CN107371528B - Rhodiola crenulata seed seedling raising method - Google Patents

Rhodiola crenulata seed seedling raising method Download PDF

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CN107371528B
CN107371528B CN201710714015.8A CN201710714015A CN107371528B CN 107371528 B CN107371528 B CN 107371528B CN 201710714015 A CN201710714015 A CN 201710714015A CN 107371528 B CN107371528 B CN 107371528B
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seedling
seedlings
matrix
hardening
transplanting
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CN107371528A (en
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任东升
邓强
鲁有均
黄进
黄铭
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Tibet Rhodiola Pharmaceutical Holding Co
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Tibet Rhodiola Pharmaceutical Holding Co
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05DINORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C; FERTILISERS PRODUCING CARBON DIOXIDE
    • C05D1/00Fertilisers containing potassium

Abstract

The invention provides a rhodiola crenulata seed seedling method, which comprises the following steps: (1) taking rhodiola crenulata seeds, sowing the seeds in a seedling-raising tray matrix, watering and fertilizing, and cultivating the seeds to emerge; (2) seedling separation and transplanting: after seedling emergence, when 3-6 true leaves grow out of 80% of seedlings, transplanting the seedlings into a new seedling raising plate for growth; (3) hardening and transplanting the seedlings to a field for growth. The seedling raising method can raise seedlings all year round without being limited by seasons, and has the advantages of high seed germination rate, good seedling form, developed root system, high transplanting survival rate and good application prospect.

Description

Rhodiola crenulata seed seedling raising method
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of traditional Chinese medicines, and particularly relates to a rhodiola crenulata seed seedling raising method.
Background
Rhodiola crenulata Rhodiola crenulata (HK.f.et Thoms.) H.Ohba is perennial herb of Rhodiola of Crassulaceae, and is mainly distributed in 2800-. It contains rich salidroside, flavone, multiple vitamins and trace elements, and also contains 17 amino acids necessary for organism, and is known as "high-altitude ginseng", which is the only rhodiola medicinal material recorded in pharmacopoeia of national 2015 edition. Research shows that the rhodiola crenulata has various effects of resisting anoxia, fatigue, cold, virus, tumor and the like, and has wide development and utilization prospects.
At present, the seedling raising mode of rhodiola crenulata mainly adopts three modes of direct seed seedling raising, tissue culture seedling raising and plant division propagation seedling raising. The tissue culture rapid propagation seedling can be bred all year round without season limitation, but has high requirements on facilities, places and personnel, is easy to generate variation and has larger risk. The seedling breeding by plant requires a large amount of rhodiola crenulata living materials, but the rooting is slow, the root quantity is small, the difficulty exists in breeding rhodiola crenulata seedlings in large amount, and the method is not suitable for popularization and application. The seeds are directly used for raising seedlings, the cost is low, the obtained seedlings are good in shape and developed in root system, and the method can be better used for raising the seedlings of the rhodiola crenulata in a large scale.
However, the natural germination rate of rhodiola crenulata is only 10% (Qin Jia Mei, etc., rhodiola crenulata seedling raising technology, Chinese wild plant resource, 1994,3:44-45), so that the seeds need to be treated by medicament or other treatments before seedling raising to improve the germination rate. For example, the rhodiola crenulata seed seedling raising method provided by the patent application with the publication number of CN 101946709 a requires that seeds are soaked for a long time, then the seeds are cultured by using a specific culture medium under the aseptic condition to germinate and root, and then the seedlings are acclimatized and transplanted, so that the method has high operation requirements and high cost; comparison test of seedling raising methods of rhodiola crenulata in Tibet, etc., modern agricultural science 2015 (8): 91-93, the rhodiola crenulata seedling raising method disclosed in the patent application is to directly raise seedlings in a field, needs hormone treatment and disinfection treatment on seeds, is limited by sowing seasons, is difficult to ensure the seedling raising efficiency of the seeds, and cannot meet the requirement of large-scale planting; the rhodiola crenulata seed seedling raising method provided by the patent application with the publication number of CN 101361446A is also used for directly raising seedlings in a field, needs to pretreat seeds and is not beneficial to large-scale planting of the rhodiola crenulata. Therefore, in order to promote the development and utilization of rhodiola crenulata resources, an improvement of a rhodiola crenulata seed seedling raising method is urgently needed.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a rhodiola crenulata seed seedling method which can be used for annual seedling culture, and has the advantages of high seed germination rate, good seedling form, developed root system, high transplanting survival rate and simple operation.
