CN103416229B - Wrapping-type walnut bark whip grafting method - Google Patents

Wrapping-type walnut bark whip grafting method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103416229B
CN103416229B CN201310359339.6A CN201310359339A CN103416229B CN 103416229 B CN103416229 B CN 103416229B CN 201310359339 A CN201310359339 A CN 201310359339A CN 103416229 B CN103416229 B CN 103416229B
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scion
stock
grafting
xylem
cortex
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CN103416229A (en
Inventor
张强
王国安
黄闽敏
李西萍
阿卜杜许库尔·牙合甫
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XINJIANG ACADEMY OF FORESTRY SCIENCE
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XINJIANG ACADEMY OF FORESTRY SCIENCE
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Abstract

The invention discloses a wrapping-type walnut bark whip grafting method, which is improved aiming at five technical methods, i.e. reserving bleeding holes and water pulling branches, increasing healing area, screening light to promote the formation of callus tissues, using mulching films to preserve moisture of scions and improving the bud external environment, so as to enable the survival rate of grafts on old and big trees which are low in yield to be improved by more than 15 percent. Therefore, the wrapping-type walnut bark whip grafting method has important production and use value.

Description

A kind of packaging type walnut inserts skin whip graft method
Technical field
The invention belongs to the seedling-wood breeding technology of nonwood forest trees, be specifically related to the improvement of the stiff wood grafting method of the large tree of low shoddy product Hetaoyuan.
Background technology
Walnut belongs to Angiospermae, Dicotyledoneae, Juglandaceae, Juglans, it is tall and big deciduous tree, originate in area, the Near East, also known as English walnut, Qiang peach, both can eat raw, stir-fry and eat, and also can extract oil, prepare cake, candy etc., not only delicious, and nutritive value is very high, be described as " long live son ", " Longevity ", with almond, cashew nut, fibert being called world-renowned " four large dry fruits ".The kernel of walnut contains abundant nutrient component, every hectogram is containing protein 15-20 gram, fat 60-70 gram, 10 grams, carbohydrate, and the nutriment such as the calcium of needed by human, phosphorus, iron, carotin, vitamin b3 (vitamin B2), vitamin B6, vitamin E, juglandis folia quinone, phosphatide, tannin.Nutrient component in walnut, has excellent health functions to cerebral nerve, has the arteriosclerotic effect of control, has and promotes the cardiovascular and antidotal function of glucose utilization, cholesterol metabolic, protection.
Literature search discloses: 1) application number is the patent of " the large stock grafting method of apocarya " Chengdu Wei Lianda agrotechnique Services Co., Ltd of CN201210233599.4, disclose a kind of large stock grafting method of apocarya, the different methods that discharges water difference is adopted respectively according to stock size and grafting part, grafting adopts inserts skin whip graft, and carry out bud picking in time except sprouting, lightening restrictions on and ungird, management after the grafting such as vertical windproof post, improve the survival rate of the large stock grafting seedling of apocarya.2) application number is the patent of the Lu Jiawang of " grafting method of thin-bark walnut tree " of CN201110273439.8, select walnut as stock, part scion limb being inserted stock is whittled into duck tongue shaped, the skin of scion limb and wooden part are separated, wooden part injects the intracutaneous of stock, the skin of scion limb is stayed outside the skin of stock, then grafting place is wrapped up, when the first time pinching more than 60 centimeters of scion amount of growth, grow to more than 80 centimeters pinching again, time sprout growth on stock exceedes the height of scion, cut off half, the rudiment of erasing on stock after second time pinching by the time, remove scion being wrapped up film simultaneously, flow process of the present invention is simple, graft survival rate more than 95%, thin skin walnut 2 annual bearing after grafting, within 4 years, enter high yield period, high yield period output more than 300 kilograms, kernel percent more than 70%.3) application number is the Chen Wu sea patent of CN200710016455.2 " a kind of grafting technology for inserting walnut scion into stock cortex ", comprise and wrapping up between the cortex of the scion of cutting insertion stock and xylem and with plastic film bondage, it is characterized in that after stock cortex is inserted in scion, also will by stock from each horizontal partial application of upper and lower 0.5 centimeters of scion horse ear shape tangent plane tail end, and from lower cut-out, the stock cortex between upper lower cut is chosen, expose rectangle wound, finally wrap up with plastic film bondage from scion tail end to scion top again, and wound lower end is showed money or valuables one carries unintentionally.The technology of the present invention, it is high and stable that walnut inserts skin graft survival rate, and survival rate is stabilized in more than 90%.This graft technology, can not only be used for the extensive graft seedling growth in ground, garden, the breeding that can also be applied to the walnut that grows directly from seeds changes head.4) application number is the patent of " a kind of grafting method of walnut " Tao Yuzhao of CN201210081406.8, comprise select excellent scion, preferably scion acquisition time, fringe bar storage practice, grafting time are determined, method is cut in Root-stock selection, stock processing method, scion, grafting method, stock are made wound and discharged water and connect the technical steps such as rear management.Can ensure that tree vigo(u)r is strong, survival rate is high; Graft survival rate reaches more than 98%, within after grafting 3 years, forms high yield ability.
