CN105075781A - Cultivating method for mulberries - Google Patents

Cultivating method for mulberries Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105075781A
CN105075781A CN201510564365.1A CN201510564365A CN105075781A CN 105075781 A CN105075781 A CN 105075781A CN 201510564365 A CN201510564365 A CN 201510564365A CN 105075781 A CN105075781 A CN 105075781A
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branch
mulberry
bud
grafting
tree
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CN105075781B (en
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陈国荣
冉龙平
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Ningnan South Silk Road Group Comany
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Ningnan South Silk Road Group Comany
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention provides a cultivating method for mulberries. Through the steps of mulberry grafting, post-grafting managing, shape cultivating, cultivation caring, fertilizer application, insect control, leaf picking and tree maintaining and managing in winter, the mulberries grow robustly, and the yield and quality of mulberry leaves are high.

Description

The breeding method of a kind of mulberry tree
Technical field
The present invention relates to mulberry tree plantation and grafting field.
Background technology
Mulberry tree is a kind of perennial economic crops, and its vigorous period is generally annual April to October, and harvest time is long, and seasonal strong, its blade recovery ratio impact on sericulture there is very big.Investigate according to Inst. of Silkworm, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences: when mulberry branch in every mu of mulberry field is more than 8000, along with the increase of mulberry branch quantity, average branch length can corresponding reduction, thin and delicate branch ratio increases, leaf yield declines, namely in every mu of mulberry field, the branch quantity of mulberry tree is an important Con trolling index, in Zhong Meimu mulberry field, general high yield mulberry field, effective mulberry branch amount is advisable with 6000 ~ 8000, the planting density of mulberry tree on this basis, average branch length, the amount of planting mulberry tree in every mu of mulberry field all has a significant effect to the quantity and quality of mulberry leaf.
The plantation of tradition mulberry tree adopts the pattern of " four limit mulberries ", " hillside fields mulberry ", " mulberry in blocks ", " large row mulberry "; its cropping index is low; mulberry leaf are difficult to realize high yield and high-quality simultaneously; constrain the development of silkworm industry to industrialization, Labor-saving, standardization, scale; constrain the development of silkworm industry regional economy, be difficult to the demand of satisfied modern sericultural production development.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide the mulberry tree breeding method that a kind of mulberry yield and quality are all higher, land utilization rate is high, soil cropping index is high, its technical scheme is as follows:
A breeding method for mulberry tree, comprises the following steps:
1) grafting
Grafting was carried out to mulberry tree in 10 days before and after the beginning of spring, when treelet grows to tree-walk 2 ~ 3cm, grafting is carried out at its trunk distance 5 ~ 6 cun, ground place, select trunk Smooth during grafting, cut out long the first otch deeply reaching cortex of 2 ~ 2.5cm without the place of cortex breakage, to prune the cortex at 0.5 ~ 1cm place above described first otch simultaneously, on trunk, cut out the second otch with same cutting way, described second otch be positioned at lower than with the first otch relative to the 2 ~ 3cm place of trunk vertical axes to the position of symmetry; Get married and start a new life on Sang Sui bar and get bud, apart from cutter under bud in the heart square 0.5cm ~ 1cm place when getting bud, stranding is cut 1 ~ 2cm place to the bud heart and is returned sword, whole bud length of a film 2 ~ 2.5cm under cutting, operate with this and take off two buds, be respectively the first grafting bud and the second grafting bud, two the buds difference forwards taken off are inserted in described first otch and the second otch, its lower end is tight against kerf bottom, thereafter use plastics closely to wrap up in twine trunk and the first grafting bud and the second grafting bud are fixed in otch simultaneously, above the first otch, cut sth. askew trunk remainder in 0.3 ~ 0.5cm place thereafter;
2) managing after grafting
Completing steps 1) described in grafting after conventional daily management and maintenance are carried out to stock, note removing debudding at any time, carry out benefit when grafting bud does not survive in time and connect, prevent people and animals from injuring and damage by disease and insect after grafting bud survives, not picking leaves in spring;
3) type is supported
Through step 2) treelet that survives after grafting grows up to new tree, the trunk of former treelet forms trunk, first grafting bud and the second grafting bud grow up to the first branch and the second branch, winter beta pruning is being carried out to described new tree then, during beta pruning, the part of the first branch and the second branch distance more than 5 ~ 6 cun, trunk is all cut off, obtain one-level branch, during Second Year beta pruning, the sprouting that one-level branch is sprouted grows up to annotinous branch, the part of annotinous branch distance one-level branch more than 3 ~ 4 cun is all cut off, obtain secondary branch, so far tree-shaped is formed, after this annual bud that selective retention 2 ~ 3 is excellent on current-year branch, in the bud retain distance on this branch, the part of bud 0.3 ~ more than the 0.5cm of the top is all cut sth. askew and is cut off,
4) cultivate and look after
