CN102187799A - Method for preventing and controlling apple tree branch ring spots - Google Patents

Method for preventing and controlling apple tree branch ring spots Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102187799A
CN102187799A CN2011100912776A CN201110091277A CN102187799A CN 102187799 A CN102187799 A CN 102187799A CN 2011100912776 A CN2011100912776 A CN 2011100912776A CN 201110091277 A CN201110091277 A CN 201110091277A CN 102187799 A CN102187799 A CN 102187799A
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China
Prior art keywords
apple
grafting
seedling
good
state light
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Pending
Application number
CN2011100912776A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
王会文
高玉娟
李旭颖
王志敏
王畅
杨晓琛
李海岚
王志海
王倩
张贤明
张亚军
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TIANJIN LICHEN SUN FRUIT PRODUCTIVITY PROMOTION CO Ltd
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TIANJIN LICHEN SUN FRUIT PRODUCTIVITY PROMOTION CO Ltd
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Priority to CN2011100912776A priority Critical patent/CN102187799A/en
Publication of CN102187799A publication Critical patent/CN102187799A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for preventing and controlling apple tree branch ring spots. The method comprises the following steps of: grafting small guoguang apples on base stocks, culturing super-long small guoguang middle stocks, and then grafting excellent apple variety on the super-long small guoguang middle stocks. The method has the advantages that: 1, the resistance of the tree is improved, cyclical infection of pathogenic bacteria is controlled, man-made tree injury is reduced, and concurrent infection of other diseases such as rot disease and the like is prevented; 2, the labor intensity of fruit growers is reduced, the work efficiency is increased, and the prevention and control program is simplified; 3, the development of the diseases is inhibited, tree vigor is promoted, and the quality and the yield of the fruit are improved; and 4, the method is energy-saving and environmentally-friendly, the prevention and control cost is reduced, and the economic benefit of an orchard is increased.

