CN104938181A - Efficient macadimia nut cultivation method - Google Patents

Efficient macadimia nut cultivation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104938181A
CN104938181A CN201510322271.3A CN201510322271A CN104938181A CN 104938181 A CN104938181 A CN 104938181A CN 201510322271 A CN201510322271 A CN 201510322271A CN 104938181 A CN104938181 A CN 104938181A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
grafting
scion
liquid medicine
seedling
seedlings
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CN201510322271.3A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
梁厚真
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Cengxi Jinte Australia Nut Development Center
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Cengxi Jinte Australia Nut Development Center
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Priority to CN201510322271.3A priority Critical patent/CN104938181A/en
Publication of CN104938181A publication Critical patent/CN104938181A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/02Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms
    • A01N43/04Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom
    • A01N43/06Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom five-membered rings
    • A01N43/12Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom five-membered rings condensed with a carbocyclic ring
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/34Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom
    • A01N43/36Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom five-membered rings
    • A01N43/38Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom five-membered rings condensed with carbocyclic rings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N47/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom not being member of a ring and having no bond to a carbon or hydrogen atom, e.g. derivatives of carbonic acid
    • A01N47/08Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom not being member of a ring and having no bond to a carbon or hydrogen atom, e.g. derivatives of carbonic acid the carbon atom having one or more single bonds to nitrogen atoms
    • A01N47/28Ureas or thioureas containing the groups >N—CO—N< or >N—CS—N<
    • A01N47/34Ureas or thioureas containing the groups >N—CO—N< or >N—CS—N< containing the groups, e.g. biuret; Thio analogues thereof; Urea-aldehyde condensation products

Abstract

The invention discloses an efficient macadimia nut cultivation method and relates to the technical field of agricultural planting. The method comprises the steps that tree planting bags are used for culture of seedlings, and after the rootstock seedlings are cultivated to be more than 60 cm long, weeding, fertilizing, deinsectization and disease prevention are carried out in time, and management and protection are enhanced; in the high-temperature season from May to October, a sun shelter is built, and the rootstock seedlings are grafted after growing in the sun shelter for half a month; the robust branches which do not sprout or are about to sprout in the same year of a macadimia nut tree with more fruits are selected as scions; a mixture of gibberellin 920 and heteroauxin is added with water to be dissolved and then added with thiophanate methyl to form liquid medicine, and manicured scions with the 1/2-4/5 length are vertically placed into the liquid medicine from the root and the surface for 0.5-2 hour; the improved cut-grafting method is adopted for grafting, the successfully-grafted seedlings sprout more than three times, and the seedlings can be planted out after sporting two times and growing to be 1 m long. The problems that macadimia nut seedling culture period is long and the grafting survival rate is low in the prior art are solved.