In the process of new tree growth according to well arranged, go weak stay strong, go closely to stay rare principle to cut off weak branch, sick branch, overstocked branch winter, amputate deadwood, withered stake, select reservation 5 ~ 8 limbs to the new tree root that foster type completes according to soil fertility, shoot growth situation, new set close with branch upgrowth situation to trunk selects wherein well-grown branch to cultivate as trunk;
5) apply fertilizer
Divide spring, summer, autumn, the four seasons in winter to apply fertilizer to new tree, spring fertilizer discharges when sprouting sprouts, and fertilizing amount accounts for 30% of annual total fertilizing amount; Summer is fertile, and after silkworm in spring is terminated, rainy season set, discharges during mulberry tree vigorous period, and to improve leaf yield, its fertilizing amount accounts for 40% of annual total fertilizing amount; Autumn fertilizer discharges after the summer, silkworm was terminated, and to make branches and leaves continued growth, delay mulberry leaf are aging, increase leaf yield in late fall, and its fertilizing amount accounts for 10% of annual total fertilizing amount; Winter top dressing discharges after late fall, silkworm was terminated, and to improve soil, increases soil fertility, and extends mulberry tree and abounds with the phase, and its fertilizing amount accounts for 20% of annual total fertilizing amount;
6) extermination of disease and insect pest
In grafting then between late March to early April, rotation uses Rogor, dichlorvos, propargite to carry out 1 ~ 2 medicine killing to damage by disease and insect such as mulberry tree two spotted spider mite, yellow spider, mulberry whiteflies; Yu Chun, summer, autumn sericulture gap phase, medicine dichlorvos, Rogor, carbendazim is used to carry out 1 ~ 2 killing to damage by disease and insect such as mulberry whitefly, Phellinus linteus, brown spots, killing terminates in the silkworm egg outbound of lower season for first 3 days, and the concentration of described medicine and amount of application control by operation instruction and non-polluted farm product Pesticide use criterion;
7) picking leaves is set with foster
By the principle staying Ye Yangshu, after per season sericulture picking leaves, at least retain the ripe mulberry leaf in 3 ~ 5, branch top;
8) winter pipe
Clear up mulberry tree fallen leaves winter, root out surrounding weeds, eliminate survive the winter germ and worm's ovum, the type of supporting of on time pruning, after trimming and finishing, use the lime sulfur of 4 ~ 5 Baume degrees evenly to spray on mulberry tree trunk and surrounding table soil, to protect mulberry tree.
Exist between above-mentioned breeding method and traditional mulberry tree breeding method and obviously distinguish, traditional mulberry tree grafting uses the mode of spiral grafting, generally need lay 2 ~ 3 buds spirally on stock and carry out grafting.This grafting method easily makes the mulberry branch distribution that grows up to overstocked on the one hand, can produce obvious apical dominance on the one hand, have obvious upgrowth situation difference between the branch grown after causing grafting, causes the par of the mulberry leaf of output and second-rate further.
A kind of preferred embodiment of above-mentioned breeding method is: when described step 3) also comprises higher to growing of mulberry, in secondary branch top end, whole plant is cut off by the waist, after this annual equally bud that selective retention 2 ~ 3 is excellent in branch, in the bud retain distance in this branch, the part of bud 0.3 ~ more than the 0.5cm of the top is all cut sth. askew and is cut off.
The another kind of preferred embodiment of above-mentioned breeding method is the domestic animals manure of spring fertilizer behaviour described in described step 5), urea and carbon ammonium or mulberry tree special fertilizer.
Said mulberry tree special fertilizer is the general mulberry tree special fertilizer that can buy on the market herein, can carry out selectivity purchase according to the actual upgrowth situation of special fertilizer operation instruction in conjunction with mulberry tree and use.
The another kind of preferred embodiment of this breeding method for: the summer fertilizer described in described step 5) for by mass percent be 10 ~ 20% silkworm excrement, 60 ~ 70% bacterium slag, the pericarp of 5% ~ 10%, the EM bacterium of 3% ~ 5% and dilution earth mixing after the mixture that obtains after 1 ~ 2 day in the outdoor stacking content that adds 3% ~ 5% be again greater than 70% ferrous sulfate, 1% ~ 3% manganese sulfate solution after the material that obtains.
Wherein said silkworm excrement is the ight soil produced after nibbling mulberry; Described bacterium slag is the culture medium abandoned after breed of edible fungus; The earth of described dilution is add the product that a small amount of water obtains in common soil, the consumption of earth and the amount of water that adds can meet make silkworm excrement, bacterium slag, pericarp, EM bacterium, earth mixing after form selectivity adjustment under the prerequisite of grume, in the process that room temperature is stacked, noting keeping the skin wet maintains this sticky state; The Fruit Peel that the preferred sugar content of described pericarp is higher, does not advise the pericarp using hard-shell type; Described ferrous sulfate and manganese sulfate solution can use solid sulphuric acid ferrous soluble in water and obtain with manganese sulphate.
The another kind of preferred embodiment of this breeding method is: described treelet is planted in mulberry field, described mulberry field is divided into the planted area and interplanting district that adjoin each other, namely each interplanting district is positioned between two adjacent planted areas, each planted area is between adjacent two interplanting districts, described treelet is all planted in described planted area, described treelet adopts close planting system in described planted area, and its plantation density is 2 ~ 3/square metre.
