CN110338048B - Soilless culture method for cherry tomatoes - Google Patents

Soilless culture method for cherry tomatoes Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110338048B
CN110338048B CN201910663236.6A CN201910663236A CN110338048B CN 110338048 B CN110338048 B CN 110338048B CN 201910663236 A CN201910663236 A CN 201910663236A CN 110338048 B CN110338048 B CN 110338048B
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substrate
seeds
stage
seedling
combination
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CN110338048A (en
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陈育辉
都传新
王锐锋
钟诗恩
叶彬
赖志锴
李建海
梁华贞
陈海璇
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Guangdong Shengtian Agriculture Engineering Co ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • A01G24/12Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material containing soil minerals
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • A01G24/12Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material containing soil minerals
    • A01G24/15Calcined rock, e.g. perlite, vermiculite or clay aggregates
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • A01G24/18Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material containing inorganic fibres, e.g. mineral wool
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • A01G24/23Wood, e.g. wood chips or sawdust
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • A01G24/25Dry fruit hulls or husks, e.g. chaff or coir
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/28Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing peat, moss or sphagnum
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • A01G31/02Special apparatus therefor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of soilless culture of horticultural crops, and particularly relates to a soilless culture method of cherry tomatoes, which comprises the following steps: the first stage is to put seeds into a seedling substrate to promote seedling emergence to obtain a combination 1; the second stage is to embed the combination 1 into a second substrate with a groove to obtain a combination 2; the third stage is to embed combination 2 into the grooved third substrate. The soilless culture method of the cherry tomatoes is divided into three-substrate staged culture, the culture field and space are fully utilized, the culture efficiency is improved, the growth rate of seedlings in the early stage is improved, the root development is enhanced, the soilless culture method is efficient, green and environment-friendly, and finally the obtained tomato cherries are sour, sweet, delicious and high in quality.

Description

Soilless culture method for cherry tomatoes
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of soilless culture of horticultural crops, and particularly relates to a soilless culture method of cherry tomatoes.
Background
The soilless culture method is a culture method that plants are not needed to be cultured in soil, water, grass carbon or mediums such as forest rotten soil leaves and vermiculite are used as substrates of plant root systems to fix the plants, and then the plant root systems are directly contacted with nutrient solution, so that the components of the nutrient solution of the nutrient culture seeds are easy to control and can be adjusted at any time.
At present, the soilless culture method has the advantages that the formula of the nutrient solution corresponding to the method and the composition of the matrix are many, the corresponding application and implementation effects are not completely the same, and the aim is to develop the soilless culture method which can make crops adapt to local conditions, fundamentally improve and improve the rhizosphere environment of the crops and the effective absorption of root systems to nutrient substances, thereby promoting the healthy growth of seedlings. The method for regulating and controlling the soilless culture is important for improving the growth speed and the quality of the crop seedlings.
In subtropical regions, the temperature in summer is higher, and a variety which is high-temperature resistant and has a long growth period is selected, so that a successful and suitable local variety is introduced, and a large number of varieties which are not promoted in experiments are never introduced. Since cherry tomatoes (Favorita, also called black tomatoes, cherry tomatoes, and cherries are difficult to maintain for a long period of time and are often cultivated in short seasons, a method for quickly and efficiently cultivating green and healthy cherry tomatoes and adapting to local conditions is particularly necessary.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above problems, it is an object of the present invention to provide a method for cultivating cherry tomatoes, which enables the cherry tomatoes to be cultivated and grown better in subtropical regions.
The technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
a cherry tomato soilless culture method, the first stage is to put seeds into seedling substrate to promote the emergence of seedlings, get combination 1; the second stage is to embed the combination 1 into a second substrate with a groove to obtain a combination 2; the third stage is to embed the combination 2 into a third substrate with a groove to obtain a combination 3;
the combination 1 and the combination 2 are both placed in a tide seedbed for cultivation, the combination 3 is used for drip irrigation cultivation, and the cherry tomatoes can be placed in a greenhouse or a greenhouse in the cultivation process;
the seedling raising substrate, the second substrate and the third substrate comprise one or more of peat soil, perlite, rock wool, coconut husk, river sand, new rice chaff ash, vermiculite and sawdust;
the time interval from the first stage to the third stage is 28-40 days;
in the first stage, seedling raising is carried out by using a plug tray with 50 or 72 holes, soil isolation is carried out between the holes of the plug tray, and the first stage, the second stage and the third stage are carried out in a greenhouse or a greenhouse; adding an infrared light absorber into a covering material of a greenhouse or a greenhouse to enable the ratio of red light to infrared light to be 1.3-1.6: 1;
the humidity of the substrate is kept between 65% and 85%.