The optimum method of the large tree grafting of the present invention's research: (1), in circumscribed direction, stock cross section, certainly outside to inside in phloem thickness 1/2-1/3 place, from top to bottom rip cutting bast zone, rip cutting length is identical with scion ligule length, notes not cutting tiltedly being biased to xylem; When scion is inserted, xylem is inserted between the bast zone of stock and xylem, and scion cortex is clipped between the bast of stock incision, makes it formation two healed surface, increases healing area, improves healing effect; (2) scion lower end is except being whittled into horse ear shape inclined-plane, also tough for scion outer cortex gently will be cut to exposing endodermis, increases callus area to be combined with the stock phloem internal layer longitudinally cut; (3) double-deck newspaper is adopted to carry out shading treatment; (4) scion of mulch film parcel is adopted to play moisture-keeping function; Graft survival rate, grafting mouth healing grade and late growing stage amount are greatly improved, there is important production and application and be worth.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is: the new method of the walnut grafting provided, to reserved bleeding hole and draw water branch, increase healing area, shading promotes that 5 technical methods such as Callus formation, scion mulch film moisture-keeping, the improvement of rudiment external environment are implemented to improve, the graft survival rate that low shoddy product is set greatly improves 15%.
The object of the present invention is achieved like this: a kind of packaging type walnut inserts skin whip graft method, implements step by step:
Step 1 gathers scion every year the 2-3 month, and be placed in ice cell or low-temperature cold-storage sand Tibetan, wherein husky Tibetan temperature is 0-5 DEG C, and sand humidity is 60%; Before grafting, 2-3d takes out, and is placed in basin or bucket, wakens with 30 DEG C of warm water;
During step 2 grafting, scion lower end is whittled into shape fond of gossip, the long 6-7cm of tongue, then cuts thin for the outer bast zone part of scion ligule part, expose interior bast zone;
Step 3 selects the stock age of tree below 15 years, grafting part limb diameter 3-10cm;
Step 4 in circumscribed direction, cross section, stock grafting position, with the 1/3-1/2 place of grafting knife in stock exoderm, rip cutting from top to bottom, rip cutting direction wants vertical, not deflection, length should be equal with scion ligule length or slightly long, and width should be slightly wider than scion ligule width; Simultaneously by bast zone in stock cross section incision after incision from top to bottom 2cm use grafting knife skiving highly again, with improve scion insert after the tightness degree that engages of anvil fringe;
The scion xylem of selective separating slowly inserts between stock cortex and xylem by step 5, during insertion, progressively scion cortex and xylem is taken off from, make scion be clipped between stock cortex and xylem, the cortex of scion is then clipped between the bast that stock cuts;
After step 6 scion is inserted, first with double-deck newspaper stock cross section hidden completely and wrap up, then with the rope made of hemp or nylon rope, newspaper, scion and stock in the lump tighten being fixed;
Step 7 scion film tape wraps up;
Grafted portion entirety to cover with transparent or semitransparent plastic sack and uses rope bondage by step 8;
Step 9 final-period management:
1) stock is except sprouting: before and after scion is sprouted, the rudiment that erase in time on stock, and scion grafting scion can not normally be sprouted on the 15th, can retain 2 rudiments, to carry out benefit bud grafting after branching out transferring anvil fracture proper site;
2) within before and after grafting two weeks, do not water, soil drought, can light irrigation;
3) leak informaton: 20-30d after grafting, scion starts to germinate, Zhan Ye of branching out, at this moment checked 1 time every 2 days, an osculum is opened to the exhibition plastic sack of leaf and the upper end of paper bag, tender tip tip is stretched out, the anti-air port of upper end is ascending, can not disposablely open, and more can not too early sack be removed;
4) anti-windbreak: when young sprout grows to 28-35cm, ties up the long rod of 1.5m at interface in time, is gently tied up by young sprout in case windbreak on a rod, and along with the elongation of young sprout should bondage 2 times again, and pinching in time promotes lignification;
5) colligation is removed: when young sprout grows to 65-75cm, the callus of interface has healed and filled up, and bondage thing, now can all be removed by anvil, fringe strong bonded together, but grafted stock of not damaging;
6) could will heal completely through 1-2 above Growing season in grafting cross section, prevent germ from invading from wound, and carry out cold-proof protection of surviving the winter.
