CN108450167A - A kind of method of the high-quality stingless Chinese pricklyash of engrafting and cultivating - Google Patents

A kind of method of the high-quality stingless Chinese pricklyash of engrafting and cultivating Download PDF

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CN108450167A
CN108450167A CN201810300253.9A CN201810300253A CN108450167A CN 108450167 A CN108450167 A CN 108450167A CN 201810300253 A CN201810300253 A CN 201810300253A CN 108450167 A CN108450167 A CN 108450167A
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branch
tree
soil
grafting
green pepper
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王全奎
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王全奎
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods

Abstract

The invention belongs to commodity trees graft technology fields, provide a kind of method of the high-quality stingless Chinese pricklyash of engrafting and cultivating.This method comprises the step of:(1) rootstock seedling is cultivated;(2) grafting is cultivated;(3) cultivating stingless prickly ash strain;(4) building well is transplanted;(5) garden management;(6) pruning;(7) the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control.The present invention is using green pepper tree in August as four grafting improved clovershrubs in June of stock and plum blossom green pepper in May, obtain character stabilization without zanthoxylum acanthopodium seedling, again using wild Chinese prickly ash seedling as stock before building well field planting, selection and breeding are obtained resistance and are significantly increased without the scion of zanthoxylum acanthopodium seedling by grafting, two wheels that service life and yield and quality significantly improve graft stingless Chinese prickly ash sapling, the age of tree was up to 25 years or so, best fruiting period single plant yield averagely can reach 3.2 jin, it is strong with disease resistance, the waterlogging feature of drought resisting, it can generally survive in 1800 meters of arids below of height above sea level or dark and damp area, and the place survived after original green pepper tree is dead can be transplanted, root rot incidence significantly reduces.

Description

A kind of method of the high-quality stingless Chinese pricklyash of engrafting and cultivating
Technical field
It is specifically a kind of that high-quality no tattooing is cultivated by grafting means the invention belongs to commodity trees graft technology field Green pepper tree realizes that strain improvement reaches the method for upgrading synergy purpose.
Background technology
Chinese prickly ash is Rutaceae Zanthoxylum defoliation small arbor, spinosity on stem and branch, fruit aubergine.National most area is equal There is cultivation, it is widely distributed.Its pericarp can be used as seasoning, and extractable aromatic oil, and can be used as medicine, and seed edible can also add Work makes soap.Chinese prickly ash is used as Chinese medicine, has middle benefit gas promoting the circulation of qi, by cold, analgesic, desinsection and other effects, control stomach abdomen crymodynia, vomiting, diarrhea, The diseases such as blood fluke, roundworm, and make epidermis anesthetic.Chinese prickly ash is drought-enduring cold-resistant, likes sunlight, deep fertile suitable for warm and moist and soil layer Loam, sandy loam, intolerant to waterlogging, short-term ponding lethal can be died.
It is located in Shan, Wudu that sweet, river connects, is the best normal region of Chinese prickly ash, transplants Chinese prickly ash here and go through for existing more than 2,000 years Shi Liao.The big ditch depth in Wudu District mountain, severe water and soil erosion, ecology fragility belong to typical halfway up the hill arid area.Chinese prickly ash income is the masses The most basic source of finance of food, clothing, housing and transportation, and the pillar industry striven for a relatively comfortable life of getting rich.Wudu District Chinese prickly ash kind is mainly with six Based on month clovershrub, clovershrub thorn is more, is not easy to pick.
There are several disadvantages or disadvantages for the existing green pepper tree in Wudu District:First, short life, the average age of tree is generally at 10 years or so;Two It is degeneration aging, pest and disease damage is serious, and root rot especially easily occurs;Third, green pepper body thorn is more, it is not easy to pick, picking is of high cost;Four It is after green pepper tree is dead, in situ after-culture is not easy to survive, and the gross area is caused to decline.Problem above existing for existing green pepper tree, causes to spend Green pepper Deaths are serious, and update is difficult, and industry area cannot be consolidated for a long time;Variety deterioration, quality decline;Industry labour cost (referring mainly to picking cost) rises.
In order to cope with Wudu District Chinese prickly ash present situation, consolidate Chinese prickly ash industry, accelerates the masses and shake off poverty and set out on the road to prosperity paces of striving for a relatively comfortable life.Applicant It was found that local green pepper well developed root system in August, can be widely grown in 2000 meters of height above sea level mountainous region below, Plain, river valley, sand dune area.Cause This is stock with green pepper in August, and with plum blossom green pepper in May or clovershrub being scion cultivated without zanthoxylum acanthopodium can be widely grown in height above sea level 2000 Rice various regions below, after can also solving existing green pepper tree death, in situ after-culture is not easy to survive problem.
Applicant is by for many years in field repetition test, final certification uses green pepper tree in August for stock, June is used in combination Clovershrub or plum blossom green pepper in May are the stingless Chinese pricklyash of scion engrafting and cultivating, have lot of advantages.
Invention content
The method that the object of the present invention is to provide a kind of to cultivate high-quality stingless Chinese pricklyash by grafting means, passes through grafting Replacement plant improve the breed to improve service life and the yield and quality of Chinese pricklyash, enhances its resistance, and reduce picking difficulty.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention is achieved by the following scheme.
A kind of method of the high-quality stingless Chinese pricklyash of engrafting and cultivating, includes the following steps:
(1) rootstock seedling is cultivated
1. regional choice quality more than height above sea level 2000m is pure, topography on the sunny side, robust growth, no disease and pests harm, fruit at Ripe full green pepper tree in August is introduces a collection, is picked in lunar calendar early and middle ten days in August, forbids exposure after picking, timely airing is dry shady and cool Pure seed is isolated after pericarp is dry and cracked in ventilation;
2. pure seed is immersed in cleaning solution, after being sufficiently stirred 5~15min, not plump kind and impurity of floating are removed, is stood Then 1~2d washes seed by rubbing with the hands to surface without until glossy, pulls seed out, rinsed well with clear water repeatedly;The cleaning solution is to wash Clothing powder, sodium citrate, potassium silicate, isopropanol, water press 5:2.5:3:1:The solution that 100 weight ratio is prepared;
3. excavating the ditch of depth 60cm, width 1m in hidding and sunny side, well-drained place, seed and wet sand soil are pressed 1:2 One layer of ratio, one layer of sandy soil seed is successively stacked, and until 15cm from the ground, covers wet sand soil above, at ridge shape, the wet sand soil It is river sand, 40 mesh wheat stalk powders, cow dung by 8:1:Made of 1 weight ratio mixing plus suitable quantity of water, it is desirable that being pinched with hand can be agglomerating, But it does not drip;