The invention provides a rhodiola crenulata seed seedling method, which comprises the following steps:
(1) taking rhodiola crenulata seeds, sowing the seeds in a seedling-raising tray matrix, watering and fertilizing, and cultivating the seeds to emerge;
(2) seedling separation and transplanting: after seedling emergence, when 80% of seedlings grow 3-6 true leaves, transplanting the seedlings into a new seedling raising tray substrate for growth;
(3) hardening and transplanting the seedlings to a field for growth;
wherein, the seedling emergence and the seedling separating transplantation of the seeds are carried out in a seedling raising room;
per 1kg of matrix: contains 5-10g of streptomyces microflavus, 1-2g of potassium humate and the balance of basic matrix; the base matrix is prepared from turf with the weight parts of 2:1: perlite: vermiculite composition.
Wherein, per 1kg of matrix: contains 5g of streptomyces microflavus, 2g of potassium humate and the balance of basic matrix;
or, per 1kg of matrix: contains 5g of streptomyces microflavus, 1g of potassium humate and the balance of basic matrix; or, per 1kg of matrix: contains 10g of streptomyces microflavus, 2g of potassium humate and the balance of basic matrix.
Wherein the effective viable count of the streptomyces microflavus is more than or equal to 10 hundred million per gram;
the content of humic acid in the potassium humate is more than or equal to 70 percent, the content of potassium oxide is more than or equal to 8 percent, and the pH value is 9-10.
Wherein, before sowing and transplanting seedlings, 1.5 times of water by weight is added into the substrate.
Wherein the temperature of the seedling raising room is controlled to be 5-25 ℃, the humidity is controlled to be 30-80%, the illumination time is 12 h/day, and the illumination intensity is 2000-2500 Lx;
preferably, the daily temperature is controlled to be 20-25 ℃, the night temperature is controlled to be 5-15 ℃, the daytime humidity is controlled to be 30-60%, and the night humidity is controlled to be 50-80%.
In the step (1), the seedling raising discs are 50-hole discs, and 400 seeds are broadcast in each hole disc;
and/or, in the step (1),
the watering method comprises the following steps: spraying clear water to the germinated seedlings once a day within 15 days of sowing until small water drops exist on the leaf surfaces; after 15 days of seeding, watering the seedling matrix once a week and occasionally carrying out dry water supplement, wherein the matrix is soaked every time;
the fertilizing method comprises the following steps of; applying a foliar fertilizer for 1 time every week after 15 days of seeding, wherein the foliar fertilizer is formed by mixing 0.5-1% of urea solution and 0.1-0.2% of potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution;
preferably, urea is present at a concentration of 1% and monopotassium phosphate is present at a concentration of 0.2%.
Wherein, in the step (2), when 80 percent of seedlings grow 5 to 6 true leaves, the seedlings are divided.
Wherein in the step (3), when 80% of the seedlings grow 1-5 branches, the height of the seedlings is more than 3cm, and the diameter of the rootstock is more than or equal to 1cm, hardening the seedlings;
or, when 80% of the seedlings grow 3-8 branches, the height of the seedlings is more than 4cm, and the diameter of the rootstock is more than or equal to 1.2cm, hardening the seedlings.