The soilless culture process of the cherry tomatoes disclosed by the invention is as follows:
1) seed treatment: soaking seeds in hot water at 55-60 ℃ for 20min, then soaking seeds in 10% trisodium phosphate for 25min, and then soaking seeds at normal temperature for 6h, so that most of germs can be killed, and the virus inactivation effect can be achieved;
2) accelerating germination: and (3) washing the soaked seeds with clear water, uniformly spreading the seeds on clean and wet gauze, covering a layer of wet gauze, putting the gauze into a constant temperature box, and keeping the temperature at 25-30 ℃. The seeds and the gauze are washed with clean water for 2 times every day to ensure the wettability and the air permeability of the gauze in the germination accelerating process. Most seeds can germinate within 2-3 days, and some seeds need 4 days and are sown along with germination. If the seeds cannot be sowed in time, the temperature is reduced to 10 ℃, and the squat buds are carried out to prevent the seed buds from overgrowing;
3) sowing and seedling raising: the tomato seedling culture should use a plug tray with 72 or 50 holes, which is beneficial to strengthening the seedlings. When the hole plate is filled with soil, the hole plate can not be tightly pressed and filled too full, the hole can not be connected with the hole (preventing the root from running to the next hole) by a puncher for punching or manually punching, and the sowing depth of the seeds is about 0.5 cm.
The seeds are sowed in a seedling raising substrate, the surface of the seedling raising substrate is watered thoroughly, and the seedling raising substrate is covered on the seeds. After the cotyledon slightly opens, pouring the nutrient solution for 1 time, and then transferring and embedding the combination 1 into a second substrate;
temperature and humidity management: in order to promote the emergence of seedlings, the temperature and humidity should be kept high before the emergence of seedlings. After emergence of seedlings, the temperature is controlled to be 20-25 ℃ in the daytime and about 10-15 ℃ at night, and in order to prevent diseases, the humidity of a seedbed is reduced;
nutrient solution management: spraying the nutrient solution according to the seedling condition, the water content of the substrate and the weather condition, wherein the substrate is sprayed thoroughly every time.
And (3) pest control: spraying 800 times of chlorothalonil or 800 times of thiophanate methyl liquid for 1 time every 7-10 days for prevention, wherein diseases cannot occur under normal conditions; if damping-off and damping-off occur, dripping roots by using 500 times of damping-off and damping-off tumbler liquid, and dripping once after 3-4 days, wherein insect pests generally cannot occur in facilities;
4) planting: when the seedlings are cultivated for about 30 days, the physiological seedling age is 3-4 leaves, and the plant height is 10-13 cm, the leaves are dark green in color, the leaf stalks are moderate in length, the root system is developed, the phenomenon of overgrowth and plant diseases and insect pests do not exist, and the plants are transferred to a third matrix for cultivation;
and (3) treatment for preventing spindly seedlings:
A. temperature regulation: in the daytime, the seedlings irradiate strong light, and at night, in the suitable growth range of the seedlings, the night temperature is reduced as much as possible, and the day and night temperature difference is increased, so that dwarfed strong seedlings can be obtained;
B. light adjustment: in natural light, red light: infrared light =1: 1. Adding an infrared light absorbent into the greenhouse covering material to increase the ratio of red light to infrared light to 1.5:1, and inhibiting the stem elongation of seedlings;
C. water content management: the plant can be dwarfed effectively by properly limiting the water content, the plant tissue is compact, watering is carried out after the seedling withers slightly, the growth of stem base cells can be inhibited, the growth of root systems can be promoted, and the ratio of roots to seedlings can be increased;
D. mechanical brushing and wiping treatment: mechanical brushing, raindrop impact, wind-blown friction and pushing can also affect the morphological characteristics of the plant. The seedlings after mechanical brushing treatment are slow in growth and accelerated in transverse growth. The plant height is obviously reduced, and the plant is obviously dwarfed compared with the control seedlings, so that the flowering phase is hardly influenced by mechanical brushing treatment;
E. application of the plant growth regulator: the growth regulator is used in plug seedling to prevent excessive growth of seedling, and is one effective and simple method to control excessive growth under common growth condition, and the regulator may be mepiquat chloride (DPC) or paclobutrazol (PP)333) Chlormequat Chloride (CCC), ethephon (CEPA) and daminozide (B)9) The treatment method generally adopts seed soaking, leaf surface spraying, soil or matrix mixing treatment and the like, and the effect is obvious;
F. for aged 'Jiuba' seedlings in plug seedling, Cytokinin (CTK) and Gibberellin (GA) are generally used3) And the growth of the seedlings is promoted by the auxin (IAA), and the effect is obvious.