4. selecting hidding and sunny side at 1800~1900m of height above sea level, draining good, deep fertile, good permeability the sand of soil Loam is as nursery, and nursery is turned over loose, and bed is made in leveling, and 6~8m, wide 1m, high 0.2m are grown in seedbed, stay 0.4m's wide between bed Pavement opens the nursery ditch of 15cm depths on seedbed, the nutritive cube equipped with No. 1 Nutrition Soil is placed in ditch, and 9 before soil is freeze-up Clicked and entered in~November each alms bowl 3~5 August green pepper seed, 2~3cm of overlying fine sands later, then cover 2~3cm maize straw fragments, it After cover one layer of mulch;The specification of the nutritive cube is bore 12cm, and No. 1 Nutrition Soil is nursery soil, river sand, decomposed farmers' Fertilizer, the leaf mould of height above sea level 2000m or more, height above sea level 1800m rural area soils below press 6:2:1:4:What 2 weight ratio was formulated; The nursery turns over loose preceding application base manure, and base manure is by calcium superphosphate and farm manure by 3:100 weight ratio retting together Decomposed fertilizer, per acre apply 500 kilograms of decomposed fertilizer;
(2) grafting is cultivated
1. selecting that height above sea level 1800m qualities below are pure, the clovershrub or plum blossom in May in June of robust growth, no disease and pests harm For green pepper bearing-age tree as fringe source, autumn sprout is full, that growth is enriched, prickle is less is slightly scion;1 year (1) cultivated in step Selected in raw rootstock seedling robust growth August green pepper seedling as stock;
2. being grafted in mid-February in spring to late April, at stock from the ground 25~30cm, stock is breaked end, is broken It is 5cm that head metaplexus stock top, which removes downwards surrounding prickle length, forms grafting area, selects smooth one side in grafting area, tiltedly Cut a knife downwards, upper shallow lower depth, long 3~4cm, slightly xylem finally splay a knife at lower part angle at 45 °;In transferring for scion It cuts at 3cm above contact, cuts obliquely, by bud point, then 45° angle is splayed a knife under bud, forms wedge-shaped bud tablets;It will cut Good wedge-shaped bud tablets are embedded in rapidly stock interface, are aligned forming layer, finally stay bud to tighten with plastic strip is bottom-up;
3. observation in 7~10 days survives situation after connecing, should break under the grafting area that first time is formed in time for what is do not survived Head, removes prickle 5cm and forms grafting area and carry out second and mend to connect still further below, budders after surviving, and it is primary often to cross half a month observation, will Grafting area lower part new life bud point erase in time, the 3~5cm of sprouting that budders releases binding, budder grow to 30cm when, pluck in time The heart cultivates tree body, budders after surviving, and never flood irrigation is watered before pinching cut anvil, while carrying out intertillage on time and hoe up weeds, rationally apply Fertilizer, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, obtain first generation grafting;
(3) cultivating stingless prickly ash strain
1. the plant that growth selection is healthy and strong in first generation grafting, branch prickle is less, sprout is full, growth is filled Autumn real, that prickle is less is slightly scion, (2) (1) 2 years raw green pepper rootstock seedlings in August that step is cultivated press step again as stock ~2. method grafted, and by step (2)~method 3. manages grafting, obtain second generation grafting;
2. according to step (3)~continuously grafting obtains forth generation grafting 2 times by second generation grafting for method 1., as Without zanthoxylum acanthopodium grafting;
3. the plant of the 5th year growth selection stalwartness in no zanthoxylum acanthopodium grafting, sprout is full, growth is substantial autumn Be slightly scion, 2 years wild Chinese prickly ash seedlings of life as stock, by step (2)~2. method grafted, and by step (2)~ 3. method manage grafting, obtain final field planting without zanthoxylum acanthopodium grafting, 2000 meters of height above sea level or less can be widely grown in Region, suitable for be widely applied plant;The wild Chinese prickly ash seedling is by picking up from the wild of height above sea level 500~1800m height above sea level Chinese prickly ash seed growing forms, and is bred using nutritive cube, No. 2 Nutrition Soils is loaded in nutritive cube, No. 2 Nutrition Soils are nursery Soil, river sand, well-rotted farmyard manure, the leaf mould of height above sea level 2000m or more, height above sea level 1800m garden soil below press 5:2:1:2:4 weight Amount ratio is formulated;
(4) building well is transplanted
1. selection height above sea level 2000m existing green pepper tree degeneration agings below, the serious low yield orchard of pest and disease damage or have no through The green pepper garden for value of helping thoroughly excavates and removes existing green pepper tree, ploughed deeply, raked, dried, disinfected to low yield Orchard Soil;
2. by step (3)~field planting that 3. obtains transplanted with no zanthoxylum acanthopodium grafting in garden, in field planting, selection grafting May plum blossom green pepper kind and each half of clovershrub kind in June of grafting transplanted, 40~45 plants per acre of level land plant, 4 × 4 meters of seeding row spacings, 50~55 plants per acre of hillside fields plant, 3 × 4 meters of seeding row spacings, field planting hole specification are 60cm × 60cm × 50cm, plant It is backfilled after being stirred evenly afterwards using appropriate farm manure and soil, pours suitable root water after backfill, soil around moisture penetration back root part Ground covers one layer of wheat stalk soil moisture conservation;
(5) garden management
1. after treelet is colonized 2~3 years, primary tree disk soil removal and replacement being carried out every 1~2 year, will specifically be spent in early winter cold The soil of 15~25cm depth, shovels out discarding, changes with fertile mellow soil in green pepper tree disk 1m diameter ranges;Annual spring, summer, fruit Each weeding is primary after real harvesting;The gardens treelet Qi Jiao along row deep plough once every year, and depth is advisable with 30cm, combine and press in summer Green manure, straw carry out, and green pepper garden carries out shallow turn over the artificial gardens Pao Waquan after fruiting period;
2. needing to apply fertilizer in garden green pepper tree management process, it is divided into two kinds of base manure and top dressing, base manure is applied immediately after plucking green pepper Well-rotted farmyard manure, the first fruit tree of lifes in 4~6 years for producing dry 0.1~1.0kg of green pepper, every plant is applied 5~10kg of farm manure every year, crosses phosphorus Sour 0.2~0.3kg of calcium, produces the trees in richful production period of the lifes in 7 years of dry 2.0~4.0kg of green pepper or more, every plant annual apply farm manure 20~ 40kg, 0.5~2.0kg of calcium superphosphate, application method are combined in the soil layer ploughed deeply and be applied to crown mapping periphery 35~45cm depths; Chinese pricklyash in the ranks or near green pepper garden idly or on barren hill green manuring crop plucks green pepper in well-rotted farmyard manure deficiency Afterwards, green manure crop aerial part is prescinded, in conjunction with ploughing deeply in the soil layer of indentation crown mapping 35~45cm of periphery depths, every plant is pressed every year 40~50kg of fresh grass, 0.5~2.0kg of calcium superphosphate, 0.5~1.0kg of urea;Top dressing divides soil topdressing and foliage spray, rudiment Preceding and Post flowering, which combines to pour water, carries out soil topdressing, before rudiment soil application be every plant impose 0.3~0.5kg urea and 0.5~ 1.0kg Diammonium phosphate (DAP) or 0.6kg urea and 1.5kg calcium superphosphate, Post flowering soil impose every plant of 0.5~1.0kg urea or Ammonium nitrate, the mountainous region green pepper garden of non-irrigated condition, fertilizer is dissolved in clear water, and with fertilizer-applicating gun or punch method, multiple spot is noted in setting disk Enter;Each period before young sprout Fast-growing stage, florescence, fruit Fast-growing stage, fruit harvesting, after fruit harvesting sprays foliar fertilizer, spraying After before the time is at the morning 10 or when afternoon 4, discharge rate will be dripped with blade tip to be advisable, as met rain in 4 hours after spraying, after rain It should respray, wherein the urea solution of young sprout Fast-growing stage blade face spray 0.5%, or the micro- high U.S.A of fertilizer of spray high efficiency composition apply 800 times of liquid 1~2 It is secondary;The borax of florescence blade face spray 0.5% adds 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate aqueous solution 1 time;Spray Gao Meishi in fruit Fast-growing stage blade face 800 times of liquid 1 time, 0.5% urea solution add 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate aqueous solution 1 time;The high U.S.A of the preceding blade face spray of fruit harvesting applies 800 Times liquid 1 time, 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate aqueous solution 1 time;The urea of blade face spray 0.5% adds 0.5% di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate after fruit harvesting Hydrogen potassium is primary;