The another kind of preferred embodiment of this breeding method is: the strain of described every mu, mulberry field plantation described treelet 800 ~ 1000.
Above-mentioned two kinds of preferred embodiments are more preferably: the described wide 1.5 ~ 2m in interplanting district, wide 0.6 ~ the 0.65m in described planted area, treelet described in described planted area carries out staggered plantation, namely adjacent plant is not planted on the same line, but the left and right edge of planting respectively successively in planted area, on same edge, the distance of adjacent two treelets is 50cm.
It is further preferably any three adjacent treelet plantation position distributions triangular in shape in described planted area.
Can also preferably: in described interplanting district, plant other crops beyond mulberry tree, plant in Qi Zhongchun, summer in soya bean, peanut, Ipomoea batatas, herbage one or more, one or more during autumn, winter planting's potato, pea, lima bean, lotus flower are white.
The present invention has following beneficial effect:
1) grafting method that mulberry tree breeding method of the present invention adopts avoids that the mulberry branch distribution caused by the spiral grafting of traditional mulberry tree is overstocked, apical dominance is excessively strong, mulberry leaf average quality and the poor defect of quantity;
2) the foster type mode that mulberry tree breeding method of the present invention adopts is conducive to the dominant growth of mulberry branch after grafting, branch, trunk, be conducive to the diseases and insect pests resistance improving mulberry tree entirety, do not produce withered stake, be conducive to the reasonable layout of mulberry branch, improve the quantity and quality of mulberry leaf with this further;
3) fertilizer used in mulberry tree breeding method of the present invention is conducive to the robust growth of mulberry tree, and fertilizer used can be mulberry tree and provides sufficient nutriment and abundant trace element, is particularly conducive to soil melioration, mulberry leaf growth;
4) mulberry tree breeding method of the present invention can be used on mulberry tree close plant on, relative to the strain of traditional every mu plantation mulberry tree 500 ~ 600, mulberry tree plantation density of the present invention can up to 2 ~ 3/square metre;
5) mulberry tree breeding method of the present invention is particularly conducive to the multiple cropping in mulberry field, and except planting except mulberry tree in mulberry field, in interplanting, other crops a large amount of also can be planted by district, and whole plantation, interplanting district are ventilated, and plant growth is all right;
6) the present invention supports for method for planting relative to traditional mulberry tree, and the quantity and quality of mulberry leaf has significant huge advance, and while taking into account interplanting, every mu of mulberry field can produce mulberry leaf about 4000kg per year, and year breeds silkworms 5 ~ 6, produces cocoon 200 ~ 230kg per year.
Embodiment
1) deep plough, whole: before plantation treelet, deep plough on smooth soil comprehensively, to thicken the layer that loosens the soil, expand the scope of the inorganic nutriment of mulberry tree Root Absorption and moisture, be beneficial to growing of mulberry tree, plant and rapid-result type mulberry field to close, deep plough essential; Thereafter farmyard manure can be enriched, with the physicochemical character of soil and beneficial microorganism living condition; Deep ploughing should early be carried out, and to increase the soil-ripening time, when adopting tillage, ploughing depth is generally 25 ~ 30 centimetres, to the soil of sticky weight, can suitably deepen, and while deep ploughing, mulberry field surrounding should dig reason drain ditch; To rake after having deep ploughed ground, make as far as possible excavation and embankment table soil consistent, to make growing of mulberry equilibrium;
2) nest is dug: by the position plantation treelet that triangle is staggered in planted area, mulberry field, wide 0.6 ~ the 0.65m in planted area, described treelet is planted successively at planted area the right and left, distance with upper adjacent two treelets in one side is 50cm, preferably plant 800 ~ 1000 strain treelets in one mu of mulberry field, other low bar crops are planted as interplanting district in remaining soil between planted area; Mechanical cultivation can be used when planting, bracing wire digs nest, the specification of nest is diameter 30cm, dark 30cm, farmyard manure and phosphate fertilizer can be discharged in it, institute's fertilise should mix with soil, to expand the scope of conditioned soil, the fertilizer used needs the table soil covering more than 10cm again, contact with the direct of mulberry root to avoid fertilizer;
3) plant: the place having water source to irrigate can plant mulberry in 2 ~ March, the place irrigated without water source plants mulberry in rainy season in 5 ~ July, is beneficial to mulberry tree and survives; In case of arid should be noted pouring water after treelet plantation; For the comparatively sticky heavy place of soil, can not plant when ground wets; Loose loamy sand ground all can be planted after rainy day or rain;
4) cultivate: namely the treelet completing the step of above-mentioned 1 ~ 3 carry out grafting, managing after grafting according to the breeding method of mulberry tree of the present invention, support type, the step such as to cultivate and look after.