Preparing a nutrient solution: water, nutrient element salts (agricultural fertilizer and industrial raw materials 90-98%);
the nutrient solution is generally divided into a mother solution (also called concentrated stock solution) and a cultivation nutrient solution (also called working nutrient solution), wherein the former is prepared for facilitating the preparation of the latter;
the nutrient solution is generally drip-irrigated for 3-4 times every day, each time is 100-250 mL, the water dripping speed controls the water content of the matrix to be about 80%, one-day dripping of clear water is arranged every month, and salt washing treatment is carried out so as to reduce the salt content in the matrix;
5) planting:
the tomato seedlings are planted after being 40 days old and about 15cm high, 30-50 mL of transplanting agent is used for diluting 1000 times before planting, and 1 plant is planted in each 1 nutrition pot; then, the nutrition pot is watered thoroughly, and the nutrition pot is preferably just flowed out from the bottom, so that the matrix is tightly combined with the root of the tomato seedling; if too much water is watered, the fertilizer is easily lost, and the seedlings are favorable for seedling recovery, generally field planting is carried out after the high-temperature period in the afternoon, and the plant spacing is 30cm, namely, every m2 3-4 plants, wherein the soil lump is 1cm lower than the matrix during field planting, and large and small seedlings are separated for convenient management; and nutrient solution is timely poured after field planting to promote root development.
Sterilizing greenhouse, spraying 0.1% potassium permanganate on the frame material and drip irrigation facilities before transplanting, turning the matrix evenly and flatly before planting, and then carrying out drip irrigation on the matrix in the cultivation groove to ensure that the matrix fully absorbs water; the field planting should not be too deep to prevent the stalks from rotting, and after the field planting, enough root fixing water is poured to facilitate the timely seedling revival;
before transplanting, the seedlings are watered every morning and evening, and the seedlings are separated into different sizes for management.
The invention has the following beneficial effects:
the soilless culture method of the cherry tomatoes is divided into three-substrate staged culture, the culture field and space are fully utilized, the culture efficiency is improved, the growth rate of seedlings in the early stage is improved, the root development is enhanced, the soilless culture method is efficient, green and environment-friendly, and finally the obtained tomato cherries are sour, sweet, delicious and high in quality.
Detailed Description
The present invention is described in further detail in the following detailed description with reference to specific embodiments, which are intended to be illustrative only and not to be limiting of the scope of the invention, as various equivalent modifications of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art after reading the present invention and are intended to be included within the scope of the appended claims.