(6) pruning
Be divided into two kinds of winter pruning and summer pruning, treelet before soil burial winter protection one, trimmed between February, treelet It is trained spherical or pyriform bearing-age tree by trimming in 3 years;
1. the sizing and trimming of treelet spherical shape or pears row
Without apparent trunk, directly raw 4~5 direction differences, the uniform major branch of growing way from tree base, on major branch raw 1~2 A side shoot, the first side shoot is away from tree 50~60cm of base, the second side branch diatance 60~70cm of the first side shoot, with primary lateral branches in same side To a two level side shoot direction is on the contrary, First Year is trimmed after field planting, and cutting strunk, cutting strunk height 30cm sprout under clip immediately after cultivation Number buds, grow multiple branches, selects that 4~5 adnation positions are ideal and layout is uniform, robust growth branch is as major branch, He does not remove branch, using support, drawing, vertical method, so that its horizontal or sagging growth is expanded leaf area to mitigate tree vigo(u)r, increases The manufacture of tree body organic matter makes tree crown form and increase as early as possible setting fruit position;
Summer, stayed major branch are grown to carrying out pinching when 60~70cm, and when pinching pays attention to staying the bud of outside, with sharp the first transaction of a day's business angle Degree promotees it and sprouts Secondary Branch, cultivates primary lateral branches, pay attention to primary lateral branches staying in same direction, in order to avoid intersecting, influence light According to early winter or next year dormant pruning are substantially the same as natural open centre shape First Year early winter, spring in next year pruning method;
Second year trimming is pinching when major branch extends to 60~70cm after field planting, cultivates two level side shoot, the same level-one in direction For side shoot on the contrary, the extension branch to each major branch carries out cutting back, it is 45~50cm to cut and stay length, to continue to use enriching shoot cutting back, weak branch The long method stayed, makes uniform growth between major branch, if competitive branch and extension branch growing way are not much different, generally deals with competitive branch weight Cutting back is wiped out from base portion again after spending 1 or two years, it should be noted that and the direction of clip bud adjusts the angle and direction of major branch with clip branch, For the first side shoot on major branch away from 30~40cm of trunk, side shoot preferably selects and remain oblique flat side or tiltedly upper side shoot, and side shoot and the horizontal of major branch are pressed from both sides Angle is 35 °~45 °, and the first side shoot on each major branch will be selected and remain, prevent from interfering with each other, in the same direction as possible to the tree of robust growth, summer Prosperous branch other than season trimming mainly control competitive branch and main side branch, the method for control is, to excessively prosperous competitive branch and vertical branch, It removes early, remaining shoot is in mid or late June pinching or cuts, and so that it is sprouted sublateral shoot, becomes fruitful branch or fruit-bearing shoot cluster;
The trimming of third year is that major branch apical growing point and long prosperous branch are carried out multiple light panching, tamped after May after field planting When interior thorax branch group, early winter or the dormant pruning of spring in next year, grows on overstocked branch and for many years and put and influence major branch, collateral generation development Invalid branch removed or suitably bounced back, spherical or pears row is trimmed general 3 years and shaping can be completed;A master can also be cultivated Branch, 3~4 culture two level side shoot of layering, is further cultured for three-level level Four fruitful branch bar shaped balling-up row or pyriform tree body;
2. the trimming of bearing-age tree
As a result tree-pruning, which focuses on, keeps tree-like, and rational fruit-bearing shoot cluster is maintained to be distributed, and ensures trimming tree high and stable yields, generally Based on cutting back, put in conjunction with pruning off and getting rid of;
First fruiting period tree:To thering is the branch of growing space and gentle branch to get rid of and put;To excessively prosperous branch, vertical branch by draw, not, hang down arrange It applies, or is gently cut, cultivation results branch group;It removes overstocked branch, intersect branch;Overlapping branch goes uprightly, to stay and put down tiltedly, and according to space Appropriate cutting back;
Trees in richful production period:Fruit-bearing shoot cluster update is constantly carried out by reasonable cutting back, the ratio of large, medium and small fruit-bearing shoot cluster is made to protect Hold the level 1: 5: 15;The method that pressure is helped the weak is taken, tree-shaped is maintained;To intensive auxiliary support branch, have space by light It cuts and is trained fruit-bearing shoot cluster, remaining is removed;Fruitful branch should dredge it is weak stay it is strong, dredge transient stay is long, dredge it is small stay it is big;
(7) the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
To sick branch when pruning, wiped out before spring rudiment, withered branch and the Lao Pi struck off, green pepper garden after winter fallen leaves Dry branches and fallen leaves, in time clear up, it is buried after burning;Soil is ploughed before soil is freeze-up and applies farm manure, and water is frozen in embedding, to eliminate Overwintering pest;In the conical mound of 25~35cm high of Chinese pricklyash base portion heap when winter cleaning green pepper garden, one layer of mulch is covered;1.2m with Lower trunk smears white-out agent, and the white-out agent is 1 part of 30 parts of 10 parts of quick lime, water, salt, the lime sulfur counted in parts by weight 1 part of stoste, 0.2 part of animal oil, 0.1 part of stellera chamaejasme L extract, 0.2 part of sodium alginate.
The advantageous effects of the present invention:
1, using green pepper tree in August as four grafting improved clovershrubs in June of stock and plum blossom green pepper in May, the phase of character stabilization is obtained Should be without zanthoxylum acanthopodium strain seedling, again using wild Chinese prickly ash seedling as stock before building well field planting, selection and breeding connect without zanthoxylum acanthopodium strain seedling Fringe obtains two wheels that resistance significantly increases, service life and yield and quality significantly improve by grafting and grafts stingless Chinese prickly ash saplings, The age of tree is 2.5 times of the existing green pepper tree age of tree, best fruiting period single plant yield averagely can reach 3.2 jin, and existing up to 25 years or so May plum blossom green pepper or averagely about 2.5 jin of clovershrub single plant yield in June, root system is 2 times of existing clovershrub green pepper tree, is had disease-resistant Property strong, feature that drought resisting is waterlogging, can generally survive in 2000 meters of arids below of height above sea level or dark and damp areas, and can transplant survive in Place after original green pepper tree is dead, root rot incidence significantly reduce, and fruit full grains, numb taste is pure strong, and color and luster is bright and new, Trunk is almost stingless, concentration that green pepper grain is very large, convenient for picking, greatly reduces picking cost, per mu yield increases 28%, economy effect Benefit increases 49.3%.
