CN101361446B - Rhodiola seed seedling-raising method and cultivation method - Google Patents

Rhodiola seed seedling-raising method and cultivation method Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN101361446B
CN101361446B CN2008103049372A CN200810304937A CN101361446B CN 101361446 B CN101361446 B CN 101361446B CN 2008103049372 A CN2008103049372 A CN 2008103049372A CN 200810304937 A CN200810304937 A CN 200810304937A CN 101361446 B CN101361446 B CN 101361446B
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
seedling
rhodiola
seed
soil
cultivation
Prior art date
Application number
CN2008103049372A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
CN101361446A (en
Inventor
何正军
贾国夫
泽柏
陈琳
刘汉中
李洪泉
邓永昌
尼科
郭敏
Original Assignee
四川省川草工程咨询招标有限责任公司
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by 四川省川草工程咨询招标有限责任公司 filed Critical 四川省川草工程咨询招标有限责任公司
Priority to CN2008103049372A priority Critical patent/CN101361446B/en
Publication of CN101361446A publication Critical patent/CN101361446A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN101361446B publication Critical patent/CN101361446B/en

Links

Abstract

The invention relates to a Rhodiola crenulata seedling raising and cultivation method, which belongs to the traditional Chinese medicine cultivation field. The technical problem to be solved by the method is to provide a manual cultivation method of the Rhodiola crenulata, which can provide massive high-quality Rhodiola crenulata for the public. The technical proposal adopted by the method comprises a Rhodiola crenulata seedling raising method and a Rhodiola crenulata cultivation method. The seedling raising method includes seed selection, immersion, field selection, soil preparation, seeding, management, and seedling collection and excavation, and is characterized in that: the seeds need to be soaked by gibberelin fluid of 80 to 150ppm for 3 to 4 hours, washed by clear water, and air dried for later use; and the sandy loam containing rich humus of the plateau lawn is selected. The Rhodiola crenulata cultivation method includes the steps of: a. the field selection and the soil preparation; b. cultivation; c. field management; and d. collection. The methods provide Rhodiola crenulata medicinal materials with higher output and quality for promoting the Rhodiola crenulata industry torun smoothly, and provide a new thought for promoting the standardized production of the lawn medicinal materials.