Embodiment 1
1) treelet plantation
By mulberry field by planted area, interplanting Division out, the interplanting wide 1.5m in district, the wide 0.6m in planted area, the strain of every mu of mulberry field plantation treelet 800, treelet is dislocation plantation triangular in shape in planted area, adjacent treelet plants the left and right edge in planted area successively respectively, and on same edge, the distance of adjacent two treelets is 50cm;
2) grafting
When treelet grows to tree-walk 2cm, grafting was carried out to mulberry tree in 10 days after the beginning of spring, in treelet trunk distance, 5 cun, ground place carries out grafting, select trunk Smooth during grafting, cut out long the first otch deeply reaching cortex of 2cm without the place of cortex breakage, to prune the cortex at 2cm place above described first otch simultaneously, on trunk, cut out the second otch with same cutting way, described second otch be positioned at lower than with the first otch relative to the place of trunk vertical axes to the 2cm at symmetric position place; Get married and start a new life on Sang Sui bar and get bud, apart from cutter under bud in the heart 0.5 ~ 1cm place of side when getting bud, stranding is cut 2cm place to the bud heart and is returned sword, whole bud length of a film 2cm under cutting, operate with this and take off two buds, be respectively the first grafting bud and the second grafting bud, two the buds difference forwards taken off are inserted in described first otch and the second otch, its lower end is tight against kerf bottom, thereafter use plastics closely to wrap up in twine trunk and the first grafting bud and the second grafting bud are fixed in otch simultaneously, above the first otch, cut sth. askew trunk remainder in 0.3cm place thereafter;
3) managing after grafting
Completing steps 2) described in grafting after conventional daily management and maintenance are carried out to stock, remove debudding at any time, prevent people and animals from injuring and damage by disease and insect after grafting bud survives, not picking leaves;
4) type is supported
The treelet survived after step 3) grafting grows up to new tree, the trunk of former treelet forms trunk, first grafting bud and the second grafting bud grow up to the first branch and the second branch, winter beta pruning is being carried out to described new tree then, during beta pruning, the part of the first branch and the second branch distance more than 5 cun, trunk is all cut off, obtain one-level branch, during Second Year beta pruning, the sprouting that one-level branch is sprouted grows up to annotinous branch, the part of annotinous branch distance one-level branch more than 3 cun is all cut off, obtain secondary branch, so far tree-shaped is formed, after this annual on current-year branch selective retention 3 buds, in the bud retain distance on this branch, the part of more than the bud 0.5cm of the top is all cut sth. askew and is cut off,
5) cultivate and look after
In the process of new tree growth according to well arranged, go weak stay strong, go closely to stay rare principle to cut off weak branch, sick branch, overstocked branch winter, amputate deadwood, withered stake, according to soil fertility, shoot growth situation, reservation 8 limbs are selected to the new tree root that foster type completes;
6) apply fertilizer
Divide spring, summer, autumn, the four seasons in winter to apply fertilizer to new tree, spring fertilizer discharges when sprouting sprouts, and fertilizing amount accounts for 30% of annual total fertilizing amount, and applying fertilizer is mainly the mixing of people and animals' fecaluria, urea, carbon ammonium, summer is fertile after silkworm in spring is terminated, rainy season set, discharge during mulberry tree vigorous period, to improve leaf yield, summer fertilizer is for being the silkworm excrement of 20% by mass percent, the bacterium slag of 65%, the apple skin of 5% mixes with pears skin, the content that the mixture obtained after 2 days in outdoor stacking after the earth mixing of the EM bacterium of 5% and dilution adds 3% is again the copperas solution of 75%, the content of 2% is the material obtained after the manganese sulfate solution of 75%, the earth of dilution used herein is add the product that a small amount of water obtains in common soil, its addition is the amount forming grume after each composition is mixed, ferrous sulfate used and manganese sulfate solution are that solid sulphuric acid ferrous iron obtains with manganese sulphate is soluble in water, summer fertile amount of application accounts for 40% of annual total fertilizing amount, autumn fertilizer discharges after the summer, silkworm was terminated, use the general mulberry tree special fertilizer bought on the market, meet N-P-K content and be greater than 12.5%, organic matter is greater than 36%, total nutrient more than 48%, to make branches and leaves continued growth, delay mulberry leaf are aging, increase leaf yield in late fall, its fertilizing amount accounts for 10% of annual total fertilizing amount, winter top dressing discharges after late fall, silkworm was terminated, and to improve soil, increases soil fertility, and extends mulberry tree and abounds with the phase, and its fertilizing amount accounts for 20% of annual total fertilizing amount, and applying fertilizer is general farm organic fertilizer,
7) extermination of disease and insect pest
In grafting then between late March to early April, rotation uses Rogor, dichlorvos, propargite to carry out 2 medicine killings to damage by disease and insect such as mulberry tree two spotted spider mite, yellow spider, mulberry whiteflies; Yu Chun, summer, autumn sericulture gap phase, use medicine dichlorvos, Rogor, carbendazim to carry out 2 killings to damage by disease and insect such as mulberry whitefly, Phellinus linteus, brown spots, killing terminates in the silkworm egg outbound of lower season for first 3 days;
8) picking leaves is set with foster
By the principle staying Ye Yangshu, after per season sericulture picking leaves, at least retain the ripe mulberry leaf in 3 ~ 5, branch top;
9) winter pipe
Mulberry tree fallen leaves are cleared up winter, root out surrounding weeds, elimination is survived the winter germ and worm's ovum, type is supported in pruning on time, the lime sulfur of 5 Baume degrees is used evenly to spray on mulberry tree trunk and surrounding table soil after trimming and finishing, to protect mulberry tree, lime sulfur is herein the general lime sulfur bought on the market;
After aforesaid operations, growing of mulberry is healthy and strong, and mulberry yield is stablized, and without the generation of thin and weak, bad branch, after maturation, mulberry leaf 4100kg ~ 4200kg can be produced in every mu of mulberry field every year, and year breeds silkworms 5 ~ 6, produces cocoon 200 ~ 230kg per year.
