CN103053373A - High-quality apple dwarf interstock seedling propagation method - Google Patents

High-quality apple dwarf interstock seedling propagation method Download PDF

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CN103053373A
CN103053373A CN2013100152635A CN201310015263A CN103053373A CN 103053373 A CN103053373 A CN 103053373A CN 2013100152635 A CN2013100152635 A CN 2013100152635A CN 201310015263 A CN201310015263 A CN 201310015263A CN 103053373 A CN103053373 A CN 103053373A
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apple
dwarfing interstock
quality
bud
mating system
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CN103053373B (en
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韩明玉
宋春晖
张东
邢利博
张庆伟
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Northwest A&F University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a high-quality apple dwarf interstock seedling propagation method. The method includes the steps: sowing apple base stock seeds so that base stocks are obtained; grafting dwarf interstocks on the base stocks in the same year; performing root breakage for the base stocks in the same year; stumping and sprouting in spring in the second year so that sprouts of the dwarf interstocks are retained only; grafting variety sprouts on the dwarf interstocks; and in spring in the third year, stumping and sprouting so as to propagate to seedlings. By the propagation method, the produced apple dwarf interstock seedlings are high in quality and good in root systems, and more high-quality nursery stocks can be obtained with less investment, so that income is maximized.

Description

A kind of mating system of APPLE QUALITY dwarfing interstock seedlings
Technical field
The invention belongs to the fruit tree seedling culture technical field, relate in particular to a kind of mating system of APPLE QUALITY dwarfing interstock seedlings.
Background technology
The apple nursery stock quality is to determine that can Newly built orchard obtain output and the key factor of higher economy return on the whole earlier, thereby is concerning the development of Future in China Apple Industry.Development along with China's Apple Industry, from now on 5~10 years will be the extensive critical period of updating of China's Apple Industry, therefore larger to the demand of apple nursery stock, simultaneously along with the popularization of the intensive Efficient Cultivation pattern of short anvil dense planting, to seedling quality have higher requirement (the intensive Efficient Cultivation pattern of the beautiful .2009. Apple Dwarf Stocks of Han Ming. orchard worker's friendly 9:12; Wang Jinzheng, Xue Xiaomin, the super .2010. in road China apple production current situation and development countermeasure. Shandong agricultural science 6:117~118).
But the apple nursery stock quality of present China is lower (Chen Xuesen generally, Han Mingyu, .2010. world today apple industry trend and the high-quality and efficient Development Suggestions of China's Apple Industry such as Su Guilin, Journal of Fruit Science, 27 (4): 598~604), the findings of the survey that the apple nursery stock quality of China apple main product province is carried out show: China's apple nursery stock quality is totally not high, the ratio that meets national Seedling Criterion one-level seedling is too low, administration preferably nursery Qiaoization seedling reaches primary standard, Shandong is 23.9%, and Hebei is 20%, and Shaanxi is 7%, Liaoning 11%, Gansu 22.08%; Give birth to downgrade the one-level seedling in 3 years and reach primary standard, Shandong is 8.1%, and Hebei is 16%, and Shaanxi is 1.9%, and the apple nursery stock quality is Shandong relatively preferably in 10%, 5 province of Liaoning.
The Apple Dwarf Stocks planting type since have the result early, high, the instant effect of output, ventilation and penetrating light, fruit quality are good, tree crown is short and small, convenient management, saving labour, is convenient to the advantages such as do mechanization operation, is paid much attention in the world for a long time.Most of European countries and the U.S., Australia, New Zealand, Japan and other countries aborning 90% above Apple Culture adopt the Dwarf rootstocks planting type, and short anvil cultivation also is the developing direction of China's apple production from now on.Abroad, develop short anvil orchard and select paniculate 3 years living seedlings (1.2~1.5 centimetres of the kind trunk diameters that the grafting mouth is above 5 centimetres, seedling is done 150 centimetres, at suitable position 3~5 branches is arranged, and the first branch is no less than 70 centimetres apart from ground) build the garden, set up the support cultivation.Since China's soil quality with have larger difference abroad, the Apple Dwarf Stocks nursery stock of China is main mainly with dwarfing interstock wood, the dwarfing interstock apple seedling is comprised of basic anvil, interstock and scion variety three parts, this nursery stock not only has good dwarfing effect, and has stronger adaptive capacity.