Description

Rhodiola seed seedling-raising method and cultivation method
Technical field
The present invention relates to the cultivation method of rhodiola root, belong to the Chinese medicine cultivation field.
Technical field
Crassulaceae herbaceos perennial rhodiola Rhodiola crenulata (Hk.f.et Thoms.) H.Ohba is distributed among the high mountain ruckle and crack of stone of Qinghai-Tibet height above sea level 2800-5600 rice.It is small to plant grain, long and narrow circle, and long 1.5-2 millimeter, diameter are the brown particulate less than 0.5mm when ripe.If annual status temperature is normal, rhodiola is bloomed June, can collect ripe seed by the end of August.The root and rhizome of rhodiola is commodity medicinal material rhodiola root Rhizoma Rhodiolacrenulata.Record in " one one of Chinese pharmacopoeia version in 2005 has effects such as antitumor, anti-hypoxia, enhancing memory, anti-ageing, radioresistance.Rhodiola root becomes the focus of new drug and health products research in recent years, and its market demand is anxious to be increased thereby make, and wild resource gradually reduces.The scientific achievement report that " sachalin rhodiola rhizome artificial cultivation technique " arranged at home, but sachalin rhodiola rhizome is grown in low height above sea level, its soil fertility height, and rhodiola growth height above sea level is higher, and the milpa fertility is low, and different to all requiring at temperature and sunshine, therefore from selecting ground to sowing and transplanting all far apart different.
In order to press for a kind of method of normalized artificial cultivation rhodiola for the public provides the high-quality rhodiola.But how to make that the rhodiola adaptation paramo soil soil of Qinghai-Tibet Platean is very difficult,, cultivate rhodiola root in a large number and need overcome one difficulty after another by artificial cultivation and maintenance.
The rhodiola plant has tangible root-like stock, is perennial meat draft.The bud of surviving the winter that breed at the foundation place autumn in the first year, spring next year along with the rise of the temperature growth of breaking ground, form new plant.Utilize this habit of growth, can adopt the root-like stock cuttage to grow seedlings.Sengreen is along with the growth of seedling age, and the bud of surviving the winter is more and more, and root dish diameter (foundation diameter) also strengthens thereupon.In order to strengthen the standing area of plant, every plant division in 4~5 years once, favourable to plant growing.After the maternal plant root dug out, along the careful break into portions of natural texture, 3~5 on every part of root-like stock will divide good plant to plant, and plants the back and irritates the permeable normal growth that gets final product.But these seedling raising manners program complexity, and survival rate is not high, limited amount, and area under cultivation is severely limited, and the insect pest that easily spreads disease simultaneously is not suitable for extensive cultivation.Seeds cultivation also needs specific seedling-cultivating method, and needs cultivation meticulously and management.So far, do not see that extensive artificial cultivation rhodiola etc. is grown in the report of the rhodiola root of high altitude localities, do not see that more the scale seed seedling-raising cultivates the report of these rhodiola roots.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention be make adapt to arid, low temperature, anoxic, ultraviolet ray is strong, day and night temperature is big, the rhodiola plant adaptation artificial cultivation of high mountain cold desert, and the nuisanceless rhodiola of a large amount of high-qualitys can be provided for the public.The present invention has the culture technique directive significance to the radix bupleuri rhodiola root that is grown in high height above sea level, Radix Rhodiolae, Xima rhodiola, narrow leaf rhodiola root etc.
Technical scheme of the present invention: comprising: a, seed selection, immersion; B, choosing ground, whole ground; C, sowing; D, management; E, seedling are excavated; It is characterized in that: it is characterized in that: choosing ground needs to select the meadow, plateau to contain the many sandy loams of humus; Native an animal-drawn seed plough is flat, make real, more than the height of bed 25cm.
The present inventor obtains seed seedling-raising method of the present invention through the practical studies of several years, and concrete scheme is as follows:
A, rhodiola seed seedling-raising
1, seed treatment
Remove seed, empty flat seed in spite of illness.With seed 3~4 hours flushing with clean water of gibberellin liquid immersion with 80-150ppm, to dry, purpose is to remove rhodiola root seed dormancy and stratification.
2, choosing ground, whole ground
Need to select to contain the many sandy loams of humus, saline alkali soil, low-lying chaor are not suitable for cultivating rhodiola.Preferable soil regime: pH 60-6.5, organic 30-35g/kg, full P 0.5-0.8g/kg, full K 17-20g/kg, effective P5.0-6.0mg/kg, quick-acting K70-80mg/kg, hydrolyzable nitrogen 120-150mg/kg, full N 0.2-0.6g/kg, total rotten sour 8-11g/kg, humic acid 5.0-6.0g/kg, fulvic acid 3-5g/kg, Fe 2+0.8-1.2%, humic acid carbon (%)/fulvic acid carbon (%)=0.7-0.8.
Preferably be based upon convenient management with growing seedlings, drainage is good, pouring is convenient, the meadow, plateau of the facility that shades is arranged.
Choose after, remove weeds, plough deeply 30cm, break up the clods and make bed, more than the height of bed 25cm.Bed soil preferably sieves and discards soil block and foreign material.An animal-drawn seed plough of bed surface soil is flat, bed soil face is wipeed off along the furrow direction with plank again, make real.
3, sowing
The drilling method or the method for broadcasting sowing are sowed, and every square metre of 0.7~1.5g of seeding quantity keeps bed surface moistening before coming up.
Drilling method: water furrow planting.Extrude seed furrow, ditch depth 0.3~0.5cm by the horizontal furrow of the line-spacing of 8~10cm during trench digging.Then the seed of handling well is broadcast equably in ditch, after the sowing fine earth that sieves is covered in seed furrow, blinding thickness 0.3~0.5cm, again with wood lath with bed surface soil wipe off, compacting, cover a thin sheet of herbage at bed surface and preserve moisture.
