CN106358773B - The tree-like breeding method of walnut " trunk type " - Google Patents

The tree-like breeding method of walnut " trunk type " Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106358773B
CN106358773B CN201610804292.3A CN201610804292A CN106358773B CN 106358773 B CN106358773 B CN 106358773B CN 201610804292 A CN201610804292 A CN 201610804292A CN 106358773 B CN106358773 B CN 106358773B
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branch
tree
walnut
year
trunk
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CN106358773A (en
Inventor
张强
黄闽敏
王国安
杨俊杰
李西萍
古扎丽
王明
杨红丽
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FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE XINJIANG ACADEMY OF FORESTRY
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FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE XINJIANG ACADEMY OF FORESTRY
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

Abstract

The invention discloses the tree-like breeding method of walnut " trunk type ", point completion in 3 years, concrete operation steps are as follows: 1) First Year is broadcast live orchard establishment or grafting is colonized keep-alive;2) second and third year, tree-like culture;3) the third end of the year, " trunk type " tree-like culture are completed.The invention has the benefit that the tree height reduction level-one compared with traditional cultivation, is only divided into trunk, major branch and side shoot three-level, illumination utilization rate is greatly improved, and the advantage of the present nutrient growth of quantasome and reproductive growth is more obvious;Full garden illumination utilization rate improves 50% or more, and liquid manure investment reduces by 60% or more, and human input saves 30%;Pruning technique is simplified, and workload greatly reduces, and meaningless nutrient loss minimizes;The available very fast update of fruit-bearing shoot cluster, update are also relatively easy to, and are laid the foundation for the promotion of later period yield and quality;Height of tree crown, volume are all greatly reduced, more convenient harvesting and other production operations.