Wherein in the step (3), the seedling exercising method comprises the following steps: transplanting the seedlings into a seedling hardening area for growth, wherein the seedling hardening area is covered with a sunshade net with the shading rate of 50%, the linear height of a seedling raising tray from the sunshade net is more than 50cm, the sunshade net is completely unfolded within 15 days after the seedling hardening starts, a side film or a skylight is opened for cooling when the temperature is higher than 28 ℃ in the daytime, and the side film or the skylight is closed for heat preservation when the temperature is 20 ℃ in the evening; after hardening seedlings for 15 days, gradually reducing the opening time of the sunshade net in the daytime until the sunshade net is not opened in the 22 th day, and opening a side film or a skylight at night to enable the temperature of the hardening seedling area to be consistent with the outside temperature; when hardening seedlings, keeping the water content of the substrate of the seedling-raising tray not lower than 30%;
and/or in the step (3), the hardening-seedling time is 30 days.
Wherein, in the step (3), the transplanting of the seedlings to the field is carried out with the matrix.
The seedling raising method can be used for raising rhodiola crenulata seedlings by taking the seeds as materials and selecting the conditions of the specific substrate, the specific seedling division and transplantation, the seedling hardening and the like, has the advantages of high seed germination rate, uniform and consistent seedling growth, good shape, developed root system and high survival rate of each stage of the seedlings, can reasonably control the seedling raising time, and can raise seedlings annually and has wide seedling raising point selection adaptability.
Therefore, the seed seedling method provided by the invention is a breakthrough of the rhodiola crenulata cultivation method, under the specific parameter conditions of the invention, especially under the specific seed seedling emergence condition control, seedling division and seedling hardening modes, the survival rates of seed germination, seedling division and transplantation and seedling hardening are all up to more than 90%, the economic benefit is good, the operation is simple, the seedling can be cultivated all year round, the sustainable development of the rhodiola crenulata cultivation industry is facilitated, and the popularization and application values are good.
Obviously, many modifications, substitutions, and variations are possible in light of the above teachings of the invention, without departing from the basic technical spirit of the invention, as defined by the following claims.
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to the following examples. This should not be understood as limiting the scope of the above-described subject matter of the present invention to the following examples. All the technologies realized based on the above contents of the present invention belong to the scope of the present invention.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a diagram of rhodiola rosea seedlings 11 days after sowing;
FIG. 2 shows a seedling to be transplanted by seedling division;
FIG. 3 shows the completed transplanted rhodiola rosea seedling with 1 shoot;
FIG. 4 shows a seedling about to enter hardening-off;
FIG. 5 shows a seedling being acclimatized;
FIG. 6 shows the good-growing rhodiola rosea seedlings after transplanting to the field.
Detailed Description
The reagents and equipment used in the embodiment of the present invention are known products and are obtained by purchasing commercially available products.
Example 1 seed growing method of the present invention
1. Preparation before sowing
(1) Seed selection
Before sowing, seeds to be sown are selected, and seeds with diseases and insect pests and empty and shriveled seeds are removed.
(2) Preparation of nursery
One week before sowing seeds, a culture rack and a floor in a seedling culture room are cleaned and checked to ensure that instruments such as a light source, a light source timer, an air conditioner and a humidifier on the culture rack can normally work, and then a fumigant is used for disinfecting the seedling culture room before seedling culture.
(3) Preparation of seedling substrate
The formula of the seedling substrate is as follows:
per 1kg of matrix: contains 5g of streptomyces microflavus, 2g of potassium humate and the balance of basic matrix; the base matrix is prepared from turf with the weight parts of 2:1: perlite: vermiculite composition.
Wherein, streptomyces microflavus, also called 5406 antibiotic bacteria, has effective viable count more than or equal to 10 hundred million per gram, and the source is: qingdao coast Damei Biotech Co., Ltd.
Potassium humate, the content of humic acid is more than or equal to 70 percent, the content of potassium oxide is more than or equal to 8 percent, the pH value is 9-10, and the source is as follows: humic acid Co., Ltd, laterite of Pingxiang city.