Broadcast sowing method: the sand cutting sowing.Seed is mixed the fine sand that sieves, used the fine ga(u)ge screen of the seed that can leak down that seed is sieved equably on bed surface, cover with the fine earth that sieves, cladding thickness is 0.3~0.4cm, and the seed lid is real.
4, management
Weeding, seedling thinning
Seedling phase weed growth is rapid, should see that grass just pulls out, and pulls out as early as possible, in order to avoid damage rhodiola root seedling.Should what remove overstocked seedling between according to emerging during height of seedling 2~3cm, transplant to other places.In 5 months, topdress once the last ten-days period (after the seedling thinning), the growth later stage will promote root growth in conjunction with loosening the soil suitably to the base portion ridging.
Topdress
The use of fertilizer should meet the regulation of DB51/T338.Topdress and use with the pig and cattle slurry mixing.According to seedling growing way situation, with 4.72g/m 2Ammonium nitrate, 2.8g/m 2Potassium sulphate, 6.0g/m 2The Application Ratio of superphosphate is converted water pouring 1~2 time.
Irrigate
Before and after emerging and during the seedling, keep nursery soil moistening, during the soil lack of water, in time water to bed surface with the pore watering can.
The management of shading
When seedling just had been unearthed, in the morning or one by one the covering of bed surface is taken off at dusk, noon will hide, to avoid strong illumination.Height of seedling will increase intensity of illumination when 4cm is above, avoid the seedling phase too to shade for a long time.Seedling is fully ventilated, to avoid sprout term disease.
Integrated pest prevention and control
The use of agricultural chemicals should meet the regulation of DB51/T337.
On the basis of seed disinfection, every 667m in late May to early June 2With 90% crystal chlorophos 50g+50% carbendazol wettable powder anti-eliminate aphis, mole cricket, grub and root rot.Control once prevents and treats 2~3 times altogether about 20d later on.
5, seedling is excavated
The seed seedling-raising growth can be excavated transplanting after 1 year.Specifically the time of excavating in the fall acrial part withered after soil freeze-up before or before spring in next year, soil turned green after thawing, excavate that to transplant effect better autumn.
Institute's seed collecting seedling will keep seedling fresh preferably with adopting with transplanting, will note preserving moisture, fresh-keeping not dehydration branch during long period transportation.Before transplanting seedling is soaked 20~30min with 500~600 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim and carry out seed and seedling disinfection, the disease that reduces after transplanting takes place.
Seedling by size, bud bud, healthy and strong situation classification.Big and the full and healthy and strong person of build maximum, bud bud is excellent; Build is medium, the luxuriant full and healthy and strong person of bud is good; Anosis, have no mechanical damage, the full real person of bud bud is eligible.Be substandard products in addition, do not advocate use.
B, rhodiola cultivation
1, choosing ground, whole ground
Main fertile loose, the nearer plot, dried up source of meadow, plateau soil property of selecting, draining is good, soil layer is deep, contain the many sandy loams of humus.Clay, saline alkali soil, low-lying chaor are not suitable for cultivation.
Choose after, begin whole ground mid-September, tractor-ploughing twice, after the whole thin leveling, the trench digging bedding, furrow are wide generally to be 1.6~1.8m, furrow width 33~40cm, the about 20cm of ditch depth, the furrow face will dig Song Gengxi, about 10~13cm deeply, and the furrow face is made into the fish antiform
2, cultivation
The selection rhizome is sturdy, and stipes is thick, and the bud bud is full, anosis, the person of having no mechanical damage transplants, and adopts the nest mode of planting to carry out.Generally before freeze-up, transplant better in late September; After spring 4, lunar regolith thawed, also can transplant.Should select fine day to be advisable.
Before transplanting seedling is soaked 20~30min with 500~600 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim and carries out seed and seedling disinfection, can reduce the disease generation after the transplanting.
By seeding row spacing is 15~20cm, and spacing in the rows 8~10cm trench digging is tiltedly put seedling root system spread apart in the ditch, and ditch depth 7~10cm is advisable.After the plantation, from inwardly ridging all around, blinding thickness was advisable to cover terminal bud 2~3cm with fine earth.If transplant autumn, blinding can suitably be thickeied, in order to winter protection and prevent to produce the lifting by frost phenomenon.
Every square metre 40~50 strain of median size seedling, concrete strain, line-spacing can and be transplanted ground soil fertility situation and grasp flexibly according to the seedling size.
3, field management
(1) fills the gaps with seedlings
Should select the dark clouds sky, take the rhodiola root seedling and fill the gaps with seedlings, answer ball planting when filling the gaps with seedlings, must pour water after the benefit, guarantee survival rate.
(2) intertill and clean tillage
Loosen the soil once after seedling is neat, intertillage will be noted gradually shallow comprehensively.Plant Feng Hanghou stops, and can not intertill by an artificial weeding.Plough shallowly when the acrial part of rhodiola root is withered and yellow, and note antifreeze the passing the winter of ridging preparation.
(3) fertilising
The use of fertilizer should meet the regulation of DB51/T338.
The general 1 year secondary that topdresses of rhodiola, for the first time, back 15~20d (early June) germinates; Reflorescence before and after the phase; For the third time, in mid or late May, second; The 4th time, before and after flowering stage; Five, topdress with third and fourth time, by that analogy for six times.
Specifically can be in the following ways:
For the first time, early June germination back 15~20d, pig and cattle slurry 1000~1500kg/667m 2, add water and evenly drench nest for three times;
For the second time, before and after flowering stage, pig and cattle slurry 1000~1500kg/667m 2, add two times in water, with 31.5kg/667m 2Ammonium nitrate, 28.7kg/667m 2Potassium sulphate, 40.5kg/667m 2The Application Ratio of superphosphate mixes the pouring nest;