2, unlike existing Chinese pricklyash, what the present invention cultivated can make green pepper tree shaping without zanthoxylum acanthopodium by artificial induction Be trimmed to spherical or pyriform, not only make tree management rationally, make full use of space, be more effectively carried out photosynthesis, and adjust The transfer distribution for saving nutrient and moisture, promotes the active balance of photosynthesis and respiration, guiding nutrient growth to be given birth to reproduction It is long to develop to perfect condition, so that the ratio of nutrition branch, fruitful branch is rationally adjusted, and prevent from moving outside setting fruit position, promotes three-dimensional knot Fruit promotes treelet ahead of time as a result, setting high and stable yield greatly, moreover it is possible to improve Chinese prickly ash quality, extend the result time limit, especially reduce disease pest Chinese pricklyash aging is postponed in harm;Winter pruning promotes growth, summer pruning to promote knot green pepper, by largely putting into practice confirmation, tree is passed through It crosses trimming and is trained spherical or pyriform, per mu yield Chinese prickly ash yield highest.The tree-like advantage of the stingless Chinese prickly ash of spherical shape or pyriform of the invention It is as follows:First, trimming is light, to major branch pinching on time, two level major branch, then pinching cultivation results branch are cultivated;Second is that molding is fast, field planting It is shaped substantially after continuous trimming in 3 years afterwards, later seldom trimming, tree body is presented result and is balanced with branch growth substantially;Third, As a result early, be colonized second year local result, third year large area result;Fourth, rear wind resistance, tree-like spherical in shape or pyriform are conducive to sky Flow of air, anti-extreme weather ability is strong, and fruitful branch is not easy to reflect;Fifth, easily picking, fruitful branch is concentrated, and is easy picking;Sixth, single Strain floor space is few, and it is more to transplant strain number per acre;Seventh, yield is high, tree-like spherical in shape or pyriform, fruitful branch is close, and single-column yield is high, In addition plant strain number is more thus high per per mu yield per acre.
Specific implementation mode
Further make detailed elaboration with specific embodiment below so that those skilled in the art can implement according to this.
Preferred embodiment
In south of Gansu Province Wudu District, Longnan City Wudu District gold Kui is passed through without zanthoxylum acanthopodium cultivation farmer specialized cooperative society to be put into practice for many years, It is grafted respectively using local clovershrub in June and plum blossom green pepper in May.
A kind of method of the high-quality stingless Chinese pricklyash of engrafting and cultivating, is as follows:
(1) rootstock seedling is cultivated
1. regional choice quality more than height above sea level 2000m is pure, topography on the sunny side, robust growth, no disease and pests harm, fruit at Ripe full green pepper tree in August is introduces a collection, in lunar calendar picking on August 10, forbids exposure after picking, timely airing is dry shady and cool logical At wind, after pericarp is dry and cracked, pure seed is isolated;
2. pure seed are immersed in cleaning solution, after being sufficiently stirred 10min, not plump kind and impurity of floating are removed, stands 1d, Then seed is washed by rubbing with the hands repeatedly to surface without until glossy, is pulled seed out, is rinsed well with clear water;The cleaning solution be washing powder, Sodium citrate, potassium silicate, isopropanol, water press 5:2.5:3:1:The solution that 100 weight ratio is prepared;
3. excavating the ditch of depth 60cm, width 1m in hidding and sunny side, well-drained place, seed and wet sand soil are pressed 1:2 One layer of ratio, one layer of sandy soil seed is successively stacked, and until 15cm from the ground, covers wet sand soil above, at ridge shape, the wet sand soil It is river sand, 40 mesh wheat stalk powders, cow dung by 8:1:Made of 1 weight ratio mixing plus suitable quantity of water, it is desirable that being pinched with hand can be agglomerating, But it does not drip;
4. selecting hidding and sunny side at height above sea level 1850m, draining good, deep fertile, good permeability the sandy loam work of soil For nursery, nursery is turned over loose, and bed is made in leveling, the long 8m in seedbed, wide 1m, high 0.2m, and the pavement of 0.4m wide is stayed between bed, The nursery ditch of 15cm depths is opened on seedbed, places the nutritive cube equipped with No. 1 Nutrition Soil in ditch, 9~November before soil is freeze-up is every Clicked and entered in a alms bowl 3~5 August green pepper seed, overlying 3cm fine sands later, then cover 2cm maize straw fragments cover one layer of mulch later; The specification of the nutritive cube is bore 12cm, and No. 1 Nutrition Soil is nursery soil, river sand, well-rotted farmyard manure, height above sea level 2000m Above leaf mould, height above sea level 1800m rural area soils below press 6:2:1:4:What 2 weight ratio was formulated;The nursery is turned over Loose preceding application base manure is ploughed, base manure is by calcium superphosphate and farm manure by 3:The decomposed fertilizer of 100 weight ratio retting together, per acre Apply 500 kilograms of decomposed fertilizer;
(2) grafting is cultivated
1. selecting that height above sea level 1800m qualities below are pure, the clovershrub or plum blossom in May in June of robust growth, no disease and pests harm For green pepper bearing-age tree as fringe source, autumn sprout is full, that growth is enriched, prickle is less is slightly scion;1 year (1) cultivated in step Selected in raw rootstock seedling robust growth August green pepper seedling as stock;
2. being grafted in mid-February in spring to late April, at stock from the ground 25~30cm, stock is breaked end, is broken It is 5cm that head metaplexus stock top, which removes downwards surrounding prickle length, forms grafting area, selects smooth one side in grafting area, tiltedly Cut a knife downwards, upper shallow lower depth, long 3~4cm, slightly xylem finally splay a knife at lower part angle at 45 °;In transferring for scion It cuts at 3cm above contact, cuts obliquely, by bud point, then 45° angle is splayed a knife under bud, forms wedge-shaped bud tablets;It will cut Good wedge-shaped bud tablets are embedded in rapidly stock interface, are aligned forming layer, finally stay bud to tighten with plastic strip is bottom-up;
3. observation in 7~10 days survives situation after connecing, should break under the grafting area that first time is formed in time for what is do not survived Head, removes prickle 5cm and forms grafting area and carry out second and mend to connect still further below, budders after surviving, and it is primary often to cross half a month observation, will Grafting area lower part new life bud point erase in time, the 3~5cm of sprouting that budders releases binding, budder grow to 30cm when, pluck in time The heart cultivates tree body, budders after surviving, and never flood irrigation is watered before pinching cut anvil, while carrying out intertillage on time and hoe up weeds, rationally apply Fertilizer, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, obtain first generation grafting;
(3) cultivating stingless prickly ash strain
1. the plant that growth selection is healthy and strong in first generation grafting, branch prickle is less, sprout is full, growth is filled Autumn real, that prickle is less is slightly scion, (2) (1) 2 years raw green pepper rootstock seedlings in August that step is cultivated press step again as stock ~2. method grafted, and by step (2)~method 3. manages grafting, obtain second generation grafting;
2. according to step (3)~continuously grafting obtains forth generation grafting 2 times by second generation grafting for method 1., as Without zanthoxylum acanthopodium grafting;
3. the plant of the 5th year growth selection stalwartness in no zanthoxylum acanthopodium grafting, sprout is full, growth is substantial autumn Be slightly scion, 2 years wild Chinese prickly ash seedlings of life as stock, by step (2)~2. method grafted, and by step (2)~ 3. method manage grafting, obtain final field planting without zanthoxylum acanthopodium grafting, 2000 meters of height above sea level or less can be widely grown in Region, suitable for be widely applied plant;The wild Chinese prickly ash seedling is the wild Chinese prickly ash kind by picking up from height above sea level 1200m height above sea level Son is bred, and is bred using nutritive cube, and No. 2 Nutrition Soils are loaded in nutritive cube, and No. 2 Nutrition Soils are nursery soil, river Sand, well-rotted farmyard manure, the leaf mould of height above sea level 2000m or more, height above sea level 1800m garden soil below press 5:2:1:2:4 weight ratio It is formulated;
(4) building well is transplanted
1. selection height above sea level 2000m existing green pepper tree degeneration agings below, the serious low yield orchard of pest and disease damage or have no through The green pepper garden for value of helping thoroughly excavates and removes existing green pepper tree, ploughed deeply, raked, dried, disinfected to low yield Orchard Soil;
2. by step (3)~field planting that 3. obtains transplanted with no zanthoxylum acanthopodium grafting in garden, in field planting, selection grafting May plum blossom green pepper kind and each half of clovershrub kind in June of grafting transplanted, 45 plants, 4 × 4 meters per acre of level land plant Seeding row spacing, 50 plants per acre of hillside fields plant, 3 × 4 meters of seeding row spacings, field planting hole specification is 60cm × 60cm × 50cm, is used after plant Appropriate farm manure and soil backfill after stirring evenly, and suitable root water, the covering of moisture penetration back root part surrounding ground are poured after backfill One layer of wheat stalk soil moisture conservation;