One day before sowing seeds, putting a seedling culture substrate into a large container, adding water in an amount which is 1.5 times the weight of the seedling culture substrate until the substrate is saturated by water, then putting the substrate into a 50-hole tray, slightly compacting the substrate, leveling the substrate on the surface of the hole tray, and then moving the hole tray filled with the substrate into a seedling culture chamber to a culture frame for sowing.
2. Seeding
Uniformly spreading the seeds of the selected rhodiola crenulata on the whole plug tray according to the density of 400 grains of each plug tray, and then spraying a layer of clear water on the seeds and the matrix by using a fine nozzle spray can to ensure that the seeds are fully contacted with the matrix. After the sowing is finished, a light source on the culture frame is started to promote the seeds to germinate rapidly, the seeds start to germinate after 3 days, the seedlings are aligned after 7 days, and the germination rate of the seeds reaches over 90 percent. The rhodiola rosea seedlings are shown in figure 1.
3. Indoor illumination, temperature and humidity management for seedling culture
The temperature and humidity in the seedling raising room are adjusted by an air conditioner and a humidifier in the whole seedling raising period, so that the temperature is 20-25 ℃ in the daytime, the humidity is 30-60% in the daytime, and the air conditioner and the humidifier are not started at night. The light source is started for 07:30 to 19:30, the time is 12 hours every day, and the illumination intensity is 2000 and 2500 Lx.
4. Seedling water and fertilizer management
Spraying clear water to the germinated seedlings once a day within 15 days after sowing, preferably small water drops on the leaf surfaces, spraying water before emergence to assist emergence of seedlings, and preventing the young seedlings from withering and dying due to water shortage after emergence of seedlings. And the foliar fertilizer is not sprayed to the seedlings in the period, so that the seedlings are prevented from being too weak and burning.
Spraying a leaf fertilizer once a week on the seedlings after 15 days of sowing, wherein the leaf fertilizer is a mixed solution of 0.5-1% of urea solution and 0.1-0.2% of potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution, the concentration of 1% of urea is proper, the concentration of 0.2% of potassium dihydrogen phosphate is proper, and the spraying amount of the leaf fertilizer solution is 15ml for a single plug tray; the seedling matrix is watered once a week, the whole plug matrix is preferably soaked completely, and water is replenished at variable time according to the moisture condition of the matrix.
5. Seedling pest control management
Disease control is carried out on seedlings in a seedling room once every 15 days, the control method is leaf surface spraying, and the control agent is preferably carbendazim 1000 times liquid; the pest control management is suitable for keeping indoor seedling raising cleanness, sanitation and relative independence, namely, the pest control management is mainly carried out on prevention and is assisted by treatment, pests in the seedling raising room are mainly carried out on aphids, and the treatment method is preferably carried out by spraying 4000-times liquid of imidacloprid (10 percent of active ingredients).
6. Seedling transplanting
And (3) transplanting the seedlings in a seedling division manner when 80 percent of the seedlings in the same batch (seeding period) grow the 5 th and 6 th leaves, wherein the seedlings to be transplanted in a seedling division manner are shown in figure 2. The rhodiola rosea seedlings with 1 branch which have completed the seedling division transplantation are shown in figure 3.
And when the seedlings are separated, transplanting the seedlings into a new plug again, wherein the mixture ratio of the matrix of the new plug to the seedling matrix is the same, 1 seedling is planted in each plug, and 50 seedlings are planted in each plug. When the seedlings are transplanted, 1000 times of carbendazim solution is used for soaking the roots of the transplanted seedlings to reduce the occurrence of diseases. When the seedlings are transplanted, the seedlings are divided into 3-4 leaf seedlings, 5-6 leaf seedlings and 7-8 leaf or 1 branch seedlings according to the sizes of the seedlings, and then the seedlings are respectively transplanted into different plug trays, so that the seedlings in the single plug tray grow neatly. The time from seeding to seedling separation and transplanting of the seedlings is about 100 days, and the survival rate of the seedling separation and transplanting of the seedlings reaches more than 92 percent. The illumination, temperature, humidity and water and fertilizer management after the seedling transplanting are consistent with those before the seedling transplanting.