Description

A kind of preventing control method of apple tree limb ring spot
Technical field:
The invention belongs to a kind of diseases prevention technology of fruit tree, particularly a kind of preventing control method of apple trunk ring spot.
Background technology:
Apple tree limb ring spot is to cause the important disease that tree vigo(u)r is weak, shorten tree body economic life, reduction fruit quality and output.The generation of Fuji apple series of products ring spot, harm are particularly serious, infect the ring spot orchard up to 100%, and diseased fruit rate causes the tremendous economic loss for apple producing region peasant more than 33%.
At present, Chang Gui ring rot of apple preventing control method has following two kinds:
1, manually scrapes and control: mainly be manually to strike off the sick knurl of tree body limb spring.This method is time-consuming, the labour intensity height, and the staff easily suffers from respiratory disorder, and the overweight tree vigo(u)r that easily causes of rossing is weak, and sick bark is dealt with improperly easily to cause once more and is infected.
2, spray medicine control: comprise spraying eradicant before the germination and growth sprays protectant, therapeutic agent season.There is following defective in this method: (1) labour intensity is big, production cost is high; (2) be subject to rain drop erosion, the preventive effect phase is short; (3) fruit face and orchard environmental pollution are serious, standard green, organic fruit that fruit poisonous and harmful substance residual quantity height, the fruit of production can not reach.
Summary of the invention:
Purpose of the present invention just is to overcome above-mentioned the deficiencies in the prior art, and provide a kind of apple trunk to take turns line preventing control method also, this method can be controlled developmenting spread, raising control efficiency, reduction control cost, raising apple production, the quality of ring spot effectively, increases orchard worker's income.
As above design, technical scheme of the present invention is: a kind of preventing control method of apple trunk ring spot is characterized in that: the little Guoguang apple of grafting on basic anvil, cultivate overlength micro state light interstock, then at the good apple variety of overlength micro state light interstock grafting.
Above-mentioned basic anvil adopts the Malus spectabilis seedling that grows directly from seeds of eight rib Malus spectabilis planting seeds.
The seeding row spacing of the sowing of the above-mentioned Malus spectabilis seedling that grows directly from seeds is 50 * 100cm.
Above-mentioned on overlength micro state light interstock the good Fuji of grafting be that the concrete grammar of apple variety is:
1. nursery cultivating large seedling: then early August on spring sowing Malus spectabilis seedling, adopt T-shaped bud grafting method on distance ground the little Guoguang apple of 5 centimeters graftings budder; Cultivate micro state's light seedling after cutting anvil 1 year spring, early August is adopted T-shaped bud grafting method, in distance ground 80 centimeters, and the apple variety scion that grafting is good; Carry out pinching during 10 centimetres high of the 3rd year spring scion germinating growths and inspire branch, cultivate into the seedlings of good branch after, go out the garden field planting again and build the garden;
2. field planting micro state light finished product apple seedling or semi-finished product micro state light seedling are built the garden, and the apple variety scion that grafting is good is carried out pinching when buddering 10 centimetres high of germination and growths and inspired branch, select suitable tree-like cultivation tree crown.
The concrete grammar that above-mentioned field planting micro state light apple seedling is built the good apple variety scion of garden grafting is: at the field planting seedlings then or the late April after growing 1 year, adopt the good apple variety scion that 80 centimeters graftings are sealed with wax on distance ground of cut-grafting method, carry out pinching when buddering 10 centimetres high of germination and growths and inspire branch, select suitable tree-like cultivation tree crown.
The concrete grammar that above-mentioned field planting semi-finished product micro state light seedling is built the good apple variety scion of garden grafting is: in spring, be to cut anvil behind the early April field planting seedlings, budder survive after, strengthen short its growth of rich water quality management more than 120 centimetres, early August is used T-shaped bud grafting method, in the selected in advance breeding apple variety scion of micro state light spacing ground 80 centimeters graftings, budder 1 year spring sprout before, be early April to cut anvil, the growth of buddering is carried out pinching 10 centimetres high the time and is inspired branch, selects suitable tree-like cultivation tree crown.
The present invention has following advantage and good effect:
1, suppresses the disease development, promote the tree vigo(u)r stalwartness, improve the fruit quality and yield.The present invention is owing to grafting high quality apple kind on overlength micro state light interstock, can make the tree vigo(u)r stalwartness, the shoot growth amount is big, blade is thick, big, stable yields high yield, fruit quality is good, the Malus spectabilis base anvil Fuji apple of equal cultivation condition, the high quality fruit rate improves 25.8%, and hardness of fruit height, mouthfeel are crisp sweet.Because micro state's light interstock section does not infect ring spot, the susceptible branch of apple variety part rate is lower than 5%, and the disease knurl is seldom found on the branch surface, no new chronic illness knurl is superimposed upon the phenomenon that the bark surface forms one deck duricrust on the trunk, the trunk cortex is smooth, and nutrient flow is clear and coherent smooth, and economic life prolongs.