For the third time, in mid or late May, second, execute pig and cattle slurry 1000~1500kg/667m earlier 2After adding two times of even pouring nest 2~3d of water, execute ash 100~150kg/667m again 2, compost or compost 250~150kg/667m 2Impose on the plant base portion, earthing is built;
The 4th time, before and after flowering stage, pig and cattle slurry 1000~1500kg/667m 2, adding water and mix the pouring nest for two times, the back is with 31.5kg/667m 2Ammonium nitrate, 28.7kg/667m 2Potassium sulphate, 40.5kg/667m 2The Application Ratio of superphosphate mixes the pouring nest;
Five, six dressing times, fertilizer type and consumption usages are with third and fourth time, and every year by that analogy later on.
(4) irrigate
Suitable moistening in vegetative period, the animated period of growing in 7~September especially need should be irrigated than juicy.As arid weather, should in the morning or pour water at dusk, keep soil moisture.To note in time draining the water away in rainy season.Should not pour water again after September.
(5) extermination of disease and insect pest
The use of agricultural chemicals should meet the regulation of DB51/T337.Possible damage by disease and insect has root rot, leaf spot, powdery mildew, aphid, grub, mole cricket, cutworm.
Rhodiola disease resistance under wild state is stronger, but root rot easily takes place during artificial cultivation, in case it is more serious that consequence takes place.Field bad root, lopsided root, insect bite root, the people of fertility is that the root of hindering that causes all helps the germ intrusion.78 months rain is many, soil moisture is excessive, all easily brings out this disease.Low-lying plot, spring, soil temperature was low, and the Premeabilisation of cells of plant root is pressed in and influences moisture in the low temperature and pass through, and causes cellular plasm destroyed, and root growth is slowly or stagnate or damage.Plant root wound is many in general, rainwater is many, the bacterial root rot morbidity in impeded drainage plot is heavy.That rhodiola mainly shows on the feature of plant physiology is cold-resistant, drought resistance is strong, also occurs a large amount of spaces in its parenchyma, contains materials such as higher carbohydrate, pectin substance in the cell, if water content is excessive in the soil, root rot very easily takes place.
Pest control measure:
(1) soaks root or irritate root with 800 times of 50% carbendazol wettable powders before the root rot, rhodiola root seedling culture transferring; Or in June~August during susceptible disease, one or more the alternately sprayings or irritate root of available following medicament: 50% carbendazol wettable powder 600-1000 doubly, 70% thiophanate methyl 1000 times of liquid, iprodione, triazolone, polyoxin, pesticide corrosion 120 or mancozebs etc.; After the morbidity, pull out diseased plant immediately, concentrate and burn, and keep field drainage unobstructed;
(2) leaf spot, in June~growth of seedling phase in August, one or more are alternately sprayed or irritate root in order to following medicament: 800 times of liquid of 50% carbendazol wettable powder, 70% thiophanate methyl 800-1200 times liquid, iprodione, triazolone or polyoxin; After the morbidity,, avoid continuous cropping for many years with concentrated the burning of the sick leaf of stubble;
(3) powdery mildew, April~growth of seedling phase in September, the 500 times of liquid of 72% agricultural streptomycin of spraying, the 5%00 bacterium pulvis 1kg/667m that disappears 2, 180 times of liquid of 45% lime sulfur, 70% thiophanate methyl 800-1200 times liquid or 64% Sandofan 800-1200 times liquid;
(4) grub, mole cricket, April~September, 1000~1500 times of liquid of 90% crystal chlorophos of spraying, 40% dimethoate emulsion 800-1200 times liquid or 2000 times of liquid of 1.8% Avermectin emulsion; The manual catching and killing is taked with the trapping of physical methods such as desinsection lamp in the morbidity back when taking place on a small quantity;
(5) aphid, April~growth of seedling phase in June, the 1200-1700 times of liquid of 40% Rogor emulsifier of spraying, the manual catching and killing is taked with the trapping of physical methods such as desinsection lamp in the morbidity back when taking place on a small quantity;
(6) cutworm, April~November, the 40% phoxim emulsifiable concentrate 600-1000 times liquid of spraying, 14% granula is spread fertilizer over the fields the rhizosphere soil layer; Utilize black light lamp trapping adult after the morbidity, after withering on the ground, weeds around the removing field reaches prevent that the cutworm adult from laying eggs.
(6) extract yellow leaf, the ridging of surviving the winter
Late September divided and manually all plucks strong yellow pin leaf on the pure land to early October.After extracing yellow pin leaf, before soil was freeze-up, the anti-dry frozen ground about furrow face loam cake 3cm was in order to surviving the winter.
4, gather
With the growth of the rhodiola of seminal propagation after 4 years (after promptly transplanting 3 years), in annual 10 months, the last ten-days period, plant is gathered after withered on the ground, when gathering with fine day for well.
Remove the withered cauline leaf of overground part earlier, under ground portion is dug out, remove earth, water is rinsed well, transports dry processing back after shine slightly in the field.
Beneficial effect of the present invention: the artificial cultivation method that the invention provides a kind of rhodiola, can carry out smoothly for promoting the rhodiola root industry, provide output and quality higher rhodiola medicinal material, for the standardization production that promotes the meadow medicinal material provides a new thinking.
Embodiment
Below by embodiment the present invention is further described.
1, seed seedling-raising
Plant 1.1 plant
1.1.1 seed selection
Before the sowing, must choose seeds, remove seed, empty flat seed in spite of illness.
1.1.2 seed treatment
The seed of handling is packed in the clean cloth bag, sack is tightened, be placed in the container, with gibberellin (9 2 0) the liquid seed soaking of 100ppm, soak time 3~4 hours, after having soaked, with flushing with clean water 4~5 times, spread on mat after taking out seed, the surface of the seed moisture dries in the air at the shady and cool ventilation place, treat that every seed does not stick together mutually, stir with hand and sow immediately in the time of scattering naturally.