Example 1
A soilless culture method of cherry tomatoes comprises the following steps:
1) seed treatment:
soaking seeds in hot water at 55-60 ℃ for 20min, then soaking seeds in 10% trisodium phosphate for 25min, and then soaking seeds at normal temperature for 6h, so that most of germs can be killed, and the virus inactivation effect can be achieved;
2) accelerating germination:
and (3) washing the soaked seeds with clear water, uniformly spreading the seeds on clean and wet gauze, covering a layer of wet gauze, putting the gauze into a constant temperature box, and keeping the temperature at 25-30 ℃. Washing the seeds and the gauze with clear water for 2 times to ensure the wettability and the air permeability of the gauze in the germination accelerating process;
3) sowing and seedling raising:
the seedling of the tomato uses a plug tray with 72 or 50 holes, and the sowing depth of the seeds is about 0.5 cm;
the seeds are sowed in a seedling raising substrate, namely a first stage, the surface is watered thoroughly, and the substrate is covered on the surface. After the cotyledon is slightly opened, watering the nutrient solution for 1 time, then transplanting, embedding the combination 1 into a second substrate, and carrying out a second stage;
temperature and humidity management: in order to promote seedling emergence, the temperature and humidity before seedling emergence are kept high, the temperature can be reduced to 20-25 ℃ in the daytime and 10-15 ℃ at night after seedling emergence, and the humidity of a seedbed is reduced in order to prevent diseases;
nutrient solution management: spraying nutrient solution according to seedling condition, substrate water content and weather condition, wherein the substrate is sprayed thoroughly each time;
and (3) pest control: spraying 800 times of chlorothalonil or 800 times of thiophanate methyl liquid for 1 time every 7-10 days for prevention, wherein diseases cannot occur under normal conditions; if damping-off and damping-off occur, dripping roots by using 500 times of damping-off and damping-off tumbler liquid, and dripping once after 3-4 days, wherein insect pests generally cannot occur in facilities;
4) transplanting:
when the plants are cultivated to about 30 days, the physiological seedling age is 3-4 leaves, and the plant height is 10-13 cm, the leaves are dark green in color, the leaf stalks are moderate in length, the root systems are developed, the phenomenon of overgrowth and plant diseases and insect pests do not exist, the plants are transferred to a third matrix for cultivation, and a third stage is carried out;
5) planting:
the tomato seedlings are planted after being 40 days old and about 15cm high, 30-50 mL of transplanting agent is used for diluting 1000 times before planting, and 1 plant is planted in each 1 nutrition pot; then, the nutrition pot is watered thoroughly, and the nutrition pot is preferably just flowed out from the bottom, so that the matrix is tightly combined with the root of the tomato seedling; if too much water is watered, the fertilizer is easily lost, and the seedlings are favorable for seedling recovery, generally field planting is carried out after the high-temperature period in the afternoon, and the plant spacing is 30cm, namely, every m23-4 plants, wherein the soil lump is 1cm lower than the matrix during field planting, and large and small seedlings are separated for convenient management; nutrient solution is poured in time after the planting to promote the development of root systems;
sterilizing greenhouse, spraying 0.1% potassium permanganate on the frame material and drip irrigation facilities before transplanting, turning the matrix evenly and flatly before planting, and then carrying out drip irrigation on the matrix in the cultivation groove to ensure that the matrix fully absorbs water; the field planting should not be too deep to prevent the stalks from rotting, and after the field planting, enough root fixing water is poured to facilitate the timely seedling revival;
before transplanting, watering the seedlings in the morning and at night every day, and paying attention to the separation of large and small seedlings so as to facilitate management;
6) managing after planting:
after blooming, the demand of plants on microelements such as calcium, boron and the like is greatly increased, and foliar fertilizers such as Cuitanggaibao, Cuitangjinpeng liquid and the like are added, so that the phenomena of growth atrophy, flowering without fruit bearing, fruit cracking and the like on the tops of the plants can be reduced;
temperature: before seedling recovery, ventilation is not generally carried out, and the temperature is generally kept at about 30 ℃ but not higher than 35 ℃ so as to facilitate seedling recovery. After seedling rejuvenation, the temperature of day and night is 2-3 ℃ lower than that before seedling rejuvenation, and is generally 25-30 ℃ so as to promote root extension. In the fruiting period, the temperature is kept at 22-28 ℃ in the daytime and 18-22 ℃ at night, and abnormal fruits can be generated when the temperature is too high or too low;