Description

The tree-like breeding method of walnut " trunk type "
Technical field
The present invention relates to industrial crops to plant breeding method technical field, and in particular to the tree-like training of walnut " trunk type " Educate method.
Background technique
Walnut belongs to Angiospermae, Dicotyledoneae, Juglandaceae, Juglans, is tall and big deciduous tree, originates in close Eastern area, also known as English walnut, Qiang peach, can both eat raw, stir-fry and eat, can also extract oil, prepare cake, candy etc., it is not only delicious, but also Nutritive value is very high, is known as " long live son ", " Longevity ", with almond, cashew nut, fibert and referred to as world-renowned " four is big dry Fruit ".
Walnut enjoys light, is drought-enduring, but is afraid of that flood, fearness are saline and alkaline, and diseases and insect pests resistance is strong, adapts to a variety of climatic environment conditions and soil Earth type.The kernel of walnut nutritional ingredient rich in, every hectogram contain 15~20 grams of protein, 60~70 grams fatty, carbon water 10 grams of compound and calcium needed by human, phosphorus, iron, carrotene, riboflavin (vitamin B2), vitamin B6, vitamin E, Hu The nutriments such as peach leaf quinone, phosphatide, tannin.Nutritional ingredient in walnut has excellent health functions to cranial nerve, there is prevention and treatment artery The effect of hardening.Microelement in walnut kernel is that human body is indispensable, has and promotes glucose utilization, cholesterol metabolic, guarantor The function of shield heart blood vessel and anti-aging.
Since walnut belongs to big crown type Qiaoization tree species, easily there are following problems in usual production: first is that internal branch leaf phase Mutually shading, illumination utilization rate is poor, and branch excessive growth is not enriched, and moves outside setting fruit position;Second is that fruit-bearing shoot cluster updates slower, easy early ageing, Yield and quality is influenced to be promoted;Third is that trimming work amount is big every year, one side pruning technique is not easy to grasp, and another aspect is meaningless to support Divide loss amount huge;Fourth is that tree body is tall and big, it is not easy to harvesting and other production operations.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is to above-mentioned defects in the prior art, provide the tree-like training of walnut " trunk type " Educate method, for conventional walnut it is tree-like it is tall and big, light efficiency is low, easy early ageing, trimming difficulty it is big the problems such as carry out technical method improvement, letter Change walnut tree management, simplify pruning measure, simplify water and fertilizer management, makes illumination utilization rate, the easy journey of daily cultivation management Degree is increased dramatically.
To achieve the goals above, technical solution provided by the invention are as follows: the tree-like breeding method of walnut " trunk type ", It completes within the breeding method point 3 years, concrete operation step are as follows:
1) First Year is broadcast live orchard establishment or grafting is colonized keep-alive:
A) orchard establishment:
It is divided into grafting field planting orchard establishment and live streaming orchard establishment;The plant spacing 4-5m of the grafting field planting orchard establishment, spacing in the rows 2m, nursery stock select I grade of breeding walnut grafting seedling;The live streaming orchard establishment is to use local farmers' thickness shell Walnut Seed, Stratificated treatment, Spring covers mulch and sows, seeding row spacing 2m × 4-5m, every bunch planting kind 3, and the seedling that 1 plant of growing way stalwartness is selected and remain after emergence is cooked anvil Wood;The next spring is away from ground 10cm stump, and when young sprout at the beginning of 6 months grows to 1 meter or more, at away from ground 30cm, i.e., diameter is big Bud is carried out at 1.0cm to connect;
B) it is colonized orchard establishment slow seedling:
Walnut seedling-slowing stage is longer, and new field planting Juglans are smaller in the first year increment, and longer period of time is all in root system Self-healing and slow seedling state, the new Juglans that are colonized are supplied in time in First Year guarantee moisture, it is ensured that planting stock survives;It carries out simultaneously Trunk bondage, when there is top-heavy phenomenon in the branches and leaves that trunk bondage refers to that restoration ecosystem pumping goes out after treelet trunk slow seedling, and Shi Shuli column, bamboo pole or the wooden pole, trunk and column bondage are fixed, prevent from causing windbreak;
C) fertilizer and water management:
When new hair branch growth amount reaches 5cm or more, continuous trickle irrigation liquid bio bacterial manure 3 times, promote nursery stock robust growth, Trickle irrigation frequency is average 7 days primary, 2h/time, 10 m of water consumption3/ time mu;After mid-August, water and fertilizer control to winter irrigation promotes Branch lignifying;Base manure, sowing amount 1m are applied before by the end of October3/ mu;
2) second and third year, tree-like culture:
A) tree-like culture:
Shaping measure is cultivated including once topping, quarter bud, the dry extension in center, crownling's branch supports branch, major branch draws branch pinching and tree Height control;
It is described it is primary topping refer to: by the end of March walnut sprout before, it is dry to center to pinch, under top first it is full The position 5cm carries out cutting back above bud, and stimulation lower part side shoot is sprouted;
The quarter bud refers to: April early and middle ten days walnut start rudiment after, quarter bud is carried out to the dry upper smooth bar part in center, carves bud Above the kryptoblast point at 0.5~1cm, kerf width is the half of limb for position, quarter is deep to bast and does not injure wooden Portion timely uses fungicide processing quarter bud point after carving bud;
The center is dry to be extended culture and refers to: in new hair major branch, it is more upright dry as center to select and remain a stalwartness, position Extend culture upwards;Center it is dry per grow tall upwards 30cm when, continuous 2~3 toppings pinching promotees next layer of major branch sprouting to cultivate Bearing basal shoot;
Crownling's branch support branch refers to: except the other new hair major branches done as center, the i.e. following bearing basal shoot, when long extremely When 8~10cm, base angle is strutted to 90o with toothpick;
The major branch draws branch pinching to refer to: when major branch grows to 30~40cm long, being evened up branch to 90o with the rope made of hemp;It is main Branch raw 8 compound leaves when carry out pinching, and extract preceding 4 compound leaves, rush side shoot pumping;
The high control of the tree refers to: it is continuous to pinch when setting Gao Changzhi 3.5m, it controls it and continues up growth;
B) fertilizer and water management:
Walnut " trunk type " cultivation need to combine closely with water-saving irrigation project, improve drip irrigation system, convenient for orderly carrying out fertilizer Water integrated management, recommended rate of fertilizer application are as follows: 80 gram/plant year of diamines, 40 gram/plant year of potash fertilizer apply, by the end of October by several times with trickle irrigation Apply base manure, 1m3/ mu;Trickle irrigation frequency are as follows: average 7 days are primary, 2h/time, 10 m of water consumption3/ time mu;After mid-August, control Water control fertilizer controls the too fast growth of branch, promotes branch lignifying, guarantee overwintering safety to winter irrigation.
3) " trunk type " tree-like culture is completed:
It is fully completed at the end of the tree-like culture of walnut " trunk type " to third, sets high control within 3.5m, 2 m of hat width, Heading height 60cm, 30~40, complete stool cultivation results branch.
Beneficial effects of the present invention compared with prior art, have following remarkable advantage:
1, the tree height reduction level-one compared with traditional cultivation is only divided into trunk, major branch (bearing basal shoot), side shoot (knot Fruit branch) three-level (traditional cultivation tree structure divides trunk, major branch, bearing basal shoot, fruitful branch level Four), illumination utilization rate obtains greatly It is promoted, the advantage of the present nutrient growth of quantasome and reproductive growth is more obvious;
2, full garden illumination utilization rate improves 50% or more, and liquid manure investment reduces by 60% or more, and human input saves 30%;
3, pruning technique is simplified, and pruning workload greatly reduces, and meaningless nutrient loss minimizes;
4, the available very fast update of fruit-bearing shoot cluster, update are also relatively easy to, and establish base for the promotion of later period yield and quality Plinth;
5, height of tree crown, volume are all greatly reduced, more convenient harvesting and other production operations.
Specific embodiment
Embodiment 1:
In Wenxiu County woody grain and oil forest farm Xinjiang forest-science academy Selection And Breeding of Fine Strains In Walnut experiment garden (east longitude: 37 ° 03 ', north latitude: 79 ° 49 '), which is located at Xinjiang South Sinkiang Northwestern Margin of Tarim Basin, belongs to the desert climate of warm temperate zone arid, heat is abundant, most 38.4 DEG C of high temperature.Soil is sandy loam, and soil layer is deep, good permeability, is continuously to plant old farmer area, in the content of organic matter Deng suitable walnut plantation.Two improved variety of walnut (temperature 185, new 2) are selected to improve method Trees of Walnut stiff wood grafting, specifically Steps are as follows:
(1) spring in 2013 is colonized grafting with improved seed strong sprout in fine-variety breeding experiment garden, plantation density (spacing in the rows × line-spacing): 2m × 4m, 83 plants per acre;Timely water supply after seedling planting promotes slow seedling and backfill heavy real;
(2) in late May, 2013, nursery stock start the first growth after slow seedling, stand pillar (being bamboo pole) for nursery stock trunk It is fixed with pillar bondage, prevents windbreak, guarantee that dry type is upright;
(3) walnut transplanting current increment is smaller, and 2014 annual main working tasks are to weed with a hoe in time, guarantee moisture content Supply promotes seedling root to restore and overground part slow seedling, guarantee planting stock survival rate;
(4) be averaged 7 days one time trickle irrigation, and 2h/time, 10 m of water consumption3/ time mu;New hair branch growth amount reaches 5cm or more When, in conjunction with the continuous 3 times liquid bio bacterial manure of trickle irrigation, promote nursery stock robust growth;After mid-August, water and fertilizer control to winter irrigation promotes Branch lignifying;1m is applied before by the end of October3/ mu decay sheep excrement;
(5) in second and third year after walnut field planting, into fast growing period, increment is larger.In by the end of March, 2014 walnut sprout Before hair, in the case where top is done at center, the position 5cm carries out cutting back above first full bud;
(6) after the walnut of in early April, 2014 starts rudiment, the smooth bar part for doing not branches and leaves to center carries out quarter bud;
(7) the first tenday period of a month in May, 2014, nursery stock trunk height it is long to 60cm when, continuous 2~3 toppings pinching, rush first layer master Branch is sprouted;Selected and remain in newly hair major branch a growing way stalwartness, position it is more upright as center it is dry continue to cultivate extend life upwards Long, remaining is cultivated as major branch (namely bearing basal shoot from now on), it is new send out major branch when it is long to 8~10cm when, strut base with toothpick Angle is to 90o;
(8) when the major branch of in mid or late May, 2014 grows to 30~40cm long, major branch front end 1/3 is fixed on one, the rope made of hemp Place, the other end even up branch to 90 o with trunk or in underground preburied earth anchorage;Major branch raw 8 compound leaves when, before excision 4 compound leaves and terminal bud;
(9) at the beginning of in June, 2014-August, center it is dry per grow tall upwards 30cm when, continuous 2~3 toppings pinching promotees next layer Major branch, which is sprouted, continues cultivation results mother branch;
(10) after in mid-August, 2014, water and fertilizer control to winter irrigation controls the too fast growth of branch, promotes branch lignifying;
(11) every 7 days or so trickle irrigations are primary, each 2-3h;Annual recommended rate of fertilizer application: 80 gram/plant year of diamines, 40 grams of potash fertilizer/ It was applied by several times with trickle irrigation before mid-August in strain year;After mid-August, water and fertilizer control to winter irrigation controls the too fast growth of branch, promotes Branch lignifying guarantees overwintering safety;1m is applied by the end of October3/ mu decay sheep excrement;
Tasks in 2015 and 2014 it is essentially identical, repeat (5)~(11) step;
Through the continuous culture of 2013-2015 3 years, high photosynthetic efficiency is tree-like basically forms for walnut " trunk type ", mean stand height 3.7m, Hat width 1.6 m, heading height 60cm, fruitful branch (group) are averaged complete stool 34.
Finally, it should be noted that the foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is not intended to restrict the invention, Although the present invention is described in detail referring to the foregoing embodiments, for those skilled in the art, still may be used To modify the technical solutions described in the foregoing embodiments or equivalent replacement of some of the technical features. All within the spirits and principles of the present invention, any modification, equivalent replacement, improvement and so on should be included in of the invention Within protection scope.