(5) garden management
1. after treelet is colonized 3 years, primary tree disk soil removal and replacement was carried out every 1~2 year, specifically in early winter cold by Chinese pricklyash The soil of 20cm depth, shovels out discarding in disk 1m diameter ranges, changes with fertile mellow soil;After annual spring, summer, fruit harvesting Each weeding is primary;The gardens treelet Qi Jiao along row deep plough once every year, and depth is advisable with 30cm, and pressure green manure, straw are combined in summer Bar carries out, and green pepper garden carries out shallow turn over the artificial gardens Pao Waquan after fruiting period;
2. needing to apply fertilizer in garden green pepper tree management process, it is divided into two kinds of base manure and top dressing, base manure is applied immediately after plucking green pepper Well-rotted farmyard manure, the first fruit tree of lifes in 4~6 years for producing dry 0.1~1.0kg of green pepper, every plant is applied 5~10kg of farm manure every year, crosses phosphorus Sour 0.2~0.3kg of calcium, produces the trees in richful production period of the lifes in 7 years of dry 2.0~4.0kg of green pepper or more, every plant annual apply farm manure 20~ 40kg, 0.5~2.0kg of calcium superphosphate, application method are combined in the soil layer ploughed deeply and be applied to crown mapping periphery 35~45cm depths; Chinese pricklyash in the ranks or near green pepper garden idly or on barren hill green manuring crop plucks green pepper in well-rotted farmyard manure deficiency Afterwards, green manure crop aerial part is prescinded, in conjunction with ploughing deeply in the soil layer of indentation crown mapping periphery 40cm depths, every plant is pressed fresh grass every year 45kg, calcium superphosphate 1.5kg, urea 0.7kg;Top dressing divides soil topdressing and foliage spray, combines and pours water with Post flowering before rudiment Carry out soil topdressing, before rudiment soil application be every plant impose 0.4kg urea and 0.8kg Diammonium phosphate (DAP) or 0.6kg urea and 1.5kg calcium superphosphate, Post flowering soil impose the urea or ammonium nitrate of every plant of 0.7kg, the mountainous region green pepper garden of non-irrigated condition, by fertilizer It is dissolved in clear water, with fertilizer-applicating gun or punch method, multiple spot injects in setting disk;Young sprout Fast-growing stage, the florescence, fruit Fast-growing stage, Each period before fruit harvesting, after fruit harvesting sprays foliar fertilizer, before the spraying time is at the morning 10 or when afternoon 4 after, Discharge rate will be dripped with blade tip to be advisable, and as met rain in 4 hours after spraying, should be resprayed after rain, wherein spray on young sprout Fast-growing stage blade face 0.5% urea solution, or spray high efficiency composition micro- high U.S.A of fertilizer apply 800 times of liquid 1~2 time;The borax of florescence blade face spray 0.5% adds 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate aqueous solution 1 time;Fruit Fast-growing stage blade face sprays high U.S.A and applies 800 times of liquid 1 time, and 0.5% urea solution adds 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate aqueous solution 1 time;The preceding blade face of fruit harvesting sprays high U.S.A and applies 800 times of liquid 1 time, 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate Aqueous solution 1 time;The urea of blade face spray 0.5% adds 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate primary after fruit harvesting;
(6) pruning
Be divided into two kinds of winter pruning and summer pruning, treelet before soil burial winter protection one, trimmed between February, treelet It is trained spherical or pyriform bearing-age tree by trimming in 3 years;
1. the sizing and trimming of treelet spherical shape or pears row
Without apparent trunk, directly raw 4~5 direction differences, the uniform major branch of growing way from tree base, on major branch raw 1~2 A side shoot, the first side shoot is away from tree base 55cm, the second side branch diatance the first side shoot 65cm, with primary lateral branches in same direction, a two level Side shoot direction is on the contrary, First Year is trimmed after field planting, and cutting strunk immediately after cultivation, cutting strunk height 30cm, sprouting number bud, grows under clip Multiple branches select 4~5 adnation positions ideal and are laid out uniform, robust growth branch as major branch, other branches are not dredged It removes, using support, drawing, vertical method, so that its horizontal or sagging growth is expanded leaf area to mitigate tree vigo(u)r, increase tree body organic matter Manufacture, so that tree crown is formed and increase as early as possible setting fruit position;
Summer, stayed major branch are grown to carrying out pinching when 65cm, and when pinching notices staying that the bud of outside is promoted with sharp spreading angle It sprouts Secondary Branch, cultivates primary lateral branches, pays attention to primary lateral branches staying in same direction, in order to avoid intersecting, influence illumination, just Winter or next year dormant pruning are substantially the same as natural open centre shape First Year early winter, spring in next year pruning method;
Second year trimming is pinching when major branch extends to 65cm after field planting, cultivates two level side shoot, the same primary lateral branches in direction On the contrary, carrying out cutting back to the extension branch of each major branch, it is 50cm to cut and stay length, to continue to use enriching shoot cutting back, weak branch is long doing of staying Method makes uniform growth between major branch, if competitive branch and extension branch growing way are not much different, generally deals with competitive branch weight cutting back, mistake It is wiped out again from base portion after 1 or two years, it should be noted that the direction of clip bud adjusts the angle and direction of major branch with clip branch, on major branch First side shoot is away from trunk 35cm, and side shoot preferably selects and remain oblique flat side or tiltedly goes up side shoot, and the horizontal sextant angle of side shoot and major branch is 40 °, each master The first side shoot on branch will be selected and remain, prevent from interfering with each other in the same direction as possible, and to the tree of robust growth, summer pruning mainly controls Prosperous branch other than competitive branch and main side branch, the method for control is, to excessively prosperous competitive branch and vertical branch, to remove early, remaining is new Branch is in mid or late June pinching or cuts, and so that it is sprouted sublateral shoot, becomes fruitful branch or fruit-bearing shoot cluster;
The trimming of third year is that major branch apical growing point and long prosperous branch are carried out multiple light panching, tamped after May after field planting When interior thorax branch group, early winter or the dormant pruning of spring in next year, grows on overstocked branch and for many years and put and influence major branch, collateral generation development Invalid branch removed or suitably bounced back, spherical or pears row is trimmed general 3 years and shaping can be completed;A master can also be cultivated Branch, 3~4 culture two level side shoot of layering, is further cultured for three-level level Four fruitful branch bar shaped balling-up row or pyriform tree body;
2. the trimming of bearing-age tree
As a result tree-pruning, which focuses on, keeps tree-like, and rational fruit-bearing shoot cluster is maintained to be distributed, and ensures trimming tree high and stable yields, generally Based on cutting back, put in conjunction with pruning off and getting rid of;
First fruiting period tree:To thering is the branch of growing space and gentle branch to get rid of and put;To excessively prosperous branch, vertical branch by draw, not, hang down arrange It applies, or is gently cut, cultivation results branch group;It removes overstocked branch, intersect branch;Overlapping branch goes uprightly, to stay and put down tiltedly, and according to space Appropriate cutting back;
Trees in richful production period:Fruit-bearing shoot cluster update is constantly carried out by reasonable cutting back, the ratio of large, medium and small fruit-bearing shoot cluster is made to protect Hold the level 1: 5: 15;The method that pressure is helped the weak is taken, tree-shaped is maintained;To intensive auxiliary support branch, have space by light It cuts and is trained fruit-bearing shoot cluster, remaining is removed;Fruitful branch should dredge it is weak stay it is strong, dredge transient stay is long, dredge it is small stay it is big;
(7) the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
To sick branch when pruning, wiped out before spring rudiment, withered branch and the Lao Pi struck off, green pepper garden after winter fallen leaves Dry branches and fallen leaves, in time clear up, it is buried after burning;Soil is ploughed before soil is freeze-up and applies farm manure, and water is frozen in embedding, to eliminate Overwintering pest;In the conical mound of 25~35cm high of Chinese pricklyash base portion heap when winter cleaning green pepper garden, one layer of mulch is covered;1.2m with Lower trunk smears white-out agent, and the white-out agent is 1 part of 30 parts of 10 parts of quick lime, water, salt, the lime sulfur counted in parts by weight 1 part of stoste, 0.2 part of animal oil, 0.1 part of stellera chamaejasme L extract, 0.2 part of sodium alginate.
