivating healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings: starting greenhouse planting in the middle ten days of 8 months, planting the grafted seedlings into nutrient cups, and fertilizing, deinsectizing and preventing diseases according to a conventional method; the nutrient cups are filled with field mud, coarse sand and organic fertilizer, and each nutrient cup is inserted with a bamboo rod with the height of 1.5-1.8 m;
(2) soil renovation: picking fruits every year, cutting off all old seedlings, cleaning out a garden, spreading lime, soaking the garden in water for 5-7 days, draining the water, turning over the harrowing field when the soil humidity is 40% -60%, uniformly spreading dazomet on the ground surface, immediately covering the land with plastic cloth after spreading, compacting four sides of the plastic cloth with soil, uncovering the plastic cloth after 12-15 days, soaking the field in new water for 5-7 days, draining the water until the soil humidity is 40% -50%, opening furrows in the field, wherein the width of each furrow is 1.6-2.0m, the length of each furrow is 8.0-16.0m, the interval of each furrow is 2.5-3.0m, and the pedestrian path in the middle of each furrow is 0.6-0.8 m;
(3) building a shed frame: adopting a multi-shed structure shed frame, inserting and burying steel pipes underground according to the plant spacing of 5-6m and the row spacing of 3-4m, fixing, and then using a steel wire rope to draw, straighten and tighten the steel pipes according to the transverse direction and the longitudinal direction of the steel pipes; building 3-6 layers of sheds, wherein the width of the 1 st layer is 1.6-1.8m, the width of the 2 nd layer is 1.4-1.6m, the width of the 3 rd-6 th layer is 1.2-1.6m, and the distance between every two layers is 0.7-0.9 m; the canopy frame is illuminated in an east-west orientation;
(4) planting: transplanting virus-free healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings to the left and right sides of a field for planting 10-15 days before and after spring beginning, digging planting holes according to the plant spacing of 3.0-3.5m, wherein the width of each planting hole is 65-75cm, and the depth of each planting hole is 45-55 cm; firstly, applying base fertilizer to the bottom of a planting hole, wherein the application amount is 8-12 kg/hole, then covering soil for 3-5cm, then planting the virus-free healthy and strong passion fruit seedlings into the planting hole, continuously covering the soil, and watering the planting water; arranging a vertical column with the length of 2.7-6.5m at a position 5-10cm away from the root of the passion fruit seedlings according to the number of layers of the greenhouse, guiding the virus-free healthy and strong seedlings of the passion fruit to spread and grow to the greenhouse frame through the vertical column, arranging 1, 3 and 5 layers of greenhouses on the left seedlings, and arranging 2, 4 and 6 layers of greenhouses on the right seedlings;
(5) cultivation management:
managing fertilizer and water: after planting and survival, applying a phosphorus-potassium water-soluble fertilizer and a bean bran fermented fertilizer to the roots of passion fruit seedlings, and simultaneously spraying 2000-fold 5000-fold potassium phosphate and 4000-fold 8000-fold microelement nutrient solution foliar fertilizers, so that the plant leaves are wet and do not drip water for 2-3 times per month; after the passion fruit blooms, dressing fertilizer for 1 time for each batch of flowers, dressing 0.2-0.4kg of ternary compound fertilizer, 0.2-0.4kg of potassium sulfate and 0.8-1.2kg of peanut bran for composting according to the strength of plants, spraying water fertilizers of 2000-4000 times potassium chloride and 3000-5000 times monopotassium phosphate on leaf surfaces, adding 4000-6000 times microelement nutrient solution, and spraying for 4-5 times at intervals of 10-15 days on the basis of leaf surface wetting;
when drought occurs during the growth period of the passion fruit seedlings, the seedlings need to be irrigated in time, and drainage needs to be carried out in time in rainy season, so that the water content of the matrix soil is kept at 60% -70%;
secondly, leading vines and trimming: 3-5 days after planting, spraying the passion fruit seedlings by using 800-time thiophanate methyl, removing axillary buds of the main vines at any time, only reserving terminal buds of the main vines, topping and pinching after the main vines are stretched to 8-10 sections, and reserving 6-8 first-level lateral vines; topping the first-stage lateral vines when 8-10 leaves grow on the first-stage lateral vines, growing second-stage lateral vines, and reserving 6-8 buds of each first-stage lateral vine to grow into second-stage lateral vines as fruiting vines; reserving 6-8 buds of each second-stage lateral vine to grow into third-stage lateral vines as fruiting vines; meanwhile, trimming redundant fruitless tendrils in time;
③ weeding in the field: weeds in the open field are removed in time;
and fourthly, pest control: the pruning and garden cleaning are carried out, diseased branches, diseased leaves and diseased fruits are removed from the orchard, and the disease sources are reduced; the soil is sterilized and disinfected, and the insects are repelled and killed;
harvesting fruits: harvesting when the fruit color changes to purple and has slight fragrance, and picking up fruit drop within 1-3 days.
2. The method for planting passion fruit in a renovated manner on soil in the next year according to claim 1, wherein the diameter of the nutrition cup in the step (1) is 25-30 cm; the filling of the nutrition cup comprises the steps of firstly placing a layer of field mud at the bottom, then placing a layer of organic fertilizer of 2-3cm, then placing a layer of field mud, then placing a layer of coarse sand of 2-3cm, and finally placing a layer of organic fertilizer of 1-2cm at the top.
3. The method for planting passion fruit by soil renovation in the next year as claimed in claim 1, wherein the dosage of lime in the step (2) is 140-170 kg/mu, and the dosage of dazomet is 20-30 kg/mu.
4. The method for planting passion fruit through soil renovation in the next year according to claim 1, wherein in the step (3), the steel pipe is 3.1-6.5m long and is buried underground for 0.9-1m, and the height of the steel pipe on the ground is guaranteed to be 2.2-5.5 m.
5. The method for planting passion fruit in a renovated manner in the next year according to claim 1, wherein the base fertilizer in the step (4) is one or more of sheep manure, cattle manure and pig manure.
6. The method for planting passion fruit through soil renovation in the next year according to claim 1, wherein in the pest control process in the step (5), 95% hymexazol crude powder of 3000 times liquid, 50% carbendazim of 500 times liquid, thiram of 500 times liquid or thiophanate methyl of 800 times liquid is used for sterilizing and disinfecting the root of the soil every 20-30 days, and various medicaments are used alternately; meanwhile, insect pests are physically prevented and treated by adopting a yellow hanging plate, a trap lamp or a sex attractant, and the relatively serious disease condition can be prevented and treated by adopting 500-fold liquid spray of 45 percent or 50 percent malathion missible oil and 1000-fold liquid spray.
7. The method for planting passion fruit in a renovated manner in the next year according to claim 1, wherein the microelement nutrient solution in the step (5) is a mixed solution of 5-10% of ferric sulfate, 5-7% of calcium superphosphate, 2-5% of zinc sulfate, 0.5-3% of magnesium chloride, 0.8-1.6% of manganese sulfate, 0.8-1.4% of sodium molybdate, 0.2-0.6% of copper nitrate and 0.01-0.08% of boric acid powder.
8. The method for planting passion fruit in a renovated manner for next year according to claim 1, wherein the step (5) further comprises placing a beehive every 20-30m in the greenhouse when the passion fruit begins to bloom in the first batch until the end of the flowering phase.
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