Embodiment 2
1) treelet plantation
By mulberry field by planted area, interplanting Division out, the interplanting wide 2m in district, the wide 0.6m in planted area, the strain of every mu of mulberry field plantation treelet 1000, treelet is dislocation plantation triangular in shape in planted area, adjacent treelet plants the left and right edge in planted area successively respectively, and on same edge, the distance of adjacent two treelets is 50cm;
2) grafting
When treelet grows to tree-walk 3cm, grafting was carried out to mulberry tree in 10 days before and after the beginning of spring, grafting is carried out at its trunk distance 5 ~ 6 cun, ground place, select trunk Smooth during grafting, cut out long the first otch deeply reaching cortex of 2.5cm without the place of cortex breakage, to prune the cortex at 1cm place above described first otch simultaneously, on trunk, cut out the second otch with same cutting way, described second otch be positioned at lower than with the first otch relative to the place of trunk vertical axes to the 3cm of the position of symmetry; Get married and start a new life on Sang Sui bar and get bud, apart from cutter under bud in the heart square 1cm place when getting bud, stranding is cut 1cm place to the bud heart and is returned sword, whole bud length of a film 2cm under cutting, operate with this and take off two buds, forward inserts in described first otch and the second otch respectively, and its lower end is tight against kerf bottom, thereafter use plastics closely to wrap up in twine trunk and the first grafting bud and the second grafting bud are fixed in otch simultaneously, above the first otch, cut sth. askew trunk remainder in 0.5cm place thereafter;
3) managing after grafting
Completing steps 2) described in grafting after conventional daily management and maintenance are carried out to stock, remove debudding at any time, prevent people and animals from injuring and damage by disease and insect after grafting bud survives, not picking leaves in spring;
4) type is supported
The treelet survived after step 3) grafting grows up to new tree, the trunk of former treelet forms trunk, first grafting bud and the second grafting bud grow up to the first branch and the second branch, winter beta pruning is being carried out to described new tree then, during beta pruning, the part of the first branch and the second branch distance more than 5 cun, trunk is all cut off, obtain one-level branch, during Second Year beta pruning, the sprouting that one-level branch is sprouted grows up to annotinous branch, the part of annotinous branch distance one-level branch more than 4 cun is all cut off, obtain secondary branch, so far tree-shaped is formed, after this annual on current-year branch selective retention 2 ~ 3 buds, in the bud retain distance on this branch, the part of more than the bud 0.5cm of the top is all cut sth. askew and is cut off,
5) cultivate and look after
In the process of new tree growth according to well arranged, go weak stay strong, go closely to stay rare principle to cut off weak branch, sick branch, overstocked branch winter, amputate deadwood, withered stake, according to soil fertility, shoot growth situation, reservation 5 ~ 8 limbs are selected to the new tree root that foster type completes, the situation wherein having trunk close with branch upgrowth situation occurs, the branch that growth selection is good is cultivated as trunk, and former trunk manages by general branch;
6) apply fertilizer
Divide spring, summer, autumn, the four seasons in winter to apply fertilizer to new tree, spring fertilizer discharges when sprouting sprouts, and fertilizing amount accounts for 30% of annual total fertilizing amount; Summer is fertile, and after silkworm in spring is terminated, rainy season set, discharges during mulberry tree vigorous period, and to improve leaf yield, its fertilizing amount accounts for 40% of annual total fertilizing amount; Autumn fertilizer discharges after the summer, silkworm was terminated, and to make branches and leaves continued growth, delay mulberry leaf are aging, increase leaf yield in late fall, and its fertilizing amount accounts for 10% of annual total fertilizing amount; Winter top dressing discharges after late fall, silkworm was terminated, to improve soil, increase soil fertility, extend mulberry tree and abound with the phase, its fertilizing amount accounts for 20% of annual total fertilizing amount, the fertilizer used spring is mainly the mixing of people and animals' fecaluria, urea, carbon ammonium, and summer and the common mulberry tree special fertilizer of Fertilizer In Autumn, use general farm organic fertilizer winter;
7) extermination of disease and insect pest
In grafting then between late March to early April, rotation uses Rogor, dichlorvos, propargite to carry out 2 medicine killings to damage by disease and insect such as mulberry tree two spotted spider mite, yellow spider, mulberry whiteflies; Yu Chun, summer, autumn sericulture gap phase, use medicine dichlorvos, Rogor, carbendazim to carry out 2 killings to damage by disease and insect such as mulberry whitefly, Phellinus linteus, brown spots, killing terminates in the silkworm egg outbound of lower season for first 3 days;
8) picking leaves is set with foster
By the principle staying Ye Yangshu, after per season sericulture picking leaves, at least retain the ripe mulberry leaf in 3 ~ 5, branch top;
9) winter pipe
Clear up mulberry tree fallen leaves winter, root out surrounding weeds, eliminate survive the winter germ and worm's ovum; type is supported in pruning on time; use the lime sulfur of 4 Baume degrees evenly to spray on mulberry tree trunk and surrounding table soil after trimming and finishing, to protect mulberry tree, lime sulfur used is the general lime sulfur bought on the market.