2, reduce orchard worker's labour intensity, increase work efficiency, simplify the program of preventing and treating.The present invention is because the apple tree that employing overlength micro state light interstock is cultivated improved seeds can strengthen the anti-ring spot of tree body self, and susceptible rate is extremely low, thereby has removed annual loaded down with trivial details work of scraping the knurl of curing the disease, scab from, and easy, saving of labor has improved production efficiency.
3, energy-saving and environmental protection.The multiple spot experiment shows, uses overlength micro state light interstock prevention and control apple tree ring spot, reduces than the apple orchard of equal cultivation condition and prevents and treats ring spot medication 3-5 time/666.7m 2. year, save cost 338-426 unit/666.7m 2. year.Orchard soil, pollution of waterhead significantly reduce, and the harmful poisonous residue of fruit obviously reduces, and the probability of orchard administrative staff's skin exposed to pesticides, breathing agricultural chemicals dust odor reduces more than 1/3.
4, can improve the fruit quality and yield, improve the economic benefit in orchard.Can invent and to strengthen tree vigo(u)r, few medication, have laid a good foundation for producing green and organic fruit, cooperate method pest control and other diseases such as agricultural, physics, biology, can farthest reduce the chemical pesticide usage amount, not only promoted the fruit quality significantly, and high and stable yields, when providing best in quality, edible safety fruit for market, the income in orchard can increase 2-3 doubly.
Embodiment:
A kind of apple trunk wheel line preventing control method also may further comprise the steps:
1, basic anvil is selected: the Malus spectabilis seedling that grows directly from seeds that adopts annual eight rib Malus spectabilis planting seeds.
2, the preparation of goods and materials and instrument:
(1) is ready to sharp pruner and grafting knife.
(2) prepare enough (fresh or seal with wax) full substantial Guoguang apple scion of twig; (scion of sealing with wax is used in scion grafting in good apple variety scion; Healthy and strong then developmental branch is used in bud grafting).
3, operating technology:
3.1 the nursery cultivating large seedling then early August on spring sowing Malus spectabilis seedling, adopt T-shaped bud grafting method on distance ground the little Guoguang apple of 5 centimeters graftings budder; Cultivate micro state's light seedling after cutting anvil 1 year spring, early August is adopted T-shaped bud grafting method, in distance ground 80 centimeters, and the apple variety scion that grafting is good; Carry out pinching during 10 centimetres high of the 3rd year spring scion germinating growths and inspire branch, cultivate into the seedlings of good branch after, go out the garden field planting again and build the garden;
3.2 field planting micro state light apple seedling is built the garden in field planting then or the late April after growing 1 year, adopt the cut-grafting method in distance ground 80 centimeters (keeping 80 centimetres of micro state's light anvil sections), the breeding apple variety scion (apple variety is independently selected according to the market demand and environmental condition) that grafting is sealed with wax, carry out pinching when buddering 10 centimetres high of germination and growths and inspire branch, select suitable tree-like cultivation tree crown.
Cut anvil after 3.3 field planting semi-finished product micro state light seedling is built garden spring (early April) field planting, budder survive after, strengthen short its growth of rich water quality management more than 120 centimetres.Early August is used T-shaped bud grafting method, in the selected in advance breeding apple variety scion of micro state light spacing ground 80 centimeters graftings.Budder 1 year spring sprout before (early April) cut anvil, carry out pinching when buddering 10 centimetres high of growths and inspire branch, select suitable tree-like cultivation tree crown.
Points for attention of the present invention:
1, basic anvil is preferably selected the Malus spectabilis seedling that grows directly from seeds of good eight rib Malus spectabilis planting seeds.
2, the finished product seedlings are cultivated in the nursery, must guarantee rationally suitable seeding row spacing (about 50 * 100cm).The nursery that Malus spectabilis seedling density is excessive, must be after grafting micro state light kind transplantation of seedlings between (scion germinate before), guarantee that grafting has enough growing spaces, cultivates healthy and strong seedlings.
3, do the apple variety scion of grafting fully, strict disinfection prevents apple scion carry the germs of a disease (knurl).
4, the grafting of field planting garden can only connect the breeding apple variety by height on micro state's light kind trunk of basic anvil rhizome portion grafting, can not be on the cultivation apple variety height connect micro state's light kind and remarry and connect the breeding apple variety, avoid that trunk is too high, the nutrient circulation is far away, skeleton is loose, tree crown is tall and big.
5, the best is built 3 years living seedlings that the garden mode is the cultivation of field planting nursery, and is neat to guarantee the garden looks, early high-yield, high quality and stable yield.