Quality restriction analysis, character advantage are carried out with local old kind to the stingless Chinese pricklyash of improvement of the application grafting below Comparison, Economic and Efficiency Analysis and plant period contrast experiment.
1, the grafting improved front and back fruit quality check analysis of Chinese prickly ash
The front and back fruit quality inspection result of 1 Chinese prickly ash of table grafting
It is shown according to inspection result, known to comparative analysis:Graft the hard fatty acids, linoleic acid, linolenic content of Chinese prickly ash It is slightly lower before palmitic acid and the grafting of oleic acid ratio than slightly higher before grafting, it grafts in the trace element contained by Chinese prickly ash, calcium, phosphorus, potassium content It significantly improves, copper, content of magnesium are substantially reduced, sodium, iron, zinc, manganese content difference unobvious.
2, the grafting improved front and back character advantage comparison of Chinese prickly ash
The grafting improved kind green pepper tree age of tree is 2.5 times of the existing green pepper tree age of tree (10 years) up to 25 years or so;The best fruiting period is single Strain yield averagely can reach 3.2 jin, be existing plum blossom in May green pepper or clovershrub single plant yield in June (about 2.5 jin average) 1.3 times or so;Root system is 2 times of existing clovershrub green pepper tree, has the characteristics that disease resistance is strong, drought resisting is waterlogging, can generally survive in 1800 meters of height above sea level arid below or dark and damp area, and the place survived after original green pepper tree is dead can be transplanted;Grafting improved product Kind green pepper tree fruit full grains, numb taste is pure strong, and color and luster is bright and new, and price competitiveness protrudes;Trunk is almost stingless, and green pepper grain is large It is big to concentrate, convenient for picking, greatly reduce picking cost.
3, the front and back Economic and Efficiency Analysis comparison of grafting
Existing kind Chinese prickly ash yield is 125 pounds/acre, and grafting improved kind Chinese prickly ash yield is 160 pounds/acre, and per mu yield increases 28%, economic benefit increases 1575 yuan;Existing 10 yuan/jin of pepper picking cost, grafting improved kind pepper picking cost 5.7 yuan/jin, saving picking per jin take 4.3 yuan, and picking cost declines about 43%;In the case where per mu yield increases by 35 jin, per acre Picking cost has saved 336 yuan instead, it is seen then that overall economic efficiency has a net increase of 1911 yuan to grafting improved kind Chinese prickly ash per acre, increases 49.3%.
4, plant period comparison
From the point of long-term development, it being calculated for a cycle with every 25 years, the service life of existing green pepper tree kind is 10 years or so, The best fruiting period is 5 years, then at least needing plant in 25 years, green pepper tree, the best fruiting period transplanted twice are total up to 10 years twice;And it grafts Green pepper tree service life of improving the breed is that need to only transplant primary in 25 years or so, 25 years, and the best fruiting period is 20 years or so.The two is compared, grafting Green pepper tree long-term economics benefit of improving the breed is more obvious.
Above by Pericarpium Zanthoxyli fruit quality restriction, character advantage, economic benefit before and after grafting and transplant four aspect of period Analysis comparison, fully demonstrates the advantage implemented without zanthoxylum acanthopodium engrafting and cultivating in upgrading synergy, passes through no zanthoxylum acanthopodium improved goods Kind, which is regenerated, transplants, and effectively improves Chinese prickly ash yield and reduces picking cost, for transferring green pepper agriculture enthusiasm for production, consolidates Chinese prickly ash pillar Industrial status has a very important significance.

Claims (4)

1. a kind of method of the high-quality stingless Chinese pricklyash of engrafting and cultivating, which is characterized in that include the following steps:
(1) rootstock seedling is cultivated
1. regional choice quality more than height above sea level 2000m is pure, topography on the sunny side, robust growth, no disease and pests harm, fruit maturation it is full Full green pepper tree in August is introduces a collection, is picked in lunar calendar early and middle ten days in August, forbids exposure after picking, timely airing is in dry shady and cool ventilation Place, after pericarp is dry and cracked, isolates pure seed;
2. pure seed is immersed in cleaning solution, after being sufficiently stirred 5~15min, not plump kind and impurity of floating are removed, stand 1~ Then 2d washes seed by rubbing with the hands to surface without until glossy, pulls seed out, rinsed well with clear water repeatedly;The cleaning solution is laundry Powder, sodium citrate, potassium silicate, isopropanol, water press 5:2.5:3:1:The solution that 100 weight ratio is prepared;
3. excavating the ditch of depth 60cm, width 1m in hidding and sunny side, well-drained place, seed and wet sand soil are pressed 1:2 ratio One layer of sandy soil, one layer of seed is successively stacked, and until 15cm from the ground, covers wet sand soil above, at ridge shape, the wet sand soil is river Sand, 40 mesh wheat stalk powders, cow dung press 8:1:Made of 1 weight ratio mixing plus suitable quantity of water, it is desirable that being pinched with hand can be agglomerating, but not It drips;
4. selecting hidding and sunny side at 1800~1900m of height above sea level, draining good, deep fertile, good permeability the sandy loam of soil As nursery, nursery is turned over loose, and bed is made in leveling, and 6~8m, wide 1m, high 0.2m are grown in seedbed, and people's row of 0.4m wide is stayed between bed Road opens the nursery ditch of 15cm depths on seedbed, the nutritive cube equipped with No. 1 Nutrition Soil is placed in ditch, and 9~11 before soil is freeze-up Clicked and entered in month each alms bowl 3~5 August green pepper seed, 2~3cm of overlying fine sands later, then cover 2~3cm maize straw fragments cover later One layer of mulch;The specification of the nutritive cube is bore 12cm, No. 1 Nutrition Soil be nursery soil, river sand, well-rotted farmyard manure, Leaf mould, the height above sea level 1800m rural area soils below of height above sea level 2000m or more presses 6:2:1:4:What 2 weight ratio was formulated;It is described Nursery turns over loose preceding application base manure, and base manure is by calcium superphosphate and farm manure by 3:The corruption of 100 weight ratio retting together Ripe fertilizer applies 500 kilograms of decomposed fertilizer per acre;
(2) grafting is cultivated
1. selecting that height above sea level 1800m qualities below are pure, the clovershrub or plum blossom green pepper knot in May in June of robust growth, no disease and pests harm For fruit tree as fringe source, autumn sprout is full, that growth is enriched, prickle is less is slightly scion;In (1) 1 year raw anvil that step is cultivated Selected in wooden seedling robust growth August green pepper seedling as stock;
2. being grafted in mid-February in spring to late April, at stock from the ground 25~30cm, stock is breaked end, after broken end It is 5cm that clump stock top, which removes downwards surrounding prickle length, forms grafting area, selects smooth one side in grafting area, obliquely Cut a knife, upper shallow lower depth, long 3~4cm, slightly xylem finally splay a knife at lower part angle at 45 °;In the grafting point of scion It cuts at the 3cm of top, cuts obliquely, by bud point, then 45° angle is splayed a knife under bud, forms wedge-shaped bud tablets;By what is cut Wedge-shaped bud tablets are embedded in rapidly stock interface, are aligned forming layer, finally stay bud to tighten with plastic strip is bottom-up;
