CN103650893B - A kind of trimming method of pinching of Japanese plum tree crown - Google Patents

A kind of trimming method of pinching of Japanese plum tree crown Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103650893B
CN103650893B CN201310732003.XA CN201310732003A CN103650893B CN 103650893 B CN103650893 B CN 103650893B CN 201310732003 A CN201310732003 A CN 201310732003A CN 103650893 B CN103650893 B CN 103650893B
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time
pinching
japanese plum
shoot
elongated shoot
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CN103650893A (en
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杨方福
罗勇
史红琴
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Gou Jiang Town Zunyi County Brave Rogor Vegetables Crop Cultivation Speciality Cooperative Society
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Gou Jiang Town Zunyi County Brave Rogor Vegetables Crop Cultivation Speciality Cooperative Society
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of trimming method of pinching of Japanese plum tree crown, comprise and pinching summer and winter pruning, wherein pinching summer comprises three times and pinches, first time Topping Time be the first tenday period of a month in May, second time Topping Time be late June to early July, third time Topping Time be early August; The winter pruning time is in mid-January mid-November to next year.The present invention can promote that Japanese plum is downgraded, formed main, side shoot is sturdy, quantity and distribution or the comparatively reasonable or desirable Japanese plum high yield tree crown of structure, reduce unnecessary branch consume nutrient and cause canopy, be conducive to the cultivation management setting low body, ventilation and penetrating light and Li Yuan, by Cold region apple, concentrate nutrient supply and strengthen photosynthesis promotion reproductive growth, being differentiated to form and flower bud differentiation of fruit bearing shoot can be accelerated, promote Japanese plum to bear fruit in advance and Li Yuan high yield.