7. Seedling hardening
And after the seedlings are transplanted in a seedling room, the seedlings continue to grow for about 90 days, and then the seedlings are moved out of the seedling room and enter a seedling hardening area for hardening. The rhodiola crenulata seedlings are sowed to hardened for about 190 days, and 80% of the seedlings are in the following states: 1-5 branches are provided, the height of the seedling is more than 3cm, the diameter of the root and stem of the seedling is more than or equal to 1cm, and the seedling enters a seedling hardening area by taking the height as a standard. The seedling to be hardened is shown in figure 4, and the seedling being hardened is shown in figure 5.
The seedling exercising area should have a sunshade net and the capability of primarily controlling the temperature, a greenhouse is suitable, the seedling exercising area is covered with the sunshade net with the shading rate of 50%, and the linear height of the seedling hole tray from the sunshade net is more than 50 cm. Completely unfolding the sunshade net within 15 days after seedling hardening, opening the side film or the skylight to cool when the temperature is higher than 28 ℃ in the daytime, and closing the side film or the skylight to preserve heat when the temperature is 20 ℃ at night; after hardening seedlings for 15 days, the opening time of the sunshade net is gradually reduced in the daytime until the sunshade net is not opened in the 22 th day, and the side film or the skylight is opened at night to make the temperature of the seedling hardening area consistent with the outside temperature. The whole seedling hardening period is 30 days, and the water content of the substrate is not less than 30% during the seedling hardening period, so that the seedling withering and death caused by the overdry of the substrate are prevented. The survival rate of the seedlings in the seedling hardening period can reach more than 94 percent.
8. Transplanting seedling in field
After 30 days of seedling hardening, the seedling is hardened, the seedling with the matrix is transplanted to a field to be planted in the morning on a cloudy day or a sunny day, root fixing water is poured once after the transplanting is finished, and watering is paid attention to in the field growing process. The survival rate of the transplanted seedlings can reach 90 percent. The good rhodiola plants after transplanting to the field are shown in figure 6.
Example 2 seed seedling raising method of the present invention
1. Preparation before sowing: the same as example 1;
2. sowing: the same as example 1;
3. managing illumination, temperature and humidity in the seedling growing room: the same as example 1;
4. and (3) seedling water and fertilizer management: the same as example 1;
5. and (3) seedling pest control management: the same as example 1;
6. seedling transplanting
And (3) transplanting the seedlings in a separated mode when 80% of the seedlings in the same batch (sowing period) grow to have 3 rd and 4 th leaves, transplanting the seedlings into new plug trays again, planting 1 seedling in each plug hole, and planting 50 seedlings in each plug tray. When the seedlings are transplanted, 1000 times of carbendazim solution is used for soaking the roots of the transplanted seedlings to reduce the occurrence of diseases. When the seedlings are transplanted, the seedlings are divided into 3-4 leaf seedlings, 5-6 leaf seedlings and 7-8 leaf or 1 branch seedlings according to the sizes of the seedlings, and then the seedlings are respectively transplanted into different plug trays, so that the seedlings in the single plug tray grow neatly.
The time from seeding to seedling separation and transplantation is about 60 days, and the survival rate of seedling separation and transplantation reaches more than 70%.
7. Seedling hardening
And after the seedlings are transplanted in a seedling room, the seedlings continue to grow for about 80 days, and the seedlings are moved out of the seedling room and enter a seedling hardening area for hardening. The total period of the seeding and the hardening of the seedlings is 140 days, 80 percent of the seedling branches are not grown, the height of the seedlings is 2-4cm, the diameter of the root and the stem of the seedlings is less than or equal to 0.8cm, and the seedlings enter the hardening according to the standard.