The mechanism of action of the present invention: because walnut grows directly from seeds nursery stock hereditary basis more complicated, the differentiation of offspring's genotype is serious, between different individual plant, phenotypic difference is very large, and fruiting period can differ 3-4 and even 7-8 sooner or later, and output differs several times even tens times, nut quality difference is larger, therefore seedling can not be adopted to build garden carry out commodity fruit and produce, because bleeding after walnut grafting is comparatively large, the bleeding sap wound cells that suffocates is breathed on the one hand, make callus be difficult to be formed, cause grafting mouth easily to go rotten; On the other hand; tanning matter is rich in bleeding sap; the tanning matter also direct and plasmic combined with protein generation precipitation of formation in walnut grafting process; make cellular plasm granulating; thus between faying face, form the several layers of separation layer be made up of such cell; hinder the exchange healing of stock and scion both sides material, therefore other seeds graftings not easily survive relatively.
Grafting method of the present invention can reach maintenance breeding parent merit, significantly improves output and oil recovery enhancement, ahead of time result, contributes to dwarfing culture and make full use of Walnut Germplasm Resources etc., the method is to reserved bleeding hole and draw 5 technical methods such as water branch, increase healing area, shading promotion Callus formation, scion mulch film moisture-keeping, the improvement of rudiment external environment to implement to improve, improve the graft survival rate of low yield veteran, large tree, show technological progress.
Accompanying drawing explanation
The present invention is described further by reference to the accompanying drawings.
Accompanying drawing is the operating process schematic diagram implementing new grafting method;
Accompanying drawing 1 is stock process: one " drawing water branch " of selecting and remain below grafting part, in grafting part, stock is sawed-off with sharper saw, and stock surface and phloem outer rim angle grafting knife are cut smooth.
Accompanying drawing 2 cuts method processed for stock phloem: with grafting knife along the inside 1/2-1/3 place of phloem outer rim, rip cutting from top to bottom, and length should be equal with scion ligule length or slightly long, and width should be slightly wider than scion ligule width, and rip cutting direction wants vertical, does not want deflection; Simultaneously by bast zone in stock cross section incision after incision from top to bottom 2cm use grafting knife skiving highly again, with improve scion insert after the tightness degree that engages of anvil fringe.
Accompanying drawing 3 is the stripping of stock phloem: the separation of stock bast zone after rip cutting.
Accompanying drawing 4 is scion process: scion lower end is whittled into shape fond of gossip, the long 6-7cm of tongue, then is pruned gently by the bast zone skin portion of scion ligule part, exposes interior bast zone.
Accompanying drawing 5 is scion insertion stock: the cortex and xylem of scion ligule front end be separated, with grafting knife, stock cortex and xylem is separated again, scion xylem is slowly inserted between stock cortex and xylem, during insertion, progressively scion cortex and xylem is taken off from, the xylem of scion is clipped between stock cortex and xylem, and the cortex of scion is then clipped between the bast that stock cuts, when scion is inserted, the bast of stock be avoided to make a mess of as far as possible.
Accompanying drawing 6 is the scion of stock phloem parcel: scion wrapped up closely with the stock cut outer bast zone.
Accompanying drawing 7 is the shading of stock newspaper and scion bondage: to be hidden completely in stock cross section with double-deck newspaper and wrap up, then newspaper, scion and stock in the lump tighten being fixed with the rope made of hemp or nylon rope.
Accompanying drawing 8 is scion film wrapped: scion film tape wraps up.
Accompanying drawing 9 is grafting part moisturizing process: grafted portion entirety to be covered with transparent or semitransparent plastic sack and use rope bondage.
Embodiment
The present invention is described further in conjunction with the embodiments.