Gibberellin liquid soaks can remove rhodiola root seed dormancy and stratification, if gibberellin liquid excessive concentration can suppress seed sprouting, easily causes the seedling deformity; If gibberellin liquid concentration is low excessively, can not improve percentage of seedgermination.
1.1.3 put in order ground to choosing
Need be based upon convenient management with growing seedlings, drainage is good, pouring is convenient, the meadow, plateau of the facility that shades is arranged, this test and Selection height above sea level 2800~4500m, annual sunshine is greater than the meadow, plateau of 2000h.Contain the many sandy loams of humus.Remove weeds, plough deeply 30cm, break up the clods and make bed, height of bed 25cm, wide 100cm, bed spacing 60cm, bed soil preferably sieves and discards soil block and foreign material.An animal-drawn seed plough of bed surface soil is flat, bed soil face is wipeed off along the furrow direction with plank again, make real.
Soil regime: pH 6.3, organic 33.8g/kg, full P 0.621g/kg, full K 18.4g/kg, effective P5.82mg/kg, quick-acting K 76.2mg/kg, hydrolyzable nitrogen 139mg/kg, full N 0.433g/kg, total rotten sour 9.79g/kg, humic acid 5.49g/kg, fulvic acid 4.31g/kg, Fe 2+1.06%, humic acid carbon (%)/fulvic acid carbon (%)=0.785.
1.1.4 sowing
Because rhodiola seed has the flat seed of many skies and maturity poor, therefore should suitably increase seeding quantity, every square metre of 0.7~1.5g of seeding quantity is advisable.Keep bed surface moistening before coming up.
Drilling method: water furrow planting.Long during trench digging with 100~120cm, wide 3~4cm, the wood lath of thickness 0.3~0.5cm extrudes seed furrow, ditch depth 0.3~0.5cm by the horizontal furrow of the line-spacing of 8~10cm.Then the seed of handling well is broadcast equably in ditch, after the sowing fine earth that sieves is covered in seed furrow, blinding thickness 0.3~0.5cm, again with wood lath with bed surface soil wipe off, compacting, cover a thin sheet of herbage at bed surface and preserve moisture.
Broadcast sowing method: the sand cutting sowing.Seed is mixed the fine sand that sieves, used the fine ga(u)ge screen of the seed that can leak down that seed is sieved equably on bed surface, cover with the fine earth that sieves, cladding thickness is 0.3~0.4cm, and the seed lid is real.
Emergence rate can reach more than 70%.Gibberellin liquid soaks can remove rhodiola root seed dormancy and stratification, if soak without gibberellin liquid, its emergence rate is 20%.Gibberellin liquid concentration is to the influence of emergence rate: if gibberellin liquid excessive concentration can suppress seed sprouting, the seedling deformity; If gibberellin liquid concentration is low excessively, can not improve seed sprouting.
1.1.5 management
1.1.5.1 weeding, seedling thinning
Seedling phase weed growth is rapid, should see that grass just pulls out, and pulls out as early as possible, in order to avoid damage rhodiola root seedling.Should what remove overstocked seedling between according to emerging during height of seedling 2~3cm, transplant to other places.
1.1.5.2 topdress
The use of fertilizer should meet the regulation of DB51/T338.Harmless treatment: to the process that farmyard manure is piled in advance, macerated, green manuring, fermentation etc. are handled.In 5 months, topdress once the last ten-days period (after the seedling thinning), the growth later stage will promote root growth in conjunction with loosening the soil suitably to the base portion ridging.Topdress and use with the pig and cattle slurry mixing.According to seedling growing way situation, with 4.72g/m 2Ammonium nitrate, 2.8g/m 2Potassium sulphate, 6.0g/m 2The Application Ratio of superphosphate is converted water pouring 1~2 time.
1.1.5.3 irrigate
Before and after emerging and during the seedling, keep nursery soil moistening, during the soil lack of water, in time water to bed surface with the pore watering can.To note prevention waterlogging during rainy season.
The management 1.1.5.4 shade
When seedling just had been unearthed, in the morning or one by one the covering of bed surface is taken off at dusk, noon will hide, to avoid strong illumination.Height of seedling will increase intensity of illumination when 4cm is above, avoid the seedling phase too to shade for a long time.Seedling is fully ventilated, to avoid sprout term disease.
1.1.5.5 integrated pest prevention and control
The use of agricultural chemicals should meet the regulation of DB51/T337.
On the basis of seed disinfection, every 667m in late May to early June 2With 90% crystal chlorophos 50g+50% carbendazol wettable powder anti-eliminate aphis, mole cricket, grub and root rot.Control once prevents and treats 2~3 times altogether about 20d later on.
1.2 seedling is excavated
1.2.1 excavate the time
The seed seedling-raising growth can be excavated transplanting after 1 year.Specifically the time of excavating in the fall acrial part withered after soil freeze-up before or before spring in next year, soil turned green after thawing, excavate that to transplant effect better autumn.
Seedling harvest: 2000~3500 strains/m 2
1.2.2 plant is handled
Institute's seed collecting seedling will keep seedling fresh preferably with adopting with transplanting.
1.2.3 seedling classification
Seedling by size, bud bud, healthy and strong situation classification.Big and the full and healthy and strong person of build maximum, bud bud is excellent; Build is medium, the luxuriant full and healthy and strong person of bud is good; Anosis, have no mechanical damage, the full real person of bud bud is eligible.Be substandard products in addition, do not advocate use.
2, rhodiola cultivation and management
2.1 put in order ground to choosing
The base environmental condition should meet the DB51/T336 regulation, suitable planting ground is meadow, plateau district, main fertile loose, the nearer plot, dried up source of soil property of selecting, draining is good, soil layer is deep, contain the many sandy loams of humus, and clay, saline alkali soil, low-lying chaor are not suitable for cultivation.