Application publication number is that the patent documentation of CN102715018A discloses a kind of apple dwarfing interstock high-quality 2 years fast breeding methods in strong sprout, the method may further comprise the steps: cultivate basic anvil seedling at warm indoor application moulding root system alms bowl, press seeding row spacing (12~15) cm x (50~60) centimetre transplant planting, cultivate basic anvil strong sprout without seedling-slowing stage; Budder every 30~35 centimetres of grafting apple improved seeds on dwarfing interstock wood young sprout, winter, fallen leaves were rear cutting storage with the short anvil section of apple variety; Second Year spring, before the basic anvil rudiment, the short anvil section with kind of storage is taken out, use two whip grafts or cleft grafting method grafting to basic anvil; Treat that the kind bud grows into after 15 centimetres, every row nursery stock is fixed with cord, prevent that wind from fractureing.Although this mating system has shortened breeding the time of apple seedling, need in the greenhouse, cultivate basic anvil seedling, be unfavorable for that common grower operates, and the interval of each apple seedling is larger, is unfavorable for the maximization of land resources utilization.
China's apple nursery stock production problem is serious, and technology is chaotic, and the whole people grow seedlings, and is random strong.Country and local Seedling Criterion have carried out the regulation of index of correlation to seedling quality, but owing to there not being strict technical regulation, do not do system research at underlying issues such as seedling densities, so that can not be fine practicable in actual production for seedling quality, some person of growing seedlings turns a deaf ear to for Seedling Criterion, the undue output of paying attention to is ignored seedling density to the impact of the seedling quality of growing seedlings.In addition, China relatively paid attention to the acrial part index to seedling quality in the past, ignored the quality of under ground portion and the equilibrium between the each several part, and root system is poor, causes the rear poor growth of planting, and survival rate is low.Therefore, for the problem in the existing apple nursery stock production, select the mating system particular importance of new APPLE QUALITY seedlings.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides a kind of mating system of APPLE QUALITY dwarfing interstock seedlings, improved seedling quality, so that this three of the economic benefit of soil utilization, seedling quality and nursery stock production is maximized, overcome the low problem of high-quality seedlings output capacity in the existing apple nursery stock production.
A kind of mating system of APPLE QUALITY dwarfing interstock seedlings may further comprise the steps:
(1) sowing apple base anvil seed obtains basic anvil;
(2) the same year grafting dwarfing interstock on basic anvil;
(3) the same year is to the processing of being completely cured of basic anvil;
(4) Second Year spring, the stump bud picking only keeps the bud of dwarfing interstock;
(5) Grafted Variety bud on dwarfing interstock again;
In (6) the 3rd year spring, the stump bud picking is bred until seedling.
This mating system is after apple base anvil seed length arrives certain height and rugosity, grafting dwarfing interstock thereon again, long behind certain height and rugosity Deng dwarfing interstock, to the processing of being completely cured of basic anvil, make it grow new root system, and make plant have the dwarfing performance, again in Second Year spring, the stump bud picking only keeps the bud of dwarfing interstock, guarantee the nutrient component of dwarfing interstock, Grafted Variety bud on dwarfing interstock again, and by again stump bud picking, guarantee that the kind bud physically well develops, the apple seedlings quality that adopts this mating system to obtain is high, quality better.
In order to improve seed activity, in the step (1), preferred described apple base anvil seed is prior to seeding 2~5 ℃ of lower husky Tibetan 40~60 days, in low temperature environment, the abscisic acid equal size of Interior Seed significantly reduces, and its effect that suppresses seed germination weakens greatly, so broken dormancy, and the husky Tibetan of low temperature can also promote to produce the gibberellin of stimulating growth, and can promote the activation of Interior Seed enzyme, makes nutriment begin to transform.
In the step (1), the sowing place of preferred described apple base anvil seed is non-second crop soil, and non-second crop soil can guarantee that soil has good fertility, more is conducive to obtain the APPLE QUALITY seedlings.
Base anvil planting density is not more than 10 strains/m 2, be not less than 6.7 strains/m 2, can guarantee rational planting density like this, plant can not blocked and disturb mutually before, make plant strain growth good.
Further preferred, apple base anvil seed is according to spacing in the rows 20cm, wide line-spacing 60cm, and narrow row arranges the sowing cave apart from 40cm.
Can put into the apple base anvil seed more than 5 in each sowing cave, to select colory seed, after planting, the soil of raking immediately, after the compacting, can cover layer of plastic film at seed furrow, plastic film can be incubated seed, can germinate, after seed sprouting emerges, in order to guarantee enough nutrient supplies, only keep the seedling of a strain stalwartness, this seedling is as basic anvil;
In order further seedling to be incubated, make its well-grown, can when growing to 20cm, remove again seedling plastic film.