Embodiment
In Bu Zhake township, Hetian County Forestry Station cutting orchard Demonstration Garden (east longitude: 37 ° 03 ', north latitude: 79 ° 49 '), this garden is positioned at South Sinkiang, Xinjiang southern Tarim Basin, belongs to the desert climate of warm temperate zone extreme drought, and heat enriches, the maximum air temperature 38.4 DEG C; Soil is sandy loam, and soil layer is deep, good permeability, for planting old farmer district continuously, humus and the content of organic matter higher, be applicable to walnut plantation.Select two improved variety of walnut (temperature 185, new 2) to carry out improved method Trees of Walnut stiff wood grafting, concrete steps are as follows:
(1) grafting gathers long 80cm in the peripheral middle and upper part of tree crown in advance then at the beginning of last month of spring in winter, thick 1.3cm lignification better, sprout grow enrich full, without the shoot then of damage by disease and insect as the scion of stiff wood grafting, fringe bar is by kind, according to fringe bar length, thickness bailing respectively, every 40 a bundles hang label, indicate kind, collecting location and time, after enter as early as possible freezer preserve, temperature controls at 3 DEG C.
(2) resin flowing in stiff wood grafting time from spring, phloem can be separated with xylem, branch starts Zhan Yeshi, launch completely to full leaf sheet, when male flower is bloomed only, period all can carry out, be roughly the first tenday period of a month in mid-April to May, if scion can be preserved well at the temperature of 3 DEG C, grafting time also can suitably be put off.
(3) before grafting, check scion preservation condition, fringe bar was taken out from refrigerated room in first 3 days in grafting, put into basin or bucket, add 30 DEG C of warm water and waken.
(4) during grafting, scion lower end is whittled into shape fond of gossip, the long 7cm of tongue, then cuts thin gently for the outer bast zone part of scion ligule part, expose interior bast zone;
(5) for ensureing grafting mouth healing rate and quality, the stock age of tree preferably controls below 15 years, robust growth, without damage by disease and insect; Grafting part limb diameter 5 or 8cm.
(6) in circumscribed direction, cross section, stock grafting position, with 1/3 place of grafting knife in stock exoderm, rip cutting from top to bottom, rip cutting direction wants vertical, not deflection, length should be equal with scion ligule length or slightly long, and width should be slightly wider than scion ligule width; Simultaneously by bast zone in stock cross section incision after incision from top to bottom 2cm use grafting knife skiving highly again, with improve scion insert after the tightness degree that engages of anvil fringe;
(7) the scion xylem of selective separating is slowly inserted between stock cortex and xylem, during insertion, progressively scion cortex and xylem is taken off from, make scion be clipped between stock cortex and xylem, the cortex of scion is then clipped between the bast that stock cuts;
(8), after scion is inserted, first with double-deck newspaper stock cross section hidden completely and wrap up, then with the rope made of hemp or nylon rope, newspaper, scion and stock in the lump tighten being fixed;
(9) scion film tape wraps up;
(10) with transparent or semitransparent plastic sack grafted portion entirety covered and use rope bondage;
(11) rear management is connect
1) stock is except sprouting
Before and after scion is sprouted, the rudiment that erase in time on stock, accomplishes to see that bud is just smeared, " on short under stifled ".As scion grafting scion can not normally be sprouted on the 15th, 2 rudiments can be retained transferring anvil fracture proper site, to carry out benefit bud grafting after branching out.
2) leak informaton
After grafting 20 days, scion started to germinate, Zhan Ye of branching out, at this moment checked 1 time every 2 days, an osculum is opened to the exhibition plastic sack of leaf and the upper end of paper bag, tender tip tip is stretched out, the anti-air port of upper end is ascending, can not disposablely open, and more can not too early sack be removed.
3) anti-windbreak
When young sprout grows to 30cm, tie up the long rod of 1.5m in time, gently tied up by young sprout in case windbreak on a rod at interface, along with the elongation of young sprout should bondage 2 times again, and pinching in time promotes lignification.
4) colligation is removed
When young sprout grows to 70cm, the callus of interface has healed and has filled up, and bondage thing, now can all be removed by anvil, fringe strong bonded together, but grafted stock of not damaging.
Implementation result
(1) survival rate: traditional slotting skin whip graft technology, in the practical application for many years of Xinjiang, survival rate remains on 60-80% substantially; And the slotting skin whip graft method after technological improvement, survival rate can reach more than 95%.Relatively more outstanding is create the large tree of grafting 2800 strain especially in the transformation of Xiao Erbage township, Hetian City in 2010 low yield orchard, only has the excellent record that a strain does not survive.
(2) the healing of grafting part: compared with original method, the method after improvement is all wrapped on stock due to scion, and the healing of grafting part is faster than original method, and the smoothness of healing also will more original method good.
The contrast verification of this method technique effect, in Table.