Claims (6)

1. the preventing control method of an apple trunk ring spot is characterized in that: the little Guoguang apple of grafting on basic anvil, cultivate overlength micro state light interstock, then at the good apple variety of overlength micro state light interstock grafting.
2. the preventing control method of a kind of apple trunk ring spot according to claim 1 is characterized in that: above-mentioned basic anvil adopts the Malus spectabilis seedling that grows directly from seeds of eight rib Malus spectabilis planting seeds.
3. the preventing control method of a kind of apple trunk ring spot according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: the seeding row spacing of the sowing of the above-mentioned Malus spectabilis seedling that grows directly from seeds is 50 * 100cm.
4. the preventing control method of a kind of apple trunk ring spot according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: above-mentioned on overlength micro state light interstock the good Fuji of grafting be that the concrete grammar of apple variety is:
1. nursery cultivating large seedling: then early August on spring sowing Malus spectabilis seedling, adopt T-shaped bud grafting method on distance ground the little Guoguang apple of 5 centimeters graftings budder; Cultivate micro state's light seedling after cutting anvil 1 year spring, early August is adopted T-shaped bud grafting method, in distance ground 80 centimeters, and the apple variety scion that grafting is good; Carry out pinching during 10 centimetres high of the 3rd year spring scion germinating growths and inspire branch, cultivate into the seedlings of good branch after, go out the garden field planting again and build the garden;
2. field planting micro state light finished product apple seedling or semi-finished product micro state light seedling are built the garden, and the apple variety scion that grafting is good is carried out pinching when buddering 10 centimetres high of germination and growths and inspired branch, select suitable tree-like cultivation tree crown.
5. the preventing control method of a kind of apple trunk ring spot according to claim 4, it is characterized in that: the concrete grammar that above-mentioned field planting micro state light apple seedling is built the good apple variety scion of garden grafting is: at the field planting seedlings then or the late April after growing 1 year, adopt the good apple variety scion that 80 centimeters graftings are sealed with wax on distance ground of cut-grafting method, carry out pinching when buddering 10 centimetres high of germination and growths and inspire branch, select suitable tree-like cultivation tree crown.
6. the preventing control method of a kind of apple trunk ring spot according to claim 4, it is characterized in that: the concrete grammar that above-mentioned field planting semi-finished product micro state light seedling is built the good apple variety scion of garden grafting is: in spring, be to cut anvil behind the early April field planting seedlings, budder survive after, strengthen short its growth of rich water quality management more than 120 centimetres, early August is used T-shaped bud grafting method, in the selected in advance breeding apple variety scion of micro state light spacing ground 80 centimeters graftings, budder 1 year spring sprout before, be early April to cut anvil, the growth of buddering is carried out pinching 10 centimetres high the time and is inspired branch, selects suitable tree-like cultivation tree crown.
CN2011100912776A 2011-04-12 2011-04-12 Method for preventing and controlling apple tree branch ring spots Pending CN102187799A (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102845243A (en) * 2012-09-14 2013-01-02 中国农业科学院果树研究所 Indoor resistance test method for apple rot
CN104082080A (en) * 2014-06-18 2014-10-08 安徽华箔箔业科技有限公司 Prevention method for apple tree canker
CN104642036A (en) * 2013-11-22 2015-05-27 天津市林业果树研究所 Prevention method for apple rot
CN105532359A (en) * 2016-01-14 2016-05-04 天津农学院 Application of malus robusta as grafting stock of green apples
CN106342625A (en) * 2016-08-24 2017-01-25 青岛市农业科学研究院 Anti-ring rot apple cultivation method

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CN1465249A (en) * 2002-06-30 2004-01-07 周耀德 Disinfectant for preventing and controlling apple ring spot and spot defoliation
CN1593154A (en) * 2004-07-13 2005-03-16 田忠科 Copper humate agricultural chemicals bactericide for prevention and cure of fruit tree branch disease
JP2005272310A (en) * 2004-03-23 2005-10-06 Nissan Chem Ind Ltd Fungicidal composition
WO2007013089A1 (en) * 2005-07-26 2007-02-01 Council Of Scientific & Industrial Research Development of diagnostic kit against the recombinant coat protein of prunus necrotic ringspot virus
CN101347087A (en) * 2008-09-04 2009-01-21 山东农业大学 Method for enhancing disease resistance of fruit tree using interstock

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH07203841A (en) * 1993-12-31 1995-08-08 N S Syst Kaihatsu Kyodo Kumiai Bactericidal method for physalospora piricola
JP2000342085A (en) * 1999-06-09 2000-12-12 Kiyoshi Miyazawa Tree treatment by film and tree protection
CN1465249A (en) * 2002-06-30 2004-01-07 周耀德 Disinfectant for preventing and controlling apple ring spot and spot defoliation
JP2005272310A (en) * 2004-03-23 2005-10-06 Nissan Chem Ind Ltd Fungicidal composition
CN1593154A (en) * 2004-07-13 2005-03-16 田忠科 Copper humate agricultural chemicals bactericide for prevention and cure of fruit tree branch disease
WO2007013089A1 (en) * 2005-07-26 2007-02-01 Council Of Scientific & Industrial Research Development of diagnostic kit against the recombinant coat protein of prunus necrotic ringspot virus
CN101347087A (en) * 2008-09-04 2009-01-21 山东农业大学 Method for enhancing disease resistance of fruit tree using interstock

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102845243A (en) * 2012-09-14 2013-01-02 中国农业科学院果树研究所 Indoor resistance test method for apple rot
CN104642036A (en) * 2013-11-22 2015-05-27 天津市林业果树研究所 Prevention method for apple rot
CN104082080A (en) * 2014-06-18 2014-10-08 安徽华箔箔业科技有限公司 Prevention method for apple tree canker
CN105532359A (en) * 2016-01-14 2016-05-04 天津农学院 Application of malus robusta as grafting stock of green apples
CN106342625A (en) * 2016-08-24 2017-01-25 青岛市农业科学研究院 Anti-ring rot apple cultivation method

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Application publication date: 20110921