In the step (2), described dwarfing interstock is the full bud on the annotinous branch of virus-free kind, virus-free kind can guarantee that the plant after the grafting has preferably antiviral property, full bud on the annotinous branch has good activity, can improve the survival rate of grafting, in order further to improve the success rate of grafting, preferred grafting time is early and middle ten days in August in the same year, and graft position is overhead 5~10cm place, basic anvil top.
In the step (3), the device of being completely cured is adopted in the described processing of being completely cured, and the degree of depth of being completely cured is 20~30cm, and the time of being completely cured is November in the same year, can only be completely cured to main root.
In step (4) and (6), the time of described stump bud picking for then rudiment in spring before.
In the step (5), the full bud on the annotinous branch that described kind bud is virus-free kind, grafting time are Second Year August, and graft position is the above 25~30cm place of basic anvil and dwarfing interstock grafting mouth.In order to prevent that plant from being broken by wind, when the kind bud is bred to 30cm, can near the plant root, insert one or more support bar, and the kind bud is tied up on support bar.
In order to guarantee the quality of kind bud, in reproductive process, rudiment and side shoot in can removing on the kind bud overhead 80 centimetres, the removal time is preferably for 5~June.
Described mating system all regularly weeding and spraying pesticide in whole process of growth carry out the extermination of disease and insect pest, guarantee that plant has good growing environment, guarantees its quality.
Compared with prior art, the present invention has following beneficial effect:
Adopt mating system of the present invention, the apple dwarfing interstock seedlings quality of producing is high, and root system is good, can under less input, gather in the crops more high quality seedling, so that maximum revenue.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the sowing cave distribution schematic diagram in the embodiment of the invention 1;
Fig. 2 is the apple nursery stock plant height histogram that goes out the garden under the different planting densities;
Fig. 3 is the non-structure carbohydrate content of the apple nursery stock histogram that goes out the garden under the different planting densities.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1
(34 ° of 52 ' N have tested method of the present invention for 108 ° 7 ' E) in Yangling Shaanxi modern agriculture Demonstration Garden apple experiment and demonstration nursery.(1) sowing apple base anvil seed, obtain basic anvil: select non-second crop soil, after spring the seedbed land used being ploughed deeply whole ground, trench digging, the degree of depth of ditch is 10cm, the water pipe waters an amount of water along ditch, the sowing cave is set, the sowing cave distributes as shown in Figure 1, and its spacing in the rows is 20cm, and line-spacing is wide-and narrow-row 40cm+60cm, 5 seeds of every bunch planting kind, rake immediately, with gently compacting of spade, cover seed furrow with the white plastic film immediately, by the time after emerging, allow seedling expose mulch film, the seedling of a strain stalwartness is stayed in every cave, treats to remove when seedling length is high to 20cm the white plastic film;
(2) the same year grafting dwarfing interstock on basic anvil: sowing then the early and middle ten days in August, at the seedling full bud on virus-free M26 dwarfing interstock annotinous branch of 5cm place grafting overhead;
(3) the same year is to the processing of being completely cured of basic anvil: use November then the device of being completely cured that the seedling main root is completely cured, the degree of depth of being completely cured is 25cm;
(4) Second Year spring, the stump bud picking only keeps the bud of dwarfing interstock: before the Second Year rudiment in spring, the stump bud picking only keeps the bud of the dwarfing interstock M26 of grafting;
(5) again at Grafted Variety bud on the dwarfing interstock: Second Year August is in basic anvil and the full bud on virus-free Nagafu No.2 annotinous branch of 25~30cm place grafting more than the dwarfing interstock grafting mouth;
In (6) the 3rd year spring, the stump bud picking is bred until seedling: before the rudiment in spring in the 3rd year, the stump bud picking, kind bud length is inserted 2 meters high bamboo poles near the plant root behind 30cm, and nursery stock is tied up on bamboo pole, prevent that plant from being broken by wind, remove overhead rudiment and the side shoot in 80 centimetres of kind bud 5~June, November, results finished nursery, artificial lifting, according to Seedling Criterion to nursery stock sampling measurement and minute grade packaged.
Embodiment 2~11
Change the distribution in sowing cave, make its line space, strain spacing and thickness of sowing different, other operate all with embodiment 1.
Concrete sowing cave distributes and sees Table 1, and wherein D5 is the sowing cave distribution among the embodiment 1.
The particular content that the different sowing of table 1 cave distributes
Figure BDA00002740756200061
Annotate: the wide row of wide-and narrow-row planting system and the line-spacing of narrow row are adopted in "+" expression.