Description

Macadamia nut efficient breeding method
Technical field
The present invention relates to agricultural plantation technology field, especially a kind of macadamia nut efficient breeding method.
Background technology
Macadamia nut is first of the large famous dry fruit in the world four, is best-selling dry fruit food product on international market for a long time always.It is predicted to the year two thousand twenty world macadamia nut shell fruit gross yield about 250,000 tons, wherein Australian macadamia nut produces shell fruit about 50,000 tons per year, and about 40,000 tons, the U.S., about 20,000 tons, South Africa, China's output will reach about 20,000 tons.But, at present to the demand of macadamia nut about more than 400,000 tons, this large demand is that the industrialized development of nut provides very wide market prospects.Under macadamia nut natural conditions, suitable grafting time is spring, but because the rainy day in spring is more, grafting time is limited, had a strong impact on the scale of grafting and gone out garden quantity, therefore mostly existing macadamia nut mating system is to carry out extensive grafting, normally after vernalization seedling in summer, autumn, winter, transplant seedling, carry out grafting to seedling again, the growing-seedling period of this method is long, seedling cost is large, and graft survival rate is lower than 50%.In order to meet masses' demand, reducing nut seedling price, seedling raise period must be shortened, improve graft survival rate, reduce seedling cost, thus carry out the research of macadamia nut efficient raising technology very necessary.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of macadamia nut efficient breeding method, this method can solve existing macadamia nut and there is the problem that growing-seedling period is long and graft survival rate is low.
In order to solve the problem, the technical solution used in the present invention is: this macadamia nut efficient breeding method comprises the following steps:
A, rootstock seedling are cultivated: use tree planting bag nursery, and cultivate after to more than 60 centimetres until rootstock seedling, timely weeding, fertilising, deinsectization, diseases prevention, strengthen managing and protecting;
B, cool canopy are managed and protected: 5-10 month high temperature season support and sunshade net construction hide the cool canopy in nursery, and rootstock seedling grows two weeks and carries out grafting again in cool canopy;
C, scion are chosen: the healthy and strong branch that the macadamia that selection result is many is not yet taken out the tip then or is about to take out the tip is scion, carries out pruning modes to scion;
D, scion drug treating: add thiophanate methyl after the mixture of gibberellin 920 and heteroauxin is watered dissolving and make liquid medicine, vertically put into liquid medicine and soak and put into liquid medicine and soak 0.5 ~ 2 hour from root to table by the length of 1/2 ~ 4/5 of the scion of having pruned;
E, grafting: adopt the grafting of improvement cut-grafting method, before grafting two weeks, stock first uses sufficient fertilizer, carry out the extermination of disease and insect pest, grafting first three day stock is drenched water, the bud that grows directly from seeds after grafting survival below the mouth of removing grafting in time, after grafting survival more than seedling pumping three tips, wherein secondary aging after, seedling grows to more than 1 meter can go out garden.
In the technical scheme of above-mentioned macadamia nut efficient breeding method, technical scheme can also be more specifically: during grafting medicine dissolving, water temperature is no more than 60 DEG C, need use after dissolving in 24 hours.
Further, in step D, the mixture of every 10 grams of gibberellin 920s and heteroauxin is converted after 5 kg water dissolve, and adds 10 milliliters of thiophanate methyls and makes liquid medicine.
Further, the shading rate of described sunshade net is 60%, and described cool canopy is high 2 meters, and described cool canopy is placed with straw.
Owing to have employed technique scheme, the present invention compared with prior art has following beneficial effect:
The measure such as to manage and protect under 1, taking drug treating scion, cool canopy condition, extend nut seedling grafting time 5 times.Thorough change the summer, the autumn, the extensive graft survival rate of macadamia nut in winter lower than 50% present situation, improve large area graft survival rate to more than 75%, local area graft survival rate reaches 90%, reduces seedling cost and seedling selling price, shortens seedling raise period more than 6 months.
2, with the effect of tree planting bag nursery: facilitate entrucking to transport, plantation survival rate is improved; The action effect that cool canopy is managed and protected: overcome the adverse effect of high temperature to seedling early growth, be beneficial to seedling early growth; The action effect that scion is chosen: select suitable scion, improves graft survival rate; The effect of grafting medicine: thiophanate methyl detoxicating sterilization, gibberellin 920 and heteroauxin promote the growth of fruit seedling and germinate; The grafting of improvement cut-grafting method improves graft survival rate and operating efficiency.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment, the invention will be further described:
Embodiment 1
The macadamia nut efficient breeding method of the present embodiment, comprises the steps:
A, rootstock seedling are cultivated: with the nursery of environmental protection tree planting bag, cultivate after to more than 60 centimetres until rootstock seedling, timely weeding, fertilising, deinsectization, diseases prevention, strengthen managing and protecting, and carries out the preparation before grafting;
B, cool canopy are managed and protected: 5-10 month high temperature season bamboo wood or little steel pipe support, take shading rate as the sunshade net of 60% be material, build the cool canopy hiding nursery, cool canopy height is 2 meters, can put a small amount of in straw above cool canopy, rootstock seedling grows two weeks and carries out grafting again in cool canopy, and hot weather can drench suitable quantity of water on cool canopy;
C, scion are chosen: the healthy and strong branch that the macadamia that selection result is many is not yet taken out the tip then or is about to take out the tip is scion, carry out necessary pruning modes to scion;
D, scion drug treating: the mixture of every 10 grams of gibberellin 920s and heteroauxin is converted after 5 kg water dissolve, add 10 milliliters of thiophanate methyls and make liquid medicine, wherein, the weight ratio of mycin 920 and heteroauxin is 1:1, during medicine dissolving, water temperature is no more than 40 DEG C, any medicine must not be added except thiophanate methyl, need use in 24 hours after dissolving; The length of 4/5 of the scion of having pruned vertically is put into liquid medicine immersion from root to table and put into liquid medicine immersion 1 hour, the exterior portion that scion does not enter liquid medicine is conducive to oxygen uptake;
E, grafting: adopt the grafting of improvement cut-grafting method, before grafting two weeks, stock first uses sufficient fertilizer, carry out the extermination of disease and insect pest, grafting first three day stock is drenched water, after the bud grafting survival that grows directly from seeds after grafting survival below the mouth of removing grafting in time more than seedling pumping three tips, wherein secondary aging after, seedling grows to more than 1 meter can go out garden.
Damage by disease and insect mainly ant, aphid, thrips, the charcoal myiasis etc. in nursery base, are easy to control, to ant prior to seeding, before grafting and scion rudiment time dispenser spray 3 times.Other damage by disease and insect, during generation with common insecticide as chlorophos, dichlorvos, real skill, pyrethrin and bactericide carry out spraying as carbendazim, tpn, thiophanate methyl illustrate by medicine.Nursery base 6, hot and humid time in July or easily bring out disease after there is big flood and occur, need prevent and treat in time.
Embodiment 2
In the scion drug treating step of the macadamia nut efficient breeding method of the present embodiment, the mixture of every 10 grams of gibberellin 920s and heteroauxin is converted after 5 kg water dissolve, add 10 milliliters of thiophanate methyls and make liquid medicine, wherein, the weight ratio of mycin 920 and heteroauxin is 3:5, during medicine dissolving, water temperature is 40 DEG C, must not add any medicine except thiophanate methyl, uses after dissolving in 24 hours; The length of 3/4 of the scion of having pruned vertically is put into liquid medicine immersion from root to table and put into liquid medicine immersion 0.5 hour, the exterior portion that scion does not enter liquid medicine is conducive to oxygen uptake.All the other features are identical with embodiment 1.
Embodiment 3
In the scion drug treating step of the macadamia nut efficient breeding method of the present embodiment, the mixture of every 10 grams of gibberellin 920s and heteroauxin is converted after 5 kg water dissolve, add 10 milliliters of thiophanate methyls and make liquid medicine, wherein, the weight ratio of mycin 920 and heteroauxin is 5:3, during medicine dissolving, water temperature is 50 DEG C, must not add any medicine except thiophanate methyl, uses after dissolving in 24 hours; The length of 1/2 of the scion of having pruned vertically is put into liquid medicine immersion from root to table and put into liquid medicine immersion 2 hours, the exterior portion that scion does not enter liquid medicine is conducive to oxygen uptake.All the other features are identical with embodiment 1.