After aforesaid operations, growing of mulberry is healthy and strong, and mulberry yield is stablized, and without the generation of thin and weak, bad branch, after maturation, mulberry leaf 3900kg ~ 4000kg can be produced in every mu of mulberry field every year, and year breeds silkworms 5 ~ 6, produces cocoon 200 ~ 230kg per year.
Embodiment 3
1) treelet plantation
By mulberry field by planted area, interplanting Division out, the interplanting wide 1.5m in district, the wide 0.65m in planted area, the strain of every mu of mulberry field plantation treelet 1000, treelet is dislocation plantation triangular in shape in planted area, adjacent treelet plants the left side in planted area successively respectively, right edge, on same edge, the distance of adjacent two treelets is 50cm, interplanting plants potato in district at the beginning of by the end of September to 10 month, the potato planted is gathered in the crops at the beginning of next year by the end of January to 2 month, January, mid-January was carried out the nursery of green soya bean arch film in first arrival, transplant at the beginning of 2 months to described interplanting district, April, first arrival can gather in the crops green soya bean mid-April, in interplanting district, ginger is planted at the beginning of late April to 5 month, September can gather in the crops ginger, in interplanting district, all crop growing states are excellent, productive rate is higher,
2) grafting
When treelet grows to tree-walk 3cm, grafting was carried out to mulberry tree in 10 days before and after the beginning of spring, grafting is carried out at its trunk distance 5 ~ 6 cun, ground place, select trunk Smooth during grafting, cut out long the first otch deeply reaching cortex of 2.5cm without the place of cortex breakage, to prune the cortex at 1cm place above described first otch simultaneously, on trunk, cut out the second otch with same cutting way, described second otch be positioned at lower than with the first otch relative to the 2cm place of trunk vertical axes to the position of symmetry; Get married and start a new life on Sang Sui bar and get bud, apart from cutter under bud in the heart square 1cm place when getting bud, stranding is cut 1cm place to the bud heart and is returned sword, whole bud length of a film 2cm under cutting, operate with this and take off two buds, forward inserts in described first otch and the second otch respectively, and its lower end is tight against kerf bottom, thereafter use plastics closely to wrap up in twine trunk and the first grafting bud and the second grafting bud are fixed in otch simultaneously, above the first otch, cut sth. askew trunk remainder in 0.5cm place thereafter;
3) managing after grafting
Completing steps 2) described in grafting after conventional daily management and maintenance are carried out to stock, remove debudding at any time, prevent people and animals from injuring and damage by disease and insect after grafting bud survives, not picking leaves in spring;
4) type is supported
The treelet survived after step 3) grafting grows up to new tree, the trunk of former treelet forms trunk, first grafting bud and the second grafting bud grow up to the first branch and the second branch, winter beta pruning is being carried out to described new tree then, during beta pruning, the part of the first branch and the second branch distance more than 5 cun, trunk is all cut off, obtain one-level branch, during Second Year beta pruning, the sprouting that one-level branch is sprouted grows up to annotinous branch, the part of annotinous branch distance one-level branch more than 4 cun is all cut off, obtain secondary branch, so far tree-shaped is formed, after this annual on current-year branch selective retention 2 ~ 3 buds, in the bud retain distance on this branch, the part of more than the bud 0.5cm of the top is all cut sth. askew and is cut off,
5) cultivate and look after
In the process of new tree growth according to well arranged, go weak stay strong, go closely to stay rare principle to cut off weak branch, sick branch, overstocked branch winter, amputate deadwood, withered stake, according to soil fertility, shoot growth situation, reservation 5 ~ 8 limbs are selected to the new tree root that foster type completes;
6) apply fertilizer
Divide spring, summer, autumn, the four seasons in winter to apply fertilizer to new tree, spring fertilizer discharges when sprouting sprouts, and fertilizing amount accounts for 30% of annual total fertilizing amount, summer is fertile, and after silkworm in spring is terminated, rainy season set, discharges during mulberry tree vigorous period, and to improve leaf yield, its fertilizing amount accounts for 40% of annual total fertilizing amount, autumn fertilizer discharges after the summer, silkworm was terminated, and to make branches and leaves continued growth, delay mulberry leaf are aging, increase leaf yield in late fall, and its fertilizing amount accounts for 10% of annual total fertilizing amount, winter top dressing discharges after late fall, silkworm was terminated, to improve soil, increase soil fertility, extend mulberry tree and abound with the phase, its fertilizing amount accounts for 20% of annual total fertilizing amount, the fertilizer used spring is mainly people and animals' fecaluria, urea, the mixing of carbon ammonium, the common mulberry tree special fertilizer of Fertilizer In Autumn, use common farm organic fertilizer winter, summer is that silkworm excrement is fertile, for being the silkworm excrement of 17% by mass percent, the bacterium slag of 60%, the apple skin of 10%, the content that the mixture obtained after 1 day in outdoor stacking after the earth mixing of the EM bacterium of 5% and dilution adds 5% is again the copperas solution of 75%, the content of 3% is the material obtained after the manganese sulfate solution of 75%, the earth of dilution used herein is add the product that a small amount of water obtains in common soil, its addition is the amount forming grume after each composition is mixed, ferrous sulfate used and manganese sulfate solution are that solid sulphuric acid ferrous iron obtains with manganese sulphate is soluble in water,