The nursery stock sampling measurement result that embodiment 1~11 is obtained shows:
As shown in Figure 2, the plant height that embodiment 1~11 is obtained nursery stock is analyzed discovery, every square metre of 10 strains among the embodiment 1, be that wide row distance is 60cm, narrow row is 40cm, spacing in the rows is (as shown in Figure 1) under the planting density of 20cm, the plant height of the apple seedling that obtains significantly greater than planting density greater than 10 strains/m 2The plant height (p<0.01) of processing, and with planting density less than or equal to 10 strains/m 2Respectively to process difference in plant height not remarkable.
As shown in Figure 3, the Non-Structural Carbohydrate total amount that embodiment 1~11 is obtained nursery stock is analyzed discovery, and planting density is higher than 10.0 strains/m 2Process difference not remarkable, be lower than 10.0 strains/m 2The Non-Structural Carbohydrate total amount of processing afterwards constantly rises, to 6.7 strains/m 2Afterwards difference less or the statistics on not remarkable.Carbohydrate is the primary product of photosynthesis of plant, can be divided into two kinds of structural carbohydrate and Non-Structural Carbohydrates by its existence form, the former (such as lignin, cellulose) is mainly used in the morphogenesis of plant corpus, and latter's (such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, levulan, starch) then is the important substance that participates in the metabolism of plant life.This explanation is along with planting density reduces, and plant strain growth is rapid, and the ratio that photosynthetic product is used for morphogenesis is higher, 10.0 strains/m 2Planting density has been used in the photosynthetic product of larger proportion the structure of plant forms structure, when planting density less than 10.0 strains/m 2After, the amount that the photosynthetic product amount that plant forms builds up to be needed no longer increases or increases is limited, but the photosynthetic product amount that plant generates is still increasing, and the ratio that causes stored nutrient to account for the gross photosynthesis product constantly increases, and this also may be exactly the good true cause of low-density seedling quality.
Each the grade quantity that embodiment 1~11 is obtained nursery stock is analyzed, and the results are shown in Table 2, and planting density is 10.0 strains/m 2In the situation, every mu of apple seedling 6670 strains of planting, qualified nursery stock ratio is 89%, the quantity of the above nursery stock of secondary is 5956 strains.Adopting wide row distance is 60cm, and narrow row is 40cm, and spacing in the rows is under the planting density of 20cm, and the apple nursery stock of planting can in the situation that input is lower, obtain higher income.Therefore, the present invention can obtain the apple nursery stock of high-quality.
The above apple nursery stock data statistics of secondary under the different planting densities of table 2
Figure BDA00002740756200071

Claims (10)

1. the mating system of APPLE QUALITY dwarfing interstock seedlings is characterized in that, may further comprise the steps:
(1) sowing apple base anvil seed obtains basic anvil;
(2) the same year grafting dwarfing interstock on basic anvil;
(3) the same year is to the processing of being completely cured of basic anvil;
(4) Second Year spring, the stump bud picking only keeps the bud of dwarfing interstock;
(5) Grafted Variety bud on dwarfing interstock again;
In (6) the 3rd year spring, the stump bud picking is bred until seedling.
2. the mating system of APPLE QUALITY dwarfing interstock seedlings according to claim 1 is characterized in that: in the step (1), described apple base anvil seed is prior to seeding 2~5 ℃ of lower husky Tibetan 40~60 days.
3. the mating system of APPLE QUALITY dwarfing interstock seedlings according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in the step (1), basic anvil planting density is not more than 10 strains/m 2, be not less than 6.7 strains/m 2
4. the mating system of APPLE QUALITY dwarfing interstock seedlings according to claim 3 is characterized in that: in the step (1), basic anvil is with wide line-spacing 60cm, and narrow row is apart from 40cm, spacing in the rows 20cm sowing.
5. the mating system of APPLE QUALITY dwarfing interstock seedlings according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in the step (2), the graft position of described dwarfing interstock is overhead 5~10cm place, basic anvil top.
6. the mating system of APPLE QUALITY dwarfing interstock seedlings according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in the step (3), the degree of depth of being completely cured is 20~30cm.
7. the mating system of APPLE QUALITY dwarfing interstock seedlings according to claim 1 is characterized in that: in step (4) and (6), the time of described stump bud picking for then rudiment in spring before.
8. the mating system of APPLE QUALITY dwarfing interstock seedlings according to claim 1 is characterized in that: in the step (5), the graft position of described kind bud is the above 25~30cm place of basic anvil and dwarfing interstock grafting mouth.