humidity: the humidity of the substrate is preferably 70-80%, the relative humidity of the air is preferably 50-60%, and the relative humidity cannot be too high, otherwise the substrate is not favorable for growth and is easy to be infected;
illumination: the light saturation point of the tomato is 70000lux, and the requirements of the tomato on the length of sunshine are not strict. When the sunlight is sufficient and the temperature is high at noon, the sun-shading net can be utilized for shading sun and cooling;
nutrient solution: the balance of vegetative growth and reproductive growth is regulated, the dosage of potassium nitrate can be reduced if vegetative growth is too vigorous, the dosage of potassium sulfate is increased to supplement the reduced dosage of potassium, and the dosage is regulated to be not more than 100 mg/L. Soilless culture requires nutrition to be supplied together with water, so that contradiction between water supply and fertilizer supply is inevitable, and when the water quantity is enough and the nutrition requirement is relatively large, the concentration of a nutrient solution can be properly increased or the water can be independently supplemented;
7) plant management
Hanging vines: when the plant grows to 30-50 cm and falls down, the vines need to be hung in time. The specific method is that the first true leaf of the plant is tied with a rope, a slipknot is made and the plant cannot be tied, and a space is reserved to prevent the stalks from becoming thick and hurting, or the plant is fixed by a tomato clamp; then, winding the rope in a clockwise direction, wherein the first two nodes can be wound for 3-4 circles to fix plants, and then every 3 nodes are wound for 2-3 circles, so that the rope is not wound too close to a growing point, and the normal growth of the top of the crop is not influenced;
the tomatoes are cultivated in the glass greenhouse in a long season, and under normal conditions, the big tomatoes can grow to 7-8 m and the small tomatoes can grow to 12m in one growth period. For the length of the lifting rope, 9m is needed for the big tomatoes and 13m for the small tomatoes, so the vine of the tomatoes must be hung by using a hook capable of winding the long rope. A rope vine hanging method is adopted, namely a No. 10 iron wire is pulled on a lower chord of a greenhouse according to planting positions, and the upper part of a plant is tied on the iron wire by a hanging rope. The method adopts single-trunk pruning, the tomato has strong lateral branch developing capability, lateral branches are timely wiped off so as not to consume nutrition, and the plant is timely wound on a lifting rope along with the growth of the plant, generally 1 time a week. Timely thinning flowers and fruits during the growth process, wherein 3-5 fruits are left in each ear of the medium fruit type, and redundant and abnormal flowers and fruits are timely thinned to concentrate nutrition supply and guarantee commodity rate;
pruning: when planting, if double-trunk pruning is adopted, the planting distance is 40-45 cm, and each 667m2Planting 2000-2200 plants; if single-trunk pruning spacing is 30cm, each 667m2Planting 2500-2600 plants. Pruning a single tomato stalk, and timely removing other side branches when the side branches grow to 6-8 cm. The lateral branch should be removed in sunny days to facilitate wound healing. Pruning is an important technical measure for capturing high yield and high quality of tomatoes under the premise of sufficient and timely supply of water and fertilizer for soilless culture, which is more strict than soil culture, and attention should be paid to culture management. And (3) pruning a single tomato stalk, removing all lateral branches in time, and pruning double stalks to leave one lateral branch generated at the lower leaf axilla of the first inflorescence. Generally, pruning must be carried out in time when the lateral branches grow to 5-8 cm. Pruning should be performed on sunny days. Twice a week. The moisture is high in rainy days, the wound can not be healed quickly after pruning, and pathogenic bacteria are easy to invade, so that pruning operation is not suitable. In continuous rainy days, the side branches can be firstly broken by about one half and then completely broken off after sunny days;
pollination: tomatoes belong to self-pollinating plants, but in a greenhouse, artificial pollination is needed because of poor ventilation and less insects, which is not beneficial to pollination. Pollinating the opened flowers in a vibration mode after the tomatoes bloom, pollinating the small tomatoes every day, pollinating the large tomatoes for 1 time in two days, and selecting the pollination time after 9 am. In addition, bumblebee pollination can be adopted, and hormone is not used, so that the method is green and environment-friendly. The fruits are easy to bear fine fruits, and the flowers can be dipped by 10-15 mg/kg of 2.4-D or 25-35 mg/kg of tomatillon 7: 00-9: 00 in the morning, so that the fruit setting rate is improved, and the flowers do not need to be dipped if the flowers are normally fertilized;