7) extermination of disease and insect pest
In grafting then between late March to early April, rotation uses Rogor, dichlorvos, propargite to carry out 1 medicine killing to damage by disease and insect such as mulberry tree two spotted spider mite, yellow spider, mulberry whiteflies; Yu Chun, summer, autumn sericulture gap phase, use medicine dichlorvos, Rogor, carbendazim to carry out 2 killings to damage by disease and insect such as mulberry whitefly, Phellinus linteus, brown spots, killing terminates in the silkworm egg outbound of lower season for first 3 days;
8) picking leaves is set with foster
The ripe mulberry leaf in 3 ~ 5, branch top are at least retained after per season sericulture picking leaves;
9) winter pipe
Clear up mulberry tree fallen leaves winter, root out surrounding weeds, eliminate survive the winter germ and worm's ovum, the type of supporting of on time pruning, uses the lime sulfur of 5 Baume degrees evenly to spray on mulberry tree trunk and surrounding table soil after trimming and finishing.
After aforesaid operations, growing of mulberry is healthy and strong, and mulberry yield is stablized, and without the generation of thin and weak, bad branch, after maturation, mulberry leaf 4100kg ~ 4200kg can be produced in every mu of mulberry field every year, and year breeds silkworms 5 ~ 6, produces cocoon 200 ~ 230kg per year.
Although with reference to explanatory embodiment of the present invention, invention has been described here, above-described embodiment is only the present invention's preferably embodiment, embodiments of the present invention are not restricted to the described embodiments, should be appreciated that, those skilled in the art can design a lot of other amendment and embodiment, these amendments and embodiment will drop within spirit disclosed in the present application and spirit.

Claims (8)

1. a breeding method for mulberry tree, is characterized in that: comprise the following steps:
1) grafting
Grafting was carried out to mulberry tree in 10 days before and after the beginning of spring, when treelet grows to tree-walk 2 ~ 3cm, grafting is carried out at its trunk distance 5 ~ 6 cun, ground place, select trunk Smooth during grafting, cut out long the first otch deeply reaching cortex of 2 ~ 2.5cm without the place of cortex breakage, to prune the cortex at 0.5 ~ 1cm place above described first otch simultaneously, on trunk, cut out the second otch with same cutting way, described second otch be positioned at lower than with the first otch relative to the 2 ~ 3cm place of trunk vertical axes to the position of symmetry; Get married and start a new life on Sang Sui bar and get bud, apart from cutter under bud in the heart square 0.5cm ~ 1cm place when getting bud, stranding is cut 1 ~ 2cm place to the bud heart and is returned sword, whole bud length of a film 2 ~ 2.5cm under cutting, operate with this and take off two buds, be respectively the first grafting bud and the second grafting bud, two the buds difference forwards taken off are inserted in described first otch and the second otch, its lower end is tight against kerf bottom, thereafter use plastics closely to wrap up in twine trunk and the first grafting bud and the second grafting bud are fixed in otch simultaneously, above the first otch, cut sth. askew trunk remainder in 0.3 ~ 0.5cm place thereafter;
2) managing after grafting
Completing steps 1) described in grafting after conventional daily management and maintenance are carried out to stock, note removing debudding at any time, carry out benefit when grafting bud does not survive in time and connect, prevent people and animals from injuring and damage by disease and insect after grafting bud survives, not picking leaves in spring;
3) type is supported
Through step 2) treelet that survives after grafting grows up to new tree, the trunk of former treelet forms trunk, first grafting bud and the second grafting bud grow up to the first branch and the second branch, winter beta pruning is being carried out to described new tree then, during beta pruning, the part of the first branch and the second branch distance more than 5 ~ 6 cun, trunk is all cut off, obtain one-level branch, during Second Year beta pruning, the sprouting that one-level branch is sprouted grows up to annotinous branch, the part of annotinous branch distance one-level branch more than 3 ~ 4 cun is all cut off, obtain secondary branch, so far tree-shaped is formed, after this annual bud that selective retention 2 ~ 3 is excellent on current-year branch, in the bud retain distance on this branch, the part of bud 0.3 ~ more than the 0.5cm of the top is all cut sth. askew and is cut off,
4) cultivate and look after
In the process of new tree growth according to well arranged, go weak stay strong, go closely to stay rare principle to cut off weak branch, sick branch, overstocked branch winter, amputate deadwood, withered stake, select reservation 5 ~ 8 healthy and strong limbs to the new tree root that foster type completes according to soil fertility, shoot growth situation, new set close with branch upgrowth situation to trunk selects wherein well-grown branch to cultivate as trunk;
5) apply fertilizer