9. the mating system of APPLE QUALITY dwarfing interstock seedlings according to claim 1 is characterized in that: in the step (6), when described kind bud is bred to 30cm, insert support bar near the plant root, the kind bud is tied up on support bar.
10. the mating system of APPLE QUALITY dwarfing interstock seedlings according to claim 1 is characterized in that: in the step (6), and 5~June then, rudiment and side shoot in removing on the kind bud overhead 80 centimetres.
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Cited By (12)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103340104A (en) * 2013-07-15 2013-10-09 桂阳金盾南方苹果有限公司 Apple seedling cultivation method capable of being suitable for southern Hunan and sub-southern Hunan
CN104145724A (en) * 2014-08-04 2014-11-19 山东农业大学 Method for two-person relay grafting of apple roots
CN104160880A (en) * 2014-09-10 2014-11-26 辽宁省果树科学研究所 Cultivation method for grafting multiple strains of apple varieties on potted apple tree
CN104737832A (en) * 2015-04-24 2015-07-01 辽宁省果树科学研究所 Apple tree grafting method
CN105145255A (en) * 2015-09-11 2015-12-16 山东农业大学 Method for breeding apple dwarf self-rooted rootstock seedlings
CN105230354A (en) * 2015-10-28 2016-01-13 北京市农林科学院 Rapid cultivation method of self-rooted dwarfing intermediate stock seedlings for apples
CN105309261A (en) * 2014-08-01 2016-02-10 欧广良 Production method of high dwarfing rootstock apple seedlings
CN106171799A (en) * 2016-08-27 2016-12-07 王少雷 A kind of Fructus Mali pumilae quaternity cultural method
CN106358912A (en) * 2016-08-27 2017-02-01 王少雷 Apple dwarf self-rooted rootstock high-position dwarf cultivation method
CN107567920A (en) * 2017-09-10 2018-01-12 河北省农林科学院昌黎果树研究所 A kind of method that rapid scale breeds dwarfing interstock apple seedling
CN113057032A (en) * 2021-03-22 2021-07-02 大连金谷园林绿化工程有限公司 Cross-family/cross-genus/cross-species grafting method for dicotyledonous plants
CN113068562A (en) * 2018-08-02 2021-07-06 辽宁省果树科学研究所 Grafting method for dwarf apples

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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103340104A (en) * 2013-07-15 2013-10-09 桂阳金盾南方苹果有限公司 Apple seedling cultivation method capable of being suitable for southern Hunan and sub-southern Hunan
CN105309261A (en) * 2014-08-01 2016-02-10 欧广良 Production method of high dwarfing rootstock apple seedlings
CN104145724A (en) * 2014-08-04 2014-11-19 山东农业大学 Method for two-person relay grafting of apple roots
CN104160880A (en) * 2014-09-10 2014-11-26 辽宁省果树科学研究所 Cultivation method for grafting multiple strains of apple varieties on potted apple tree
CN104737832A (en) * 2015-04-24 2015-07-01 辽宁省果树科学研究所 Apple tree grafting method
CN105145255A (en) * 2015-09-11 2015-12-16 山东农业大学 Method for breeding apple dwarf self-rooted rootstock seedlings
CN105145255B (en) * 2015-09-11 2017-06-27 山东农业大学 A kind of apple dwarf is from root anvil seedling-wood breeding method
CN105230354A (en) * 2015-10-28 2016-01-13 北京市农林科学院 Rapid cultivation method of self-rooted dwarfing intermediate stock seedlings for apples
CN105230354B (en) * 2015-10-28 2017-11-14 北京市农林科学院 A kind of fast breeding method of apple from root dwarfing interstock nursery stock
CN106171799A (en) * 2016-08-27 2016-12-07 王少雷 A kind of Fructus Mali pumilae quaternity cultural method
CN106358912A (en) * 2016-08-27 2017-02-01 王少雷 Apple dwarf self-rooted rootstock high-position dwarf cultivation method
CN107567920A (en) * 2017-09-10 2018-01-12 河北省农林科学院昌黎果树研究所 A kind of method that rapid scale breeds dwarfing interstock apple seedling
CN113068562A (en) * 2018-08-02 2021-07-06 辽宁省果树科学研究所 Grafting method for dwarf apples
CN113057032A (en) * 2021-03-22 2021-07-02 大连金谷园林绿化工程有限公司 Cross-family/cross-genus/cross-species grafting method for dicotyledonous plants

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