Choose after, begin whole ground mid-September, advocate meticulous whole ground, the high railway carriage or compartment of zanjon, select smooth, on the sunny side, fertile, loose, irrigation and drainage plant rhodiola in the plot easily.Tractor-ploughing twice, after the whole thin leveling, the trench digging bedding, furrow are wide generally to be 1.6~1.8m, furrow width 33~40cm, the about 20cm of ditch depth, the furrow face will dig Song Gengxi, and dark about 10~13cm uproots foreign material stake coring and brokenly is pressed in the soil or removes, and the furrow face is made into the fish antiform.
2.2 plantation:
Adopt the nest mode of planting to carry out.
Plant season
Transplant better before freeze-up in late September; After spring 4, lunar regolith thawed, also can transplant.
Plantation weather
The plantation rhodiola should select fine day to be advisable.
Propagating materials is selected
The selection rhizome is sturdy, and stipes is thick, and the bud bud is full, anosis, the person of having no mechanical damage transplants.
Seedling is handled
Before transplanting seedling is soaked 20~30min with 500~600 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim and carry out seed and seedling disinfection, the disease that reduces after transplanting takes place.
Plantation density
Suitable Density is: seeding row spacing is 15~20cm, spacing in the rows 8~10cm, and every square metre 40~50 strain of median size seedling, concrete strain, line-spacing can and be transplanted ground soil fertility situation and grasp flexibly according to the seedling size.
The seedling embedded depth
On request strain, line-spacing are laterally ditched, and seedling root system spread apart is tiltedly put in the ditch, and ditch depth 7~10cm is advisable.
Seedling covers
After the plantation, from inwardly ridging all around, blinding thickness was advisable to cover terminal bud 2~3cm with fine earth.If transplant autumn, blinding can suitably be thickeied, in order to winter protection and prevent to produce the lifting by frost phenomenon.
Survival rate can reach 90-98%.
2.3 field management
2.3.1 fill the gaps with seedlings
In time fill the gaps with seedlings.In first time during intertill and clean tillage, should select the dark clouds sky, take the rhodiola root seedling and fill the gaps with seedlings, answer ball planting when filling the gaps with seedlings, must pour water after the benefit, guarantee survival rate.
2.3.2 intertill and clean tillage
Loosen the soil once after seedling is neat, intertillage will be noted gradually shallow comprehensively.Plant Feng Hanghou stops, and can not intertill by an artificial weeding.Late September, the acrial part of rhodiola root ploughed shallowly when withered and yellow, and noticed that ridging prepares antifreeze passing the winter.
2.3.3 fertilising
The use of fertilizer should meet the regulation of DB51/T338.
The general 1 year secondary that topdresses of rhodiola, fertilizer is used and is seen Table 1.
The period of topdressing, fertilizer type and the usage of table 1 rhodiola, consumption
2.3.4 extract yellow leaf
Late September divided and manually all plucks strong yellow pin leaf on the pure land to early October.Tame rhodiola is slightly long than the original producton location vegetative period, is about 190 days.
The ridging 2.3.5 survive the winter
After extracing yellow pin leaf, before soil was freeze-up, the anti-dry frozen ground about furrow face loam cake 3cm was in order to surviving the winter.
2.3.6 irrigate
Suitable moistening in vegetative period, the animated period of growing in 7~September especially need should be irrigated than juicy.As arid weather, should in the morning or pour water at dusk, keep soil moisture.To note in time draining the water away in rainy season.Should not irrigate again after September.
2.3.7 the extermination of disease and insect pest
The use of agricultural chemicals should meet the regulation of DB51/T337, and the integrated control of damage by disease and insect sees Table 2.
The main pest species of table 2 rhodiola and prevent and treat method
2.4 gather and adopt post processing
Collecting time
With the growth of the rhodiola of seminal propagation after 4 years (after promptly transplanting 3 years), in annual 10 months, the last ten-days period, plant is gathered after withered on the ground, when gathering with fine day for well.
Method
Remove the withered cauline leaf of overground part earlier, under ground portion is dug out, remove earth, water is rinsed well, transports dry processing back after shine slightly in the field.
The medicinal material preliminary treatment
Under 60-70 ℃ of condition, dry, perhaps with after pot steamed 7-10 minute on the medicinal material of wash clean, dry in the sun or in drying room, dry, treat that medicinal material reaches seven, when most probably doing, stops drying, suitably after " moisture regain ", grade by size, root and rhizome is whole along cut-off, the top alignment, several rhizomes are tied into wisp, and baking is to absolutely dry again.Pack in the carton, be placed in the warehouse of drying, low-temperature aeration and store.
Medicinal material proterties standard
Medicinal material should meet the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (version in 2005, one one's) regulation.Rhizome is cylindrical thick shape, the bottom multi-branched, and the long 3~20cm of branch stem, diameter 1~5cm, the surface is brown, and the membranous scale of tool is bigger, and cork peels off mostly or is broken.The mark of fibrous root of the hole skin of the sparse projection of growing crosswise of its surperficial tool and circle shape projection; Skin zone is smooth, and body is light, and loose, section rufous or reddish yellow are alternate, and a ring grain is arranged.The main root tubbiness, the elongated 10~40cm of lateral root, matter is crisp, and section is orange red.This product has rose fragrance, and stronger when bright, it is little to distinguish the flavor of.
Divide grade packaged
Packing is carried out by the requirement of standard GB 7718.
With free of contamination, clean, dry, unabroken gunnysack or bamboo basket do to pack equipment divide by grade grade packaged, every 30~5kg.Be stored in shady and cool dry place, preference temperature is below 30 ℃, relative moisture 70~75%.The classification of rhodiola medicinal material sees Table 3.
Every mu can obtain 60 kilograms of 1 grade of product in the present embodiment, 80 kilograms of 2 grades of product, 10 kilograms of 3 grades of product.As seen the inventive method can provide output and the higher rhodiola medicinal material of quality for society.
Table 3