Table
Conclusion: the stock age of tree selects less than 15 years, grafting part limb diameter is less than 10cm, and 1/3-1/2 place, circumscribed direction, cross section, stock grafting position, with grafting knife rip cutting from top to bottom; Scion xylem inserts between stock cortex and xylem, and the cortex of scion is then wrapped between the stock bast of incision, forms two healed surface; Double-deck newspaper carries out shading to stock grafting cross section, makes it to form dark situation, accelerates evoked callus and is formed; The moisturizing of mulch film bar parcel fringe bar, grafting portion will cover with transparent or semitransparent plastic sack and form greenhouse environment, ensure that sprout sprouts and initial stage survival and growth, the method is simple and easy to do, infection process can be reduced to greatest extent, graft survival rate more than 15% can be improved, there is important production and application and be worth.

Claims (2)

1. packaging type walnut inserts a skin whip graft method, it is characterized in that: implement step by step;
Step 1 gathers scion every year the 2-3 month, and be placed in ice cell or low-temperature cold-storage sand Tibetan, wherein husky Tibetan temperature is 0-5 DEG C, and sand humidity is 60%; Before grafting, 2-3d takes out, and is placed in basin or bucket, wakens with 30 DEG C of water;
During step 2 grafting, scion lower end is whittled into shape fond of gossip, the long 6-7cm of tongue, then cuts thin for the outer bast zone part of scion ligule part, expose interior bast zone;
Step 3 selects stock, and namely the diameter of grafting part limb is 3-10cm;
Step 4 in circumscribed direction, cross section, stock grafting position, with the 1/3-1/2 place of grafting knife in stock exoderm, rip cutting from top to bottom, rip cutting direction wants vertical, not deflection, length should be equal with scion ligule length or slightly long, and width should be slightly wider than scion ligule width; Simultaneously by bast zone in stock cross section incision after incision from top to bottom 2cm use grafting knife skiving highly again, improve scion insert after the tightness degree that engages of anvil fringe;
The scion xylem of selective separating slowly inserts between stock cortex and xylem by step 5, during insertion, progressively scion cortex and xylem is taken off from, make scion be clipped between stock cortex and xylem, the cortex of scion is then clipped between the bast that stock cuts;
After step 6 scion is inserted, first with double-deck newspaper stock cross section hidden completely and wrap up, then with the rope made of hemp or nylon rope, newspaper, scion and stock in the lump tighten being fixed;
Step 7 scion film tape wraps up;
Grafted portion entirety to cover with transparent or semitransparent plastic sack and uses rope bondage by step 8;
Step 9 final-period management:
1) stock is except sprouting: before and after scion is sprouted, the rudiment that erase in time on stock;
2) within before and after grafting two weeks, do not water;
3) leak informaton: grafting 20-30d, scion is germinateed and to be branched out Zhan Ye, checks 1 time every 2 days, opens an anti-air port, stretched out at tender tip tip, can not too early sack be removed at the exhibition plastic sack of leaf and the upper end of paper bag;
4) anti-windbreak: when young sprout grows to 28-35cm, props up rod in interface bondage, and pinching in time promotes lignification;
5) remove colligation: when young sprout grows to 65-75cm, remove bondage thing, but grafted stock of not damaging;
6) prevent germ from invading the cross section wound of grafting, and carry out cold-proof protection of surviving the winter.
2. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the method reduces infection process, improves graft survival rate and reaches more than 15%.
CN201310359339.6A 2013-08-16 2013-08-16 Wrapping-type walnut bark whip grafting method Expired - Fee Related CN103416229B (en)

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CN104920157A (en) * 2015-07-06 2015-09-23 新疆灿烂太阳国际商贸有限公司和田县分公司 Dwarfing high-yield method for walnut mature trees
CN105393806A (en) * 2015-11-11 2016-03-16 宁夏农林科学院 Assisted method for improving survival rate of fruit tree branch grafting
CN106613364A (en) * 2016-10-14 2017-05-10 新疆林科院经济林研究所 Walnut tree grafting method
CN106718529B (en) * 2016-11-29 2019-12-13 河南科技大学 high-grafting head-changing method for walnut trees in full bearing period
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CN107455152A (en) * 2017-08-29 2017-12-12 华南农业大学 A kind of vine hard branch scion promotees to sprout the method for sterilization
CN108886994A (en) * 2018-07-25 2018-11-27 广元博创农业科技有限责任公司 One planting fruit-trees, three line healing grafting
CN108934513B (en) * 2018-08-01 2020-12-04 安徽省林业科学研究院 Bud grafting method of apocarya in spring
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