Description

A kind of trimming method of pinching of Japanese plum tree crown
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of agricultural cultivation, particularly relate to a kind of trimming method of pinching of Japanese plum tree crown.
Background technology
Japanese plum is resistance to lean, drought-enduring, and the suitable especially exposed rate of stony desertification mountain area rock is high, thin, the easy drought and waterlogging particular surroundings of ecology fragility, severe water and soil erosion, soil layer, is the important fruit tree of my Limestone Mountain Areas, ground.The water sprout of Japanese plum is not born fruit, because of its mainly carry out nourishing and growing, undifferentiated bud, but prune by pinching and cultivate elongated shoot, become the basic framework forming Japanese plum high yield tree crown; Japanese plum gives birth to the axillalry bud of water sprout (elongated shoot) middle and lower part then when condition is suitable for, and small part axillalry bud can extract fruit spur and weak branch (elongated compared with fruit spur) then out, and most axillalry bud can extract fruit spur and weak branch out in next year.Fruit spur and weak branch belong to fruit bearing shoot, mainly carry out reproductive growth, have flower bud differentiation then, next year can result, and just the bud of weak branch differentiation is few and fragmentary, and the bud of fruit spur differentiation is then many and concentrate, and its quality and quantity is the material base that Japanese plum is got bumper crops.It is individual that high yield Li Yuan needs more high yield Japanese plum, reasonably downgrade can dense planting, increase the individual amount of high yield Japanese plum, and be conducive to the pruning management of Japanese plum tree crown and gathering of fruit; And the tree crown that every strain Japanese plum has good basic framework and quantity, distribution or fruit spur rational in infrastructure, weak branch are regarded as having high yield, be the basis of its sustainable high yield.
In prior art, as the patent No. patent of invention that is CN102726266A discloses the cultivation method of purple amber plum tree, trimming method disclosed in it retains center and does, base portion is selected and remain 3 ~ 5 major branches, and without the second major branch, the major branch last time is equipped with side shoot, on side shoot raw fruit bearing shoot or fruit-bearing shoot cluster, its shortcoming is: it is faster than the speed of other major branches that growth rate is done at its center, and the branch height causing center dry, apparently higher than other major branches, can affect the seed output and quality of plum.
Summary of the invention
For above technical problem, the invention provides a kind of trimming method of pinching of Japanese plum tree crown, realize Li Yuan Cold region apple and sustainable high yield.
The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
A trimming method of pinching for Japanese plum tree crown, comprises and pinching summer and winter pruning, wherein:
Pinch described summer and comprise three times and pinch, first time Topping Time be the first tenday period of a month in May, second time Topping Time be late June to early July, third time Topping Time be early August;
The described winter pruning time is in mid-January mid-November to next year.
Further, it is 30 ~ 40cm that the first time of pinching described summer pinches with the reservation length of elongated shoot of pinching for the second time.
Further, the third time of pinching described summer, the pinch reservation length of elongated shoot was 25 ~ 30cm.
Further, described winter pruning concrete steps are: preferentially prune raw elongated shoot then, retain wherein that 1-2 vigorous branches is as elongated shoot, remaining elongated shoot and not yet lignified water sprout are all cut from base portion, retain the fruit spur of raw elongated shoot middle and lower part then and weak branch.
Further, trimming method of originally pinching is applicable to 2 years raw seedlings and the grafting Japanese plum of field planting.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is: the present invention can promote that Japanese plum is downgraded, formed main, side shoot is sturdy, quantity and distribution or the comparatively reasonable or desirable Japanese plum high yield tree crown of structure, reduce unnecessary branch consume nutrient and cause canopy, be conducive to the cultivation management setting low body, ventilation and penetrating light and Li Yuan, by Cold region apple, concentrate nutrient supply and strengthen photosynthesis promotion reproductive growth, being differentiated to form and flower bud differentiation of fruit bearing shoot can be accelerated, promote Japanese plum to bear fruit in advance and Li Yuan high yield.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment, technical scheme of the present invention is described in detail:
Embodiment 1:
A trimming method of pinching for Japanese plum tree crown, comprises raw grafting plum seedling field planting pruning of pinching then then.
(1) common secateurs 1 is prepared, for wiping out the terminal bud of Japanese plum summer, the water sprout of winter pruning Japanese plum.
(2) then raw Japanese plum grafting last in field planting as height of seedling can reach more than 1m, adopt the general overhead 10cm of the nursery stock interface of cut-grafting method grafting, namely the stock of this nursery stock is long is 10cm, pinches, inspire 3-5 young sprouts after grafting when the young sprout grown grows to 20-30cm.Namely the trunk Height Standard of Japanese plum is fixed to 30-40cm, stays 2-4 branches, and long branch retains 30-50cm field planting.
(3) pinch summer:
1. the first tenday period of a month in May, to field planting, the plum seedling branch first round secondary water sprout grown is (orthotropic for major branch then, level or upper sideways growth be side shoot) carry out first time and pinch, when water sprout growth reaches 30 ~ 40cm, cut off terminal bud with secateurs, retain the elongated shoot that 30 ~ 40cm grows.By removing apical dominance, growth promoting effects element redistributes the sprouting stimulating elongated shoot axillalry bud.
2. late June is to early July, carries out second time pinch to the water sprout of the second round that elongated shoot grows (orthotropic is major branch, level or upper sideways growth be side shoot).When water sprout growth reaches 30 ~ 40cm, cut off terminal bud, retain the elongated shoot that 30 ~ 40cm is long.