3. observation in 7~10 days survives situation after connecing, should break end under the grafting area that first time is formed in time for what is do not survived, then Removing prickle 5cm forms second of benefit of grafting area progress and connects downwards, budders after surviving, and often to cross half a month observation once, will graft The bud point of area lower part new life is erased in time, and the 3~5cm of sprouting that budders releases binding, budder grow to 30cm when, timely pinching, Cultivate tree body, budder after surviving, before pinching cut anvil never flood irrigation water, while on time carry out intertillage hoe up weeds, the rational application of fertilizer, The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control obtains first generation grafting;
(3) cultivating stingless prickly ash strain
1. the plant that growth selection is healthy and strong in first generation grafting, branch prickle is less, sprout is full, growth enriches, skin Pierce the less autumn slightly and be scion, (1) 2 years raw green pepper rootstock seedlings in August that step is cultivated as stock, press again step (2)~2. side Method is grafted, and by step (2)~method 3. manages grafting, obtain second generation grafting;
2. according to step (3)~continuously grafting obtains forth generation grafting 2 times by second generation grafting for method 1., as stingless Chinese prickly ash grafting;
3. the plant of the 5th year growth selection stalwartness in no zanthoxylum acanthopodium grafting, sprout is full, growth the is substantial autumn is slightly For scion, 2 years wild Chinese prickly ash seedlings of life as stock, by step (2)~2. method grafted, and by step (2)~3. Method manage grafting, obtain final field planting without zanthoxylum acanthopodium grafting, 2000 meters of areas below of height above sea level can be widely grown in Domain, suitable for being widely applied plant;The wild Chinese prickly ash seedling is the wild Chinese prickly ash by picking up from height above sea level 500~1800m height above sea level Seed growing forms, and is bred using nutritive cube, loads No. 2 Nutrition Soils in nutritive cube, No. 2 Nutrition Soils be nursery soil, River sand, well-rotted farmyard manure, the leaf mould of height above sea level 2000m or more, height above sea level 1800m garden soil below press 5:2:1:2:4 weight Than what is be formulated;
(4) building well is transplanted
1. selection height above sea level 2000m existing green pepper tree degeneration agings below, the serious low yield orchard of pest and disease damage or have no economic valence The gardens Zhi Jiao thoroughly excavate and remove existing green pepper tree, ploughed deeply, raked, dried, disinfected to low yield Orchard Soil;
2. by step (3)~field planting that 3. obtains transplanted with no zanthoxylum acanthopodium grafting in garden, in field planting, select the five of grafting Month plum blossom green pepper kind and each half of clovershrub kind in June of grafting are transplanted, 40~45 plants, 4 × 4 meters per acre of level land plant Seeding row spacing, 50~55 plants per acre of hillside fields plant, 3 × 4 meters of seeding row spacings, field planting hole specification is 60cm × 60cm × 50cm, after plant It is backfilled after being stirred evenly using appropriate farm manure and soil, suitable root water, moisture penetration back root part surrounding ground is poured after backfill One layer of wheat stalk soil moisture conservation of covering;
(5) garden management
1. after treelet is colonized 2~3 years, primary tree disk soil removal and replacement was carried out every 1~2 year, specifically in early winter cold by Chinese pricklyash The soil of 15~25cm depth, shovels out discarding in disk 1m diameter ranges, changes with fertile mellow soil;Annual spring, summer, fruit are adopted Each weeding is primary after receipts;The gardens treelet Qi Jiao along row deep plough once every year, and depth is advisable with 30cm, combine pressure green in summer Fertilizer, straw carry out, and green pepper garden carries out shallow turn over the artificial gardens Pao Waquan after fruiting period;
2. needing to apply fertilizer in garden green pepper tree management process, be divided into two kinds of base manure and top dressing, base manure be applied immediately after plucking green pepper it is decomposed Farm manure, the first fruit tree of lifes in 4~6 years for producing dry 0.1~1.0kg of green pepper, every plant is applied 5~10kg of farm manure, calcium superphosphate every year 0.2~0.3kg produces the trees in richful production period of the lifes in 7 years of dry 2.0~4.0kg of green pepper or more, and every plant is applied 20~40kg of farm manure, mistake every year 0.5~2.0kg of calcium phosphate, application method are combined in the soil layer ploughed deeply and be applied to crown mapping periphery 35~45cm depths;In Chinese prickly ash Tree in the ranks or near green pepper garden idly or on barren hill green manuring crop after plucking green pepper, prescinds in well-rotted farmyard manure deficiency Green manure crop aerial part, in conjunction with ploughing deeply in the soil layer of indentation crown mapping 35~45cm of periphery depths, every plant is pressed fresh grass 40 every year ~50kg, 0.5~2.0kg of calcium superphosphate, 0.5~1.0kg of urea;Top dressing divides soil topdressing and foliage spray, before rudiment and opens Combine to pour water after spending and carry out soil topdressing, before rudiment soil application be every plant and impose 0.3~0.5kg urea and 0.5~1.0kg phosphorus Sour diammonium or 0.6kg urea and 1.5kg calcium superphosphate, Post flowering soil impose the urea or ammonium nitrate of every plant of 0.5~1.0kg, nothing The mountainous region green pepper garden of irrigation conditions, fertilizer is dissolved in clear water, and with fertilizer-applicating gun or punch method, multiple spot injects in setting disk;New Each period before tip Fast-growing stage, florescence, fruit Fast-growing stage, fruit harvesting, after fruit harvesting sprays foliar fertilizer, and the spraying time is upper After before when noon 10 or when afternoon 4, discharge rate will be dripped with blade tip to be advisable, and if met rain in 4 hours after spraying, should be resprayed after rain, Wherein, the urea solution of young sprout Fast-growing stage blade face spray 0.5%, or spray high efficiency composition micro- high U.S.A of fertilizer apply 800 times of liquid 1~2 time;Florescence leaf The borax of face spray 0.5% adds 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate aqueous solution 1 time;Fruit Fast-growing stage blade face sprays high U.S.A and applies 800 times of liquid 1 time, 0.5% urea solution adds 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate aqueous solution 1 time;The preceding blade face of fruit harvesting sprays high U.S.A and applies 800 times of liquid 1 time, 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate aqueous solution 1 time;The urea of blade face spray 0.5% adds 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate one after fruit harvesting It is secondary;
(6) pruning
Be divided into two kinds of winter pruning and summer pruning, treelet before soil burial winter protection one, trimmed between February, treelet is passed through Trimming in 3 years is trained spherical or pyriform bearing-age tree;
1. the sizing and trimming of treelet spherical shape or pears row