The seedling exercising area should have a sunshade net and the capability of primarily controlling the temperature, a greenhouse is suitable, the seedling exercising area is covered with the sunshade net with the shading rate of 50%, and the linear height of the seedling hole tray from the sunshade net is more than 50 cm. Completely unfolding the sunshade net within 15 days after seedling hardening, opening the side film or the skylight to cool when the temperature is higher than 28 ℃ in the daytime, and closing the side film or the skylight to preserve heat when the temperature is 20 ℃ at night; after hardening seedlings for 15 days, the opening time of the sunshade net is gradually reduced in the daytime until the sunshade net is not opened in the 22 th day, and the side film or the skylight is opened at night to make the temperature of the seedling hardening area consistent with the outside temperature. The whole seedling exercising period lasts about 30 days, and the water content of the substrate is not less than 30% during the seedling exercising period, so that the seedling is prevented from being wilted and dead in large quantity due to the fact that the substrate is too dry. The survival rate of the seedlings in the seedling hardening period is 65 percent.
8. Transplanting seedling in field
After 30 days of seedling hardening, the seedling is hardened, the seedling with the matrix is transplanted to a field to be planted in the morning on a cloudy day or a sunny day, root fixing water is poured once after the transplanting is finished, and watering is paid attention to in the field growing process. The survival rate of transplanting seedlings is 82%.
Example 3 seed seedling method of the present invention
1. Preparation before sowing: the same as example 1;
2. sowing: the same as example 1;
3. managing illumination, temperature and humidity in the seedling growing room: the same as example 1;
4. and (3) seedling water and fertilizer management: the same as example 1;
5. and (3) seedling pest control management: the same as example 1;
6. seedling transplanting
And (4) transplanting the seedlings in a seedling separating way when 80 percent of the seedlings in the same batch (seeding period) grow 7 th and 8 th leaves or 1 branch.
And when the seedlings are separated, transplanting the seedlings into new plug trays again, planting 1 seedling in each plug tray, and planting 50 seedlings in each plug tray. When the seedlings are transplanted, 1000 times of carbendazim solution is used for soaking the roots of the transplanted seedlings to reduce the occurrence of diseases. When the seedlings are transplanted, the seedlings are divided into 3-4 leaf seedlings, 5-6 leaf seedlings and 7-8 leaf or 1 branch seedlings according to the sizes of the seedlings, and then the seedlings are respectively transplanted into different plug trays, so that the seedlings in the single plug tray grow neatly. The rhodiola rosea seedlings with 1 branch just after transplantation are shown in figure 6.
The time from seeding to seedling separation and transplanting of the seedlings is about 140 days, and the survival rate of the seedling separation and transplanting of the seedlings reaches more than 92 percent.
7. Seedling hardening
And after the seedlings are transplanted in a seedling separating mode, the seedlings continue to grow in the seedling growing room for about 100 days, and the seedlings are moved out of the seedling growing room and enter a seedling hardening area for hardening. The total period from seeding to seedling hardening is 240 days, at this time, 80% of the seedlings reach 3-8 branches, the height of the seedlings is more than 4cm, the diameter of the rootstock of the seedlings is more than or equal to 1.2cm, and the seedlings enter the seedling hardening according to the standard.
The seedling exercising area should have a sunshade net and the capability of primarily controlling the temperature, a greenhouse is suitable, the seedling exercising area is covered with the sunshade net with the shading rate of 50%, and the linear height of the seedling hole tray from the sunshade net is more than 50 cm. Completely unfolding the sunshade net within 15 days after seedling hardening, opening the side film or the skylight to cool when the temperature is higher than 28 ℃ in the daytime, and closing the side film or the skylight to preserve heat when the temperature is 20 ℃ at night; after hardening seedlings for 15 days, the opening time of the sunshade net is gradually reduced in the daytime until the sunshade net is not opened in the 22 th day, and the side film or the skylight is opened at night to make the temperature of the seedling hardening area consistent with the outside temperature. The whole seedling hardening period lasts about 30 days, and the water content of the substrate is not less than 30% during the seedling hardening period, so that the seedling withering and death caused by the overdry of the substrate are prevented. The survival rate of the seedlings in the seedling hardening period can reach 95 percent.