Claims (9)

1. rhodiola seed seedling-raising method is characterized in that may further comprise the steps:
A, seed selection, immersion
Remove seed, empty flat seed in spite of illness, the gibberellin liquid of seed with 80-150ppm was soaked 3~4 hours, flushing with clean water is dried;
B, choosing ground, whole ground
Choosing ground needs to select the meadow, plateau to contain the many sandy loams of humus; Native an animal-drawn seed plough is flat, make real, more than the height of bed 25cm;
C, sowing
Every square metre of 0.7~1.5g of seeding quantity keeps bed surface moistening before coming up;
D, management
Weeding, seedling thinning: weeding as early as possible, seedling thinning during height of seedling 2~3cm, with overstocked seedling replanting to other places;
Topdress: topdress once after the seedling thinning, and earth up to base portion;
Irrigate: before and after emerging and during the seedling, keep the moistening attention simultaneously of nursery soil prevention waterlogging, during the soil lack of water, in time water to bed surface with the pore watering can;
The management of shading: when seedling just had been unearthed, noon hid and prevents the sunlight direct projection, in the morning or at dusk the covering of bed surface is taken off; Height of seedling will increase intensity of illumination when 4cm is above, seedling is fully ventilated;
The extermination of disease and insect pest: anti-ly in late May to early June eliminate aphis, mole cricket, grub and root rot; Control in later about 20 days once prevents and treats 2~3 times altogether;
E, seedling are excavated
Seed seedling-raising growth after 1 year in the fall acrial part withered after soil freeze-up before or spring in next year soil excavate transplanting after thawing.
2. rhodiola seed seedling-raising method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the sowing of c step is adopted drilling method or is broadcasted sowing method;
Drilling method: water furrow planting, extrude seed furrow by the horizontal furrow of the line-spacing of 8~10cm during trench digging, ditch depth 0.3~0.5cm, then the seed of handling well is broadcast equably in ditch, after the sowing fine earth that sieves is covered in seed furrow, blinding thickness 0.3~0.5cm with the strickling of bed surface soil, compacting, covers a thin sheet of herbage at bed surface and preserves moisture again;
Broadcast sowing method: seed is mixed the fine sand that sieves, used the fine ga(u)ge screen of the seed that can leak down that seed is sieved equably on bed surface, cover with the fine earth that sieves, cladding thickness is 0.3~0.4cm, and the seed lid is real.
3. rhodiola seed seedling-raising method according to claim 2 is characterized in that: topdress in the d step and use with the pig and cattle slurry mixing, in addition with 4.72g/m 2Ammonium nitrate, 2.8g/m 2Potassium sulphate, 6.0g/m 2The Application Ratio of superphosphate is converted water pouring 1~2 time.
4. rhodiola cultivation method is characterized in that may further comprise the steps:
A, choosing ground, whole ground:
Main fertile loose, the nearer plot, dried up source of soil property of selecting, draining is good, soil layer is deep, contain the many sandy loams of humus;
B, cultivation
The selection rhizome is sturdy, and stipes is thick, the rhodiola root seedling that the bud bud is full, anosis, have no mechanical damage, before freeze-up or spring the soil back that thaws adopt the nest mode of planting to transplant; Wherein said rhodiola root seedling is the rhodiola root seedling that each described rhodiola seed seedling-raising method of claim 1-3 obtains;
C, field management
(1) fill the gaps with seedlings: select the cloudy day to fill the gaps with seedlings, ball planting when filling the gaps with seedlings is filled the gaps with seedlings and must be poured water;
(2) intertill and clean tillage: after seedling is neat, loosen the soil once comprehensively, artificial weeding, autumn, the acrial part of rhodiola root was ploughed shallowly when withered and yellow, and noticed that ridging prepares antifreeze passing the winter;
(3) fertilising: 1 year secondary, for the first time, back 15~20d germinates; Reflorescence before and after the phase; For the third time, in mid or late May, second; The 4th time, before and after 1 year flowering stage; Five, topdress with third and fourth time, by that analogy for six times;
(4) irrigate: keep moistening in the animated period of growing for 7~September; No longer irrigate after September;
(5) extermination of disease and insect pest: prevent and treat root rot, leaf spot, powdery mildew, aphid, grub, mole cricket, cutworm;
(6) extract yellow leaf, the ridging survive the winter: before soil is freeze-up, all pluck strong yellow pin leaf on the pure land, the anti-dry frozen ground about furrow face loam cake 3cm;
D, gather: with the rhodiola growth of seminal propagation after 4 years, annually after the ground plant is withered, gather.
5. rhodiola cultivation method according to claim 4, it is characterized in that: a step is to begin to plough twice in mid-September wholely, after the whole thin leveling, the trench digging bedding, the wide 1.6~1.8m of furrow, furrow width 33~40cm, the about 20cm of ditch depth, the furrow face digs Song Gengxi, dark about 10~13cm, and the furrow face is made into the fish antiform.
6. rhodiola cultivation method according to claim 4 is characterized in that: before the b step is transplanted seedling is soaked 20~30min with 500~600 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim and carry out seed and seedling disinfection.
7. rhodiola cultivation method according to claim 4 is characterized in that: it is to be 15~20cm by seeding row spacing that the b step is transplanted, and spacing in the rows 8~10cm trench digging is tiltedly put seedling root system spread apart in the ditch ditch depth 7~10cm; Every square metre 40~50 strain of seedling; After the plantation, from inwardly ridging all around, blinding thickness was to cover terminal bud 2~3cm with fine earth.
8. rhodiola cultivation method according to claim 4 is characterized in that: c step field management (3) fertilising comprises:
For the first time, the back 15~20d that germinates, pig and cattle slurry 1000~1500kg/667m 2, add water and evenly drench nest for three times;
For the second time, before and after flowering stage, pig and cattle slurry 1000~1500kg/667m 2, add two times in water, with 31.5kg/667m 2Ammonium nitrate, 28.7kg/667m 2Potassium sulphate, 40.5kg/667m 2The Application Ratio of superphosphate mixes the pouring nest;
For the third time, in mid or late May, second, execute pig and cattle slurry 1000~1500kg/667m earlier 2After adding two times of even pouring nest 2~3d of water, execute ash 100~150kg/667m again 2, compost or compost 250~150kg/667m 2Impose on the plant base portion, earthing is built;
The 4th time, before and after flowering stage, pig and cattle slurry 1000~1500kg/667m 2, adding water and mix the pouring nest for two times, the back is with 31.5kg/667m 2Ammonium nitrate, 28.7kg/667m 2Potassium sulphate, 40.5kg/667m 2The Application Ratio of superphosphate mixes the pouring nest;
Five, six dressing times, fertilizer type and consumption usages are with third and fourth time.
9. rhodiola cultivation method according to claim 4 is characterized in that: c step field management (5) extermination of disease and insect pest comprises:
(1) soaks root or irritate root with 800 times of 50% carbendazol wettable powders before the root rot, rhodiola root seedling culture transferring; Or in June~August during susceptible disease, in order to one or more alternately sprayings or irritate root of medicament down: 800 times of 50% carbendazol wettable powders, 70% thiophanate methyl 1000 times of liquid, iprodione, triazolone, polyoxin, pesticide corrosion 120 or mancozebs; After the morbidity, pull out diseased plant immediately, concentrate and burn, and keep field drainage unobstructed;
(2) leaf spot, the growth of seedling phase, one or more are alternately sprayed or irritate root in order to following medicament: 50% carbendazol wettable powder 600-1000 times liquid, 70% thiophanate methyl 800-1200 times liquid, iprodione, triazolone or polyoxin; After the morbidity,, avoid continuous cropping for many years with concentrated the burning of the sick leaf of stubble;
(3) powdery mildew, growth of seedling phase, the 500 times of liquid of 72% agricultural streptomycin of spraying, the 5%00 bacterium pulvis 1kg/667m that disappears 2, 180 times of liquid of 45% lime sulfur, 70% thiophanate methyl 800-1200 times liquid or 64% Sandofan 800-1200 times liquid;
(4) grub, mole cricket, growth of seedling phase, 1000~1500 times of liquid of 90% crystal chlorophos of spraying, 40% dimethoate emulsion 800-1200 times liquid or 2000 times of liquid of 1.8% Avermectin emulsion; The manual catching and killing is taked with the trapping of desinsection lamp in the morbidity back when taking place on a small quantity;
(5) aphid, the growth of seedling phase, the 1200-1700 times of liquid of 40% Rogor emulsifier of spraying, the manual catching and killing is taked with the trapping of desinsection lamp in the morbidity back when taking place on a small quantity;
(6) cutworm, the 40% phoxim emulsifiable concentrate 600-1000 times liquid of spraying, 14% granula is spread fertilizer over the fields the rhizosphere soil layer; Utilize black light lamp trapping adult after the morbidity, after withering on the ground, weeds around the removing field reaches prevent that the cutworm adult from laying eggs.
CN2008103049372A 2008-10-15 2008-10-15 Rhodiola seed seedling-raising method and cultivation method CN101361446B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN2008103049372A CN101361446B (en) 2008-10-15 2008-10-15 Rhodiola seed seedling-raising method and cultivation method