Divide spring, summer, autumn, the four seasons in winter to apply fertilizer to new tree, spring fertilizer discharges when sprouting sprouts, and fertilizing amount accounts for 30% of annual total fertilizing amount; Summer is fertile, and after silkworm in spring is terminated, rainy season set, discharges during mulberry tree vigorous period, and to improve leaf yield, its fertilizing amount accounts for 40% of annual total fertilizing amount; Autumn fertilizer discharges after the summer, silkworm was terminated, and to make branches and leaves continued growth, delay mulberry leaf are aging, increase leaf yield in late fall, and its fertilizing amount accounts for 10% of annual total fertilizing amount; Winter top dressing discharges after late fall, silkworm was terminated, and to improve soil, increases soil fertility, and extends mulberry tree and abounds with the phase, and its fertilizing amount accounts for 20% of annual total fertilizing amount;
6) extermination of disease and insect pest
In grafting then between late March to early April, rotation uses Rogor, dichlorvos, propargite to carry out 1 ~ 2 medicine killing to damage by disease and insect such as mulberry tree two spotted spider mite, yellow spider, mulberry whiteflies; Yu Chun, summer, autumn sericulture gap phase, medicine dichlorvos, Rogor, carbendazim is used to carry out 1 ~ 2 killing to damage by disease and insect such as mulberry whitefly, Phellinus linteus, brown spots, killing terminates in the silkworm egg outbound of lower season for first 3 days, and the concentration of described medicine and amount of application control by operation instruction and non-polluted farm product Pesticide use criterion;
7) picking leaves is set with foster
By the principle staying Ye Yangshu, after per season sericulture picking leaves, at least retain the ripe mulberry leaf in 3 ~ 5, branch top;
8) winter pipe
Clear up mulberry tree fallen leaves winter, root out surrounding weeds, eliminate survive the winter germ and worm's ovum, the type of supporting of on time pruning, after trimming and finishing, use the lime sulfur of 4 ~ 5 Baume degrees evenly to spray on mulberry tree trunk and surrounding table soil, to protect mulberry tree.
2. the breeding method of mulberry tree according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: when described step 3) also comprises higher to growing of mulberry, in secondary branch top end, whole plant is cut off by the waist, after this annual bud that selective retention 2 ~ 3 is excellent in branch, in the bud retain distance in this branch, the part of bud 0.3 ~ more than the 0.5cm of the top is all cut sth. askew and is cut off.
3. the breeding method of mulberry tree according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the domestic animals manure of spring fertilizer behaviour described in described step 5), urea and carbon ammonium or mulberry tree special fertilizer.
4. the breeding method of mulberry tree according to claim 1, is characterized in that: summer described in described step 5) fertilizer for by mass percent be 10 ~ 20% silkworm excrement, 60 ~ 70% bacterium slag, the pericarp of 5% ~ 10%, the EM bacterium of 3% ~ 5% and dilution earth mixing after the mixture that obtains after 1 ~ 2 day in the outdoor stacking content that adds 3% ~ 5% be again greater than 70% ferrous sulfate, 1% ~ 3% manganese sulfate solution after the material that obtains.
5. the breeding method of mulberry tree according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described treelet is planted in mulberry field, described mulberry field is divided into the planted area and interplanting district that adjoin each other, namely each interplanting district is positioned between two adjacent planted areas, each planted area is between adjacent two interplanting districts, described treelet is all planted in described planted area, and described treelet adopts close planting system in described planted area, and its plantation density is 2 ~ 3/square metre.
6. the breeding method of mulberry tree according to claim 3, is characterized in that: the strain of described every mu, mulberry field plantation described treelet 800 ~ 1000.
7. the breeding method of the mulberry tree according to claim 5 or 6, it is characterized in that: the described wide 1.5 ~ 2m in interplanting district, wide 0.6 ~ the 0.65m in described planted area, treelet described in described planted area carries out staggered plantation, namely adjacent plant is not planted on the same line, but the left and right edge of planting respectively successively in planted area, on same edge, the distance of adjacent two treelets is 50cm.
8. the breeding method of the mulberry tree according to claim 5 or 6, it is characterized in that: in described interplanting district, plant other crops beyond mulberry tree, wherein plant in spring, summer in soya bean, peanut, Ipomoea batatas, herbage one or more, one or more during autumn, winter planting's potato, pea, lima bean, lotus flower are white.
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CN107278778A (en) * 2017-07-27 2017-10-24 广西桂平市石龙镇江夏种养专业合作社 A kind of implantation methods of high yield fruit mulberry
CN107593135A (en) * 2017-10-31 2018-01-19 保山市林业技术推广总站 A kind of method for improving Yunnan olive graft survival rate
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CN109041852A (en) * 2018-07-05 2018-12-21 四川省农业科学院蚕业研究所 A kind of mulberry tree batch production grafting seedlings-growing method
CN109041988A (en) * 2018-07-05 2018-12-21 四川省农业科学院蚕业研究所 A kind of in due course method for postponing mulberry tree winter heavy pruning mass production mulberry young tea raw material

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