3. late August, third time is carried out to the water sprout that the third round that elongated shoot grows is secondary and pinches.Can terminal bud be cut off when water sprout growth reaches more than 30cm, retain the elongated shoot of the long left and right of 30cm.Third time pinches particularly important to the Crown growizg of field planting Japanese plum then, can form the tree crown basic framework be made up of three round elongated shoots so then, and individual plant Japanese plum high yield tree crown can basic forming.Field planting initial stage rich water quality management and Vegetation space abundance, plum seedling growth potential is vigorous, generally can realize three targets of pinching.
(4) select winter to prune: mid-January mid-November to next year, to 3 ~ 5 that are formed near each elongated shoot top after pinching summer then raw elongated shoot preferentially prune, retain wherein 2 vigorous branches as elongated shoot, the water sprout of remaining elongated shoot and not yet lignification (aging) is all cut from base portion, retain the fruit spur of raw elongated shoot middle and lower part then and weak branch, as the fruit bearing shoot of next year.Field planting elongated shoot then on average retains 2, and the quantity by increasing elongated shoot promotes to enter high yield period in advance.Field planting Second Year generally can just really, but not take fertile training measure to be promoted, because target is not at this moment born fruit, but promotes to nourish and grow, accelerates to form powerful tree crown.
The present embodiment is applicable to 2 years raw seedlings and the grafting Japanese plum of field planting, carry out every year pinching summer then and later from Japanese plum field planting and winter preferentially prunes, the tree crown of individual plant Japanese plum can be controlled in 1.5m ~ 2m (height) × 2m ~ 2.5m(wide cut) scope, Li Yuanke presses the seeding row spacing field planting of 3m × 4m, every mu can field planting 55 strain, (the seeding row spacing field planting of 4m × 4m is pressed in conventional orchard in comparable Routine Management every mu many field planting 13 strain, every mu of only field planting 42 strain), thus it is individual to increase high yield, and can field planting time the beginning of the year fruit, shift to an earlier date 2 years than conventional orchard and within the 4th year to the 5th year, enter high yield period (conventional orchard generally after field planting entered high yield period to the 7th year on the 6th year) after field planting, high yield period, average year per mu yield reached more than 2000 kilograms, than conventional orchard year volume increase per mu more than 500 kilograms (conventional orchard high yield period average year per mu yield is about 1500 kilograms).If be aided with the fertilizer training of science, flowers and fruits, damage by disease and insect and water-saving irrigation administrative skill, not only Li Yuan high yield, and effectively can improve fruit quality.
Embodiment 2:
A trimming method of pinching for Japanese plum tree crown, comprises the pruning of pinching to entering high yield period result Japanese plum after field planting for the 5th year to the 6th year.
(1) secateurs 1 is prepared, for wiping out the terminal bud of Japanese plum summer, the water sprout of winter pruning Japanese plum.
(2) adopt the Li Yuan of the technology of the present invention management, within the 4th year after field planting, enter high yield period to the 5th year.At this moment the height of tree of individual plant Japanese plum reaches nearly 2m, and tree fabric width degree reaches nearly 2.5-3m, has reached the standard that orchard standard individual plant Japanese plum tree crown controls.
(3) pinch summer:
1. the first tenday period of a month in May, to Japanese plum, the first round secondary water sprout grown is (orthotropic for major branch then, level or upper sideways growth be side shoot) carry out first time and pinch, when water sprout growth reaches 30 ~ 40cm, cut off terminal bud with spring shears, retain the elongated shoot that 30 ~ 40cm grows.
2. late June is to early July, carries out second time pinch to the water sprout that elongated shoot grows (orthotropicly to erase in time, level or upper sideways growth be major branch and side shoot).When the water sprout growth of major branch and side shoot reaches 30 ~ 40cm, cut off terminal bud, retain the elongated shoot that 30 ~ 40cm is long.The third time of Japanese plum high yield period pinches and generally can omit, and one is that the situation growing third round water sprout is less because it has been transferred to reproductive growth for the main stage; Two is need to prune away, the water sprout that third round is secondary to avoid the excessive closing of tree crown in the winter time.Only have and measure of pinching for the third time is just adopted to indivedual small and weak individual plant Japanese plum continuing to cultivate tree crown that needs.
(4) select winter to prune: mid-January mid-November to next year, to 3 ~ 5 that are formed near each elongated shoot top after pinching summer then raw elongated shoot preferentially prune, retain wherein 1 ~ 2 vigorous branches as elongated shoot, the water sprout of remaining elongated shoot and not yet lignification (aging) is all cut from base portion, retain the fruit spur of raw elongated shoot middle and lower part then and weak branch, as the fruit bearing shoot of next year.High yield period, the elongated shoot of fruit tree generally retained wherein 1, and depending on the circumstances or the needs of the situation minority can retain 2.
The tree crown of this technology individual plant Japanese plum can be controlled in 1.5m ~ 2m (height) × 2m ~ 2.5m(wide cut) scope, Li Yuanke presses the seeding row spacing field planting of 3m × 4m, every mu can field planting 55 strain, (the seeding row spacing field planting of 4m × 4m is pressed in conventional orchard in comparable Routine Management every mu many field planting 13 strain, every mu of only field planting 42 strain), thus it is individual to increase high yield, and can field planting time the beginning of the year fruit, shift to an earlier date 2 years than conventional orchard and within the 4th year to the 5th year, enter high yield period (conventional orchard generally after field planting entered high yield period to the 7th year on the 6th year) after field planting, high yield period, average year per mu yield reached more than 2000 kilograms, than conventional orchard year volume increase per mu more than 500 kilograms (conventional orchard high yield period average year per mu yield is about 1500 kilograms).If be aided with the fertilizer training of science, flowers and fruits, damage by disease and insect and water-saving irrigation administrative skill, not only Li Yuan high yield, and effectively can improve fruit quality.