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN2008103049372A CN101361446B (en) 2008-10-15 2008-10-15 Rhodiola seed seedling-raising method and cultivation method

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN101361446A CN101361446A (en) 2009-02-11
CN101361446B true CN101361446B (en) 2010-12-22

Family

ID=40388208

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN2008103049372A CN101361446B (en) 2008-10-15 2008-10-15 Rhodiola seed seedling-raising method and cultivation method

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN101361446B (en)

Families Citing this family (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102428810B (en) * 2011-09-14 2013-06-12 杜品 Breeding method of Rhodiola kirilowii
CN103181270A (en) * 2011-12-27 2013-07-03 拉萨嘉国生物科技有限公司 Method for manually culturing rhodiola rosea in high-altitude area
CN103371040A (en) * 2012-04-12 2013-10-30 宋博 Production method of light-type firm-rooting-type sedum sarmentosun bunge turf rolls
CN103875418B (en) * 2014-03-26 2015-01-07 西藏自治区藏医院 Method for producing comospore veronica sara-banda
CN104272949B (en) * 2014-09-29 2016-09-14 绿宜奇山西屋顶绿化有限公司 A kind of Herba hylotelephii erythrosticti plant culturing method for culturing seedlings
CN104641903B (en) * 2015-02-09 2016-09-21 新疆维吾尔自治区中药民族药研究所 The method of artificial growth medicinal plants Resina Ferulae
CN104982193B (en) * 2015-06-19 2017-11-21 卞佳林 A kind of method for culturing seedlings for improving cajaput flowering rate
CN106416646A (en) * 2016-02-05 2017-02-22 甘肃农业大学 Cultivation method beneficial to high quality and high yield of Tibetan medicine Rhodiola gannanica
CN106171476B (en) * 2016-08-09 2019-12-20 四川省草原科学研究院 Rhodiola kirilowii field seedling culture method
CN106258689A (en) * 2016-09-29 2017-01-04 湖北省农业科学院粮食作物研究所 Herba Oryzae Reproductii rice transplanting high-yield high-efficiency cultivation method
CN106561229A (en) * 2016-11-01 2017-04-19 中国科学院植物研究所 Cultivation method increasing content of effective components of rhodiola crenulata
CN106576710B (en) * 2016-11-01 2019-06-21 中国科学院植物研究所 A kind of cultural method improving Ledum palustre biomass
CN106718406A (en) * 2017-01-11 2017-05-31 贵州省植物园 A kind of method for preventing and treating Rose Powdery Mildew
CN107360840B (en) * 2017-08-15 2020-11-03 浙江麦根科技有限公司 Domestication seedling raising method for low-altitude adaptive growth of rhodiola rosea
CN107371528B (en) * 2017-08-18 2020-11-06 西藏诺迪康药业股份有限公司 Rhodiola crenulata seed seedling raising method
CN108077316A (en) * 2017-12-14 2018-05-29 吉林师范大学 A kind of microbial bacterial agent that rhodiola root is promoted to take root and preparation method thereof
CN109258429A (en) * 2018-11-15 2019-01-25 遵义三湾田种植有限公司 A kind of Ledum palustre propagation method
CN109845447A (en) * 2018-12-18 2019-06-07 西藏诺迪康药业股份有限公司 A kind of rhodiola seed processing method
CN109601274B (en) * 2019-01-11 2020-12-01 四川省草原科学研究院 Seedling raising method for improving seedling rate of rhodiola crenulata

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN101361446A (en) 2009-02-11

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN103828679B (en) A kind of walnut cultivating superior high-yield method
CN103798030B (en) Anji white tea ecological and efficient cultivation method
CN106068734B (en) A kind of method of oil tea forest interplanting Hunan radix polygonati officinalis
CN103960041B (en) Artificial large cave, mountain area is made camellia oleifera lam wholely and is expanded the related method in cave
CN103250610B (en) Planting method for interplanting Chinese angelica in orchard
CN103918449B (en) A kind of stereo cultivating method of Cortex Phellodendri Rhizoma Paridis interplanting
CN101889518B (en) Planting method of Chinese trichosanthes
CN105660285B (en) A kind of stereo ecological planting method of walnut
CN101822157B (en) Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis scale seedling culturing method
CN103348840B (en) Angelica dahurica planting method
CN103960036B (en) A kind of sylvan life natural cultivation method of magnificent Paris polyphylla
CN102939880B (en) Standardized planting method for black plum
CN100384317C (en) Method for planting southerm yew
CN103609274B (en) The high-yield cultivating method of selenium-rich purple sweet potato
CN102138408B (en) Tea light-medium plug seedling method
CN102150526B (en) Planting method for improving production environment of potatoes
CN103461049B (en) Protective cultivation technique for rice
CN105474938B (en) The restorative procedure of the western Funiu Shan Mountain Hills And Low Mountains degraded ecosystem in Henan
CN105453985A (en) Planting method of five-pointed star loquats
CN105103919A (en) Method for planting potatoes in dry land in all-film mulching ridging micro-furrow mode
CN105359808A (en) Method for interplanting of scutellaria baicalensis and ginkgo biloba
CN105052444B (en) A kind of cold district oil method for planting of tree peony
CN1926945B (en) Method for saline-alkali land vegetation recovery by using apocynum root segment for breeding
CN105145261A (en) Method for cultivating hybrid oranges
CN105706824A (en) Live-keeping early high-yield cultivation method for crown pears in northwest arid region

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
C06 Publication
PB01 Publication
C10 Entry into substantive examination
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
C14 Grant of patent or utility model
GR01 Patent grant
EXPY Termination of patent right or utility model
CF01 Termination of patent right due to non-payment of annual fee

Granted publication date: 20101222

Termination date: 20151015