Claims (1)

1. the tree-like breeding method of walnut " trunk type ", which is characterized in that complete within the breeding method point 3 years, concrete operations Step are as follows:
1) First Year is broadcast live orchard establishment or grafting is colonized keep-alive:
A) orchard establishment:
It is divided into grafting field planting orchard establishment and live streaming orchard establishment;The plant spacing 4-5m of the grafting field planting orchard establishment, spacing in the rows 2m, seedling Wood selects I grade of breeding walnut grafting seedling;The live streaming orchard establishment is using local farmers' thickness shell Walnut Seed, Stratificated treatment, spring It covers mulch to sow, seeding row spacing 2m × 4-5m, every bunch planting kind 3, the seedling that 1 plant of growing way stalwartness is selected and remain after emergence is cooked stock;The 2 year spring, when young sprout at the beginning of 6 months grows to 1 meter or more, at away from ground 30cm, diameter was greater than 1.0cm away from ground 10cm stump Young sprout carry out bud connect;
B) it is colonized orchard establishment slow seedling:
New field planting Juglans guarantee that moisture is supplied in time in First Year, it is ensured that planting stock survives;Trunk bondage is carried out simultaneously, it is main When top-heavy phenomenon occur in the branches and leaves that dry bondage refers to that restoration ecosystem pumping goes out after treelet trunk slow seedling, column, bamboo are established in time Pole or the wooden pole, trunk and column bondage are fixed, prevent from causing windbreak;
C) fertilizer and water management:
When new hair branch growth amount reaches 5cm or more, continuous trickle irrigation liquid bio bacterial manure 3 times, promote nursery stock robust growth, trickle irrigation Frequency is average 7 days primary, 2h/time, 10 m of water consumption3/ time mu;After mid-August, water and fertilizer control to winter irrigation promotes branch Lignifying;Base manure, sowing amount 1m are applied before by the end of October3/ mu;
2) second and third year, tree-like culture:
A) tree-like culture:
Shaping measure is cultivated including once topping, quarter bud, the dry extension in center, crownling's branch supports branch, major branch draws branch pinching and sets height control System;
The primary topping refers to: it is dry to center to pinch before walnut is sprouted by the end of March, under top on first full bud The square position 5cm carries out cutting back, and stimulation lower part side shoot is sprouted;
The quarter bud refers to: April early and middle ten days walnut start rudiment after, quarter bud is carried out to the dry upper smooth bar part in center, carves bud position Above the kryptoblast point at 0.5~1cm, kerf width is the half of limb, quarter is deep to bast and does not injure xylem, carves Fungicide processing is timely used after bud carves bud point;
The center is dry to be extended culture and refers to: in new hair major branch, it is more upright dry upward as center to select and remain a stalwartness, position Extend culture;Center it is dry per grow tall upwards 30cm when, continuous 2~3 toppings pinching promotees next layer of major branch sprouting with cultivation results Female branch;
Crownling branch support branch refers to: except the other new hair major branches done as center, the i.e. following bearing basal shoot, when it is long to 8~ When 10cm, base angle is strutted to 90o with toothpick;
The major branch draws branch pinching to refer to: when major branch grows to 30~40cm long, being evened up branch to 90o with the rope made of hemp;Major branch Pinching is carried out when raw 8 compound leaves, and extracts preceding 4 compound leaves, promotees side shoot pumping;
The high control of the tree refers to: it is continuous to pinch when setting Gao Changzhi 3.5m, it controls it and continues up growth;
B) fertilizer and water management:
Walnut " trunk type " cultivation need to combine closely with water-saving irrigation project, improve drip irrigation system, convenient for orderly carrying out rich water one Integrative management, recommended rate of fertilizer application are as follows: 80 gram/plant year of diamines, 40 gram/plant year of potash fertilizer apply by several times with trickle irrigation, apply by the end of October Base manure, 1m3/ mu;Trickle irrigation frequency are as follows: average 7 days are primary, 2h/time, 10 m of water consumption3/ time mu;After mid-August, water control is controlled Fertilizer controls the too fast growth of branch, promotes branch lignifying, guarantee overwintering safety to winter irrigation;
3) " trunk type " tree-like culture is completed:
It is fully completed at the end of the tree-like culture of walnut " trunk type " to third, sets high control within 3.5m or so, hat width 2m, it is fixed Dry height 60cm, 30~40, complete stool cultivation results branch.
CN201610804292.3A 2016-09-06 2016-09-06 The tree-like breeding method of walnut " trunk type " Expired - Fee Related CN106358773B (en)

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CN102893836A (en) * 2012-10-25 2013-01-30 运城市果业发展中心 Two-branch one-trunk forming and planting method and reshaping method for apple trees
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