thinning fruits: some tomato varieties require thinning to ensure uniformity and marketability of the fruit per ear. 4-5 large tomatoes are reserved in each ear, 8-10 large tomatoes are reserved in a bunch, the rest uneven fruits or malformed fruits need to be removed as soon as possible, and the cherry tomatoes do not need to be removed in principle;
old leaf beating: the tomato leaves can be aged gradually after a long time, and the photosynthetic function is weakened, so that the aged leaves are cut off by scissors in time to reduce the nutrient consumption. When the first cluster fruits are expanded, old leaves are beaten for the first time, and 2-3 leaves are beaten each time; when the tomato begins to turn color, the lower leaves of the first ear of fruit should be completely removed. Then, the crops are beaten for 1 time about 10 days according to the growth speed of the crops, and more than 20 functional leaves of the crops are always kept. Old leaves must be planted in sunny days, and leaf stalks should be cut clean to prevent wounds from being infected by diseases;
tendril falling: the greenhouse is limited in height, and tomatoes can be cultivated in long seasons only by falling off the tendrils in an inclined mode. After the first ear of tomatoes is harvested, tendrils begin to fall for the first time, and the tendrils fall for 30cm each time, so that the growth of crops is influenced if the tendrils are too much. The tomato leaves fall through the tendrils, so that the height is reduced, the agricultural operations such as old leaf beating, harvesting and the like are facilitated, and the plant height can be kept consistent, and the uniform illumination is facilitated;
8) harvesting of fruits
Generally, harvesting when 90% of the surface of fruits turns color, wherein the harvesting time is proper in the morning, workers need to wear disinfection gloves during harvesting, harvest is strictly required according to a mature standard, direct sunlight is avoided after harvesting, packaging is required immediately, the storage environment temperature is 10-12 ℃, and mechanical damage to the fruits during harvesting and transportation is reduced as much as possible;
and (3) pest control strategy: adherence to the policy of prevention-oriented and comprehensive treatment; selecting high-quality disease-resistant varieties, keeping environmental sanitation, sterilizing seeds, strengthening the management and control of the seeds and seedlings, and performing quarantine work of animals and plants to prevent propagation and spread of dangerous diseases, insects, weeds and the like; prevention is carried out at the seedling stage to enhance the resistance. According to the characteristics of plant diseases and insect pests of the tomatoes in different growth stages, comprehensive control measures with agricultural control, physical control and biological control as main measures and chemical control as auxiliary measures are adopted.

Claims (1)

1. A soilless culture method of cherry tomatoes is characterized in that,
1) seed treatment:
soaking seeds in hot water at 55-60 ℃ for 20min, then soaking seeds in 10% trisodium phosphate for 25min, and then soaking seeds at normal temperature for 6h, so that most of germs can be killed, and the virus inactivation effect can be achieved;
2) accelerating germination:
washing the soaked seeds with clear water, uniformly spreading the seeds on clean and wet gauze, covering a layer of wet gauze, putting the gauze into a constant temperature box, and keeping the temperature at 25-30 ℃;
3) sowing and seedling raising:
the seedling of the tomato uses a plug tray with 72 or 50 holes, and the sowing depth of the seeds is about 0.5 cm;
sowing seeds in a seedling culture substrate, namely a first stage, watering the surface thoroughly, and covering the substrate;
after the cotyledon is slightly opened, watering the nutrient solution for 1 time, then transplanting, embedding the combination 1 into a second substrate, and carrying out a second stage;
keeping high temperature and humidity before emergence of seedlings, and reducing the temperature to 20-25 ℃ in the daytime and about 10-15 ℃ at night after emergence of seedlings;
4) transplanting:
when the plants are cultivated to about 30 days, the physiological seedling age is 3-4 leaves, and the plant height is 10-13 cm, the leaves are dark green, the leaf stalks are moderate in length, the root systems are developed, the overgrowth phenomenon and the plant diseases and insect pests do not exist, the plants are cultivated in a third matrix, the combination 2 is embedded in the third matrix with the groove, and the third phase is carried out;
5) planting;
the seedling raising substrate, the second substrate and the third substrate comprise one or more of peat soil, perlite, rock wool, coconut husk, river sand, new rice chaff ash, vermiculite and sawdust;
the humidity of the substrate is kept between 65% and 85%;
the combination 1 and the combination 2 are both placed in a tidal seedbed for cultivation;
the first stage, the second stage and the third stage are cultivated in a greenhouse or a greenhouse;
an infrared light absorber is added into a covering material of a greenhouse or a greenhouse, so that the ratio of red light to infrared light is 1.3-1.6: 1.
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