Claims (1)

1. a trimming method of pinching for Japanese plum tree crown, is characterized in that: comprise and pinching summer and winter pruning, wherein:
Pinch described summer and comprise three times and pinch, first time Topping Time be the first tenday period of a month in May, second time Topping Time be late June to early July, third time Topping Time be early August;
It is 30 ~ 40cm that the first time of pinching described summer pinches with the reservation length of elongated shoot of pinching for the second time; The third time of pinching described summer, the pinch reservation length of elongated shoot was 25 ~ 30cm;
The described winter pruning time is in mid-January mid-November to next year;
Described winter pruning concrete steps are: preferentially prune raw elongated shoot then, retain wherein 1-2 vigorous branches as elongated shoot, remaining elongated shoot and not yet lignified water sprout are all cut from base portion, retain the fruit spur of raw elongated shoot middle and lower part then and weak branch;
Originally trimming method of pinching is applicable to 2 years raw seedlings and the grafting Japanese plum of field planting.
CN201310732003.XA 2013-12-26 2013-12-26 A kind of trimming method of pinching of Japanese plum tree crown Expired - Fee Related CN103650893B (en)

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Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106069546B (en) * 2016-07-21 2019-03-15 四川省农业科学院园艺研究所 A kind of light simplified pruning method of Japanese plum
CN107853049B (en) * 2017-11-06 2020-05-12 四川华通柠檬有限公司 Seasonal trimming method for lemon trees and lemon garden
CN107896794A (en) * 2017-11-30 2018-04-13 李双均 A kind of cultural method of phoenix plum
CN109588203A (en) * 2019-01-31 2019-04-09 遵义师范学院 A kind of cultural method of Japanese plum bearing basal shoot group

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1857060A (en) * 2006-04-25 2006-11-08 李灿永 New technology for purple leaf plum bearing fruit cultivation
CN101120645A (en) * 2007-09-30 2008-02-13 中国农业大学 Method for controlling plum tree shape and tree body suitable for high-density planting
JP2011024566A (en) * 2009-06-23 2011-02-10 Utsunomiya Univ Method for blooming nursery stock raised from seed, and nursery stock raised from seed

Patent Citations (3)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1857060A (en) * 2006-04-25 2006-11-08 李灿永 New technology for purple leaf plum bearing fruit cultivation
CN101120645A (en) * 2007-09-30 2008-02-13 中国农业大学 Method for controlling plum tree shape and tree body suitable for high-density planting
JP2011024566A (en) * 2009-06-23 2011-02-10 Utsunomiya Univ Method for blooming nursery stock raised from seed, and nursery stock raised from seed

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