8. Transplanting seedling in field
Transplanting the seedlings with the matrix to a field to be planted in the morning on a cloudy or fine day after hardening, watering once after transplanting, and watering during the growth of the field. The survival rate of the transplanted seedlings can reach 90 percent.
The beneficial effects of the invention are illustrated by way of test examples as follows:
test example 1 screening of rhodiola crenulata seedling substrate
In the process of seedling culture, the selection of the matrix is quite critical, and the proper matrix is favorable for seed germination and seedling growth promotion; the matrix is not properly selected, the germination rate of the seeds is low, and the seedlings grow slowly and easily die.
The inventor screens the substrate of the seedling tray during the process of culturing the rhodiola crenulata, and other seedling culturing conditions are the same as example 1.
The matrix formulation and screening results are shown in table 1.
TABLE 1 matrix screening test formulation and results
Numbering Matrix formulations Rate of emergence (%) 100 days seedling survival (%)
1 A 74% 65%
2 A+B1 83% 79%
3 A+B2 78% 73%
4 A+C1 81% 76%
5 A+C2 83% 80%
6 A+C3 76% 68%
7 A+B1+C1 89% 84%
8 A+B1+C2 92% 87%
9 A+B1+C3 81% 74%
10 A+B2+C1 84% 79%
11 A+B2+C2 88% 82%
12 A+B2+C3 79% 70%
Wherein the content of the first and second substances,
a: the basic matrix formula obtained by primary screening comprises the following grass carbon: perlite: vermiculite 2:1: 1;
b: streptomyces microflavus, also called 5406 antibiotic bacteria, has effective viable count of more than or equal to 10 hundred million per gram, and the source is: qingdao coast Damei Biotech Co., Ltd;
b1, the inoculation dose of the streptomyces microflavus is 5g/kg on a dry basis;
b2, the inoculation dose of the streptomyces microflavus is 10g/kg on a dry basis;
c: potassium humate, the content of humic acid is more than or equal to 70 percent, the content of potassium oxide is more than or equal to 8 percent, the pH value is 9-10, and the source is as follows: humic acid limited of laterite of Pingxiang city;
c1: the addition amount of potassium humate is 1g/kg on a dry basis;
c2: the addition amount of potassium humate is 2g/kg on a dry basis;
c3: the addition amount of potassium humate was 4g/kg on a dry basis.
As can be seen from table 1, the emergence rate (i.e., seed germination rate) was above 84% using the substrate formulations of nos. 7, 8, 10, and 11; moreover, the survival rate of the seedlings is high in 100 days, and the seedling separation and transplantation of the seedlings are facilitated. The substrate formula of the number 8 is optimal, the emergence rate can reach 92%, the seedling survival rate in 100 days is also optimal, and the seedling raising effect for rhodiola crenulata seeds is the best.
When the matrixes with other numbers are used, the emergence rate and the survival rate are low, and the seedling raising effect is not ideal.
In conclusion, under the condition of the specific parameters of the method, the survival rates of seed germination, seedling division and transplantation and seedling hardening are all up to more than 90%, the economic benefit is good, the operation is simple, the seedling can be cultivated all the year round, the sustainable development of the rhodiola crenulata cultivation industry is facilitated, and the method has good popularization and application values.