Claims (4)

1. a macadamia nut efficient breeding method, is characterized in that comprising the following steps:
A, rootstock seedling are cultivated: use tree planting bag nursery, and cultivate after to more than 60 centimetres until rootstock seedling, timely weeding, fertilising, deinsectization, diseases prevention, strengthen managing and protecting;
B, cool canopy are managed and protected: 5-10 month high temperature season support and sunshade net construction hide the cool canopy in nursery, and rootstock seedling grows two weeks and carries out grafting again in cool canopy;
C, scion are chosen: the healthy and strong branch that the macadamia that selection result is many is not yet taken out the tip then or is about to take out the tip is scion, carries out pruning modes to scion;
D, scion drug treating: add thiophanate methyl after the mixture of gibberellin 920 and heteroauxin is watered dissolving and make liquid medicine, vertically put into liquid medicine and soak and put into liquid medicine and soak 0.5 ~ 2 hour from root to table by the length of 1/2 ~ 4/5 of the scion of having pruned;
E, grafting: adopt the grafting of improvement cut-grafting method, before grafting two weeks, stock first uses sufficient fertilizer, carry out the extermination of disease and insect pest, grafting first three day stock is drenched water, the bud that grows directly from seeds after grafting survival below the mouth of removing grafting in time, after grafting survival more than seedling pumping three tips, wherein secondary aging after, seedling grows to more than 1 meter can go out garden.
2. macadamia nut efficient breeding method according to claim 1, is characterized in that: during grafting medicine dissolving, water temperature is no more than 60 DEG C, need use after dissolving in 24 hours.
3. macadamia nut efficient breeding method according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that: in step D, and the mixture of every 10 grams of gibberellin 920s and heteroauxin is converted after 5 kg water dissolve, and adds 10 milliliters of thiophanate methyls and makes liquid medicine.
4. macadamia nut efficient breeding method according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the shading rate of described sunshade net is 60%, and described cool canopy is high 2 meters, and described cool canopy is placed with straw.
CN201510322271.3A 2015-06-12 2015-06-12 Efficient macadimia nut cultivation method Pending CN104938181A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106973704A (en) * 2017-03-27 2017-07-25 西双版纳云濮农业科技有限公司 A kind of engrafting method of Queensland nut
CN107667751A (en) * 2017-09-28 2018-02-09 马山县荷松种植专业合作社 The fast breeding method of Queensland nut seedling
CN109197209A (en) * 2018-11-30 2019-01-15 德宏叁叁农业科技有限责任公司 A kind of nut grafting seedlings-growing method

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CN104025844A (en) * 2014-05-24 2014-09-10 云南源润坚果开发有限公司 Macadimia nut seedling autumn grafting technology
CN104488576A (en) * 2015-01-05 2015-04-08 江城中澳农业科技发展有限公司 Grafting method of macadimia nut sprout

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106973704A (en) * 2017-03-27 2017-07-25 西双版纳云濮农业科技有限公司 A kind of engrafting method of Queensland nut
CN107667751A (en) * 2017-09-28 2018-02-09 马山县荷松种植专业合作社 The fast breeding method of Queensland nut seedling
CN109197209A (en) * 2018-11-30 2019-01-15 德宏叁叁农业科技有限责任公司 A kind of nut grafting seedlings-growing method

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