Without apparent trunk, directly raw 4~5 direction differences, the uniform major branch of growing way from tree base, on major branch raw 1~2 side Branch, the first side shoot is away from tree 50~60cm of base, the second side branch diatance 60~70cm of the first side shoot, with primary lateral branches in same direction, one Two level side shoot direction is on the contrary, First Year is trimmed after field planting, cutting strunk immediately after cultivation, cutting strunk height 30cm, the sprouting number bud under clip, Multiple branches are grown, select 4~5 adnation positions ideal and are laid out uniform, robust growth branch as major branch, other branches It does not remove, using support, drawing, vertical method, so that its horizontal or sagging growth is expanded leaf area to mitigate tree vigo(u)r, increasing tree body has The manufacture of machine matter makes tree crown form and increase as early as possible setting fruit position;
Summer, stayed major branch are grown to carrying out pinching when 60~70cm, and when pinching notices staying that the bud of outside is promoted with sharp spreading angle It sprouts Secondary Branch, cultivates primary lateral branches, pays attention to primary lateral branches staying in same direction, in order to avoid intersecting, influence illumination, just Winter or next year dormant pruning are substantially the same as natural open centre shape First Year early winter, spring in next year pruning method;
Second year trimming is pinching when major branch extends to 60~70cm after field planting, cultivates two level side shoot, the same primary lateral branches in direction On the contrary, the extension branch to each major branch carries out cutting back, it is 45~50cm to cut and stay length, to continue to use enriching shoot cutting back, weak branch is long to be stayed Method, make uniform growth between major branch, if competitive branch and extending branch growing way when being not much different, it is short to generally deal with competitive branch weight It cuts, is wiped out again from base portion after spending 1 or two years, it should be noted that the direction of clip bud adjusts the angle and direction of major branch with clip branch, main For the first side shoot on branch away from 30~40cm of trunk, side shoot preferably selects and remain oblique flat side or tiltedly upper side shoot, the horizontal sextant angle of side shoot and major branch It it is 35 °~45 °, the first side shoot on each major branch will be selected and remain, prevent from interfering with each other, in the same direction as possible to the tree of robust growth, summer Prosperous branch other than trimming mainly control competitive branch and main side branch, the method for control is, to excessively prosperous competitive branch and vertical branch, and It early removes, remaining shoot is in mid or late June pinching or cuts, and so that it is sprouted sublateral shoot, becomes fruitful branch or fruit-bearing shoot cluster;
The trimming of third year is to carry out multiple light panching after May to major branch apical growing point and long prosperous branch, tamp interior thorax after field planting Branch group, when early winter or the dormant pruning of spring in next year, on overstocked branch and it is long for many years put and influence major branch, the nothing that collateral generation is developed Effect branch is removed or is suitably bounced back, and spherical or pears row is trimmed general 3 years and shaping can be completed;A major branch can also be cultivated, 3~4 culture two level side shoot of layering, is further cultured for three-level level Four fruitful branch bar shaped balling-up row or pyriform tree body;
2. the trimming of bearing-age tree
As a result tree-pruning, which focuses on, keeps tree-like, and rational fruit-bearing shoot cluster is maintained to be distributed, and ensures trimming tree high and stable yields, generally with short It is truncated into master, is put in conjunction with pruning off and getting rid of;
First fruiting period tree:To thering is the branch of growing space and gentle branch to get rid of and put;To excessively prosperous branch, vertical branch by drawing, other, measure of hanging down, or Person is gently cut, cultivation results branch group;It removes overstocked branch, intersect branch;Overlapping branch goes uprightly, to stay flat oblique and appropriate according to space Cutting back;
Trees in richful production period:Fruit-bearing shoot cluster update is constantly carried out by reasonable cutting back, the ratio of large, medium and small fruit-bearing shoot cluster is made to be maintained at 1 : 5: 15 level;The method that pressure is helped the weak is taken, tree-shaped is maintained;To intensive auxiliary support branch, have space by gently cutting culture At fruit-bearing shoot cluster, remaining is removed;Fruitful branch should dredge it is weak stay it is strong, dredge transient stay is long, dredge it is small stay it is big;
(7) the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
After winter fallen leaves to sick branch when pruning, wiped out before spring rudiment, withered branch and the Lao Pi struck off, green pepper garden it is withered Branch fallen leaves, are cleared up in time, buried after burning;Soil is ploughed before soil is freeze-up and applies farm manure, and water is frozen in embedding, it is overwintering to eliminate Pest;In the conical mound of 25~35cm high of Chinese pricklyash base portion heap when winter cleaning green pepper garden, one layer of mulch is covered;1.2m or less is set Dry-coated to smear white-out agent, the white-out agent is 1 part of 30 parts of 10 parts of quick lime, water, the salt counted in parts by weight, lime sulfur stoste 1 part, 0.2 part of animal oil, 0.1 part of stellera chamaejasme L extract, 0.2 part of sodium alginate.
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CN109511396A (en) * 2018-12-27 2019-03-26 攀枝花市璟亿农业科技开发有限公司 A kind of Chinese prickly ash prevalent variety cultivation method
CN110476637A (en) * 2019-06-03 2019-11-22 广东省林业科学研究院 A kind of method that quickly breeding China fir produces kind of maternal plant
CN110915537A (en) * 2019-12-24 2020-03-27 陇南市经济林研究院花椒研究所 Non-thorn cultivation method for peppers
CN111296164A (en) * 2020-04-13 2020-06-19 天水禾丰农业综合开发有限公司 Grafting propagation and cultivation method for stingless pepper
CN111727803A (en) * 2020-08-07 2020-10-02 遵义市宝庄农业科技有限公司 Hybrid pepper variety breeding and planting method for high-altitude slope farmland
CN111937666A (en) * 2020-08-24 2020-11-17 衡东县远鹏黄贡椒有限公司 High-efficiency cultivation method for rattan pepper

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CN109328830A (en) * 2018-11-07 2019-02-15 昭通市昭阳区林业局 A kind of pericarpium zanthoxyli schinifolii tree high yield type fruit-bearing shoot cluster year breeding method
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CN110476637A (en) * 2019-06-03 2019-11-22 广东省林业科学研究院 A kind of method that quickly breeding China fir produces kind of maternal plant
CN110476637B (en) * 2019-06-03 2021-05-14 广东省林业科学研究院 Method for rapidly cultivating parent strain of Chinese fir seed
CN110915537A (en) * 2019-12-24 2020-03-27 陇南市经济林研究院花椒研究所 Non-thorn cultivation method for peppers
CN110915537B (en) * 2019-12-24 2021-07-13 陇南市经济林研究院花椒研究所 Non-thorn cultivation method for peppers
CN111296164A (en) * 2020-04-13 2020-06-19 天水禾丰农业综合开发有限公司 Grafting propagation and cultivation method for stingless pepper
CN111727803A (en) * 2020-08-07 2020-10-02 遵义市宝庄农业科技有限公司 Hybrid pepper variety breeding and planting method for high-altitude slope farmland
CN111937666A (en) * 2020-08-24 2020-11-17 衡东县远鹏黄贡椒有限公司 High-efficiency cultivation method for rattan pepper

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Application publication date: 20180828