Claims (13)

1. A rhodiola crenulata seed seedling raising method is characterized by comprising the following steps: it comprises the following steps:
(1) taking rhodiola crenulata seeds, sowing the seeds in a seedling-raising tray matrix, watering and fertilizing, and cultivating the seeds to emerge;
(2) seedling separation and transplanting: after seedling emergence, when 80% of seedlings grow 3-6 true leaves, transplanting the seedlings into a new seedling raising tray substrate for growth;
(3) hardening and transplanting the seedlings to a field for growth;
wherein, the seedling emergence and the seedling separating transplantation of the seeds are carried out in a seedling raising room; per 1kg of matrix: contains 5-10g of streptomyces microflavus, 1-2g of potassium humate and the balance of basic matrix; the base matrix is prepared from turf with the weight parts of 2:1: perlite: vermiculite composition; the effective viable count of the streptomyces microflavus is more than or equal to 10 hundred million per gram; the content of humic acid in the potassium humate is more than or equal to 70 percent, the content of potassium oxide is more than or equal to 8 percent, and the pH value is 9-10.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein: per 1kg of matrix: contains 5g of streptomyces microflavus, 2g of potassium humate and the balance of basic matrix;
or, per 1kg of matrix: contains 5g of streptomyces microflavus, 1g of potassium humate and the balance of basic matrix;
or, per 1kg of matrix: contains 10g of streptomyces microflavus, 2g of potassium humate and the balance of basic matrix.
3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that: before sowing and transplanting seedlings, 1.5 times of water by weight is added into the matrix.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein: the temperature of the seedling raising room is controlled to be 5-25 ℃, the humidity is controlled to be 30-80%, the illumination time is 12 h/day, and the illumination intensity is 2000-2500 Lx.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein: the daily temperature is controlled to be 20-25 ℃, the night temperature is controlled to be 5-15 ℃, the daytime humidity is controlled to be 30-60%, and the night humidity is controlled to be 50-80%.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein: in the step (1), the seedling raising tray is a 50-hole tray, and 400 seeds are broadcast in each hole tray.
7. The method of claim 6, wherein: in the step (1), the watering method comprises the following steps: spraying clear water to the germinated seedlings once a day within 15 days of sowing until small water drops exist on the leaf surfaces; after 15 days of seeding, watering the seedling matrix once a week and occasionally carrying out dry water supplement, wherein the matrix is soaked every time;
the fertilizing method comprises the following steps: applying a foliar fertilizer for 1 time every week after 15 days of seeding, wherein the foliar fertilizer is formed by mixing 0.5-1% of urea solution and 0.1-0.2% of potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution.
8. The method of claim 7, wherein: the concentration of urea in the foliar fertilizer applied in the step (1) is 1%, and the concentration of monopotassium phosphate is 0.2%.
9. The method of claim 1, wherein: in the step (2), when 80% of seedlings grow 5-6 true leaves, seedling division is carried out.
10. The method of claim 1, wherein: in the step (3), when 80% of the seedlings grow 1-5 branches, the height of the seedlings is more than 3cm, and the diameter of rootstocks is more than or equal to 1cm, hardening the seedlings;
or, when 80% of the seedlings grow 3-8 branches, the height of the seedlings is more than 4cm, and the diameter of the rootstock is more than or equal to 1.2cm, hardening the seedlings.
11. The method of claim 1, wherein: in the step (3), the seedling exercising method comprises the following steps: transplanting the seedlings into a seedling hardening area for growth, wherein the seedling hardening area is covered with a sunshade net with the shading rate of 50%, the linear height of a seedling raising tray from the sunshade net is more than 50cm, the sunshade net is completely unfolded within 15 days after the seedling hardening starts, a side film or a skylight is opened for cooling when the temperature is higher than 28 ℃ in the daytime, and the side film or the skylight is closed for heat preservation when the temperature is 20 ℃ in the evening; after hardening seedlings for 15 days, gradually reducing the opening time of the sunshade net in the daytime until the sunshade net is not opened at the 22 th day, and opening a side film or a skylight at night to enable the temperature of the hardening seedling area to be consistent with the outside temperature; and during hardening, keeping the water content of the substrate of the seedling culture tray not lower than 30%.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein: in the step (3), the hardening time is 30 days.
13. The method of claim 1, wherein: in the step (3), transplanting the seedlings to the field is transplanting with the matrix.
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