CN109526506A - A kind of cultivation management method of Rocky Desertification Region walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia - Google Patents

A kind of cultivation management method of Rocky Desertification Region walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN109526506A
CN109526506A CN201811353766.2A CN201811353766A CN109526506A CN 109526506 A CN109526506 A CN 109526506A CN 201811353766 A CN201811353766 A CN 201811353766A CN 109526506 A CN109526506 A CN 109526506A
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
walnut
chinese mahonia
plant
mahonia
time
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
CN201811353766.2A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
CN109526506B (en
Inventor
刘宇锋
骆相华
张武贵
安永发
苏天明
苏利荣
秦芳
李琴
曾成城
梁芷姮
牙韩良
李慈代
罗荣标
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Agricultural Resource and Environment Research Institute of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Original Assignee
Agricultural Resource and Environment Research Institute of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Agricultural Resource and Environment Research Institute of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences filed Critical Agricultural Resource and Environment Research Institute of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Priority to CN201811353766.2A priority Critical patent/CN109526506B/en
Publication of CN109526506A publication Critical patent/CN109526506A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN109526506B publication Critical patent/CN109526506B/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of cultivation management methods of Rocky Desertification Region walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia, and this method comprises the following steps: (1) selection of walnut interplanting forest land and interplanting forest land arrange;(2) walnut and Chinese mahonia germination accelerating method;(3) walnut and Chinese mahonia method for culturing seedlings;(4) domestication and thinning of walnut, Chinese mahonia;(5) the field planting operation of walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia;(6) tillage and weeding and irrigation;(7) fertilizing operation of walnut and Chinese mahonia under the conditions of interplanting;(8) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control;(9) prepared by fruit harvesting and seed.The present invention uses walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia, makes full use of the nutrient of different levels in the characteristic of spatial distribution and soil of different plants, improves the land utilization efficiency of walnut forest land, mitigates stony desertification harm;Meanwhile the income that walnut plants peasant household is increased by the harvesting of Chinese mahonia, it is ensured that walnut, which is planted in Rocky Desertification Control, plays long term.

Description

A kind of cultivation management method of Rocky Desertification Region walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia
Technical field
The invention belongs to non-wood forest culture technical field, specifically a kind of Rocky Desertification Region walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia Cultivation management method.
Background technique
Stony desertification is under the conditions of the torrid zone, subtropical monsoon climate, and karst is extremely developed, and surface vegetation is artificially broken Ring, it is Karst region land deterioration that rain drop erosion, which causes soil to be seriously lost, the land deterioration phenomenon of large area exposed bedrock Extreme form.In the world is defined as: arid caused by climatic factor and human activity, semiarid zone and Semi-humid area Land deterioration, the process changed to desertscape.Stony desertification and the improvement of karst Vulnerable Ecological are Present Global sustainable developments One of focus of strategic research.
Rocky Desert of Land in Guangxi area land use is mainly following 3 features at present: 1, ecological safety status is important.For a long time with Come, stony desertification leads to local ecosystem functional deterioration, cuts the reduced capability for storing precipitation, regulated flow, soil erosion in basin Seriously, the development and utilization of local hydroelectric resources is not only directly influenced, but also threatens the ecological safety of Xijiang River In The Middle And Lower Reaches. 2, cultivated land resource is rare, and fertility level is low.According to statistics, Guangxi per capita area of cultivated farmland in 2015 is only 1.19 mu, part Seriously regional per capita cultivated land is horizontal lower than the whole district for stony desertification, and man-land relationship is nervous.And Rocky Desertification Region belongs to nonirrigated farmland mostly, belongs to nothing The sloping upland effectively irrigated, due to the steep orographic condition in the high slope in mountain and unique karst double layer geological structure, in addition precipitation is plentiful And the climate characteristic concentrated, limited land resource are not only easily washed away and are lost by rainwash, also easily leaks out to from hole Underground and be lost, soil water storage water conservation is difficult, nutrient loss, and fertility level is low.3, the population below the poverty line is concentrated, economic development Ability is weak.According to statistics, Guangxi in 2014 contains 28 key counties included in the national plan for poverty alleviation through development, 21 autonomous region's development for poverty relief emphasis works Make county, share the population below the poverty line 5,380,000, wherein 90% belonging to Rocky Desertification Region in 28 national poor counties, 80% in the population below the poverty line It is distributed in stony desertification area, the Rocky Desertification Region population below the poverty line is more.And most of Rocky Desertification Region be located at Guangxi " always, less, side, mountain, It is thoroughly " regional, local total output value largely derives from planting industry, aquaculture and part low-end service industry, peasant can only be in crack of stone In make a living by the low values dry crop such as maize planting, belong to typical extensive cultivation cropping pattern, the difficulty of assaulting fortified position of shaking off poverty is big.Always It, rocky desertification problem has become the main ecological environment problem in Guangxi, become the source of disaster, poverty because.Therefore it explores and opens The comprehensive improvement of Rocky Desert of Land in Guangxi area ecological environment is opened up, for reinforcing land ecology construction and protection, pushes Ecological Civilization Construction It is particularly important.
Reconstruction and recovery for karst Vulnerable Ecosystem, manual intervention are still important approach.To stony desertification It administers, artificial afforestration is still the shortcut of rapid restored ecosystem function.The correctness of reproducting tree species selection, is that stony desertification is controlled Manage one of the key factor of success or failure.Walnut (Juglans regia Linn), Hamamelidae Hamamelididae Juglandaceae juglans woody oleiferous plants, Economic plants, and be precious commerical tree species.Walnut in ecology due to having effects that it is strong that underground root system prosperity, moisture are conserved Greatly, shoot and leaf growth is vigorous, drought-resistant ability is strong, the characteristics such as of less demanding to soil environment, has biggish water and soil conservation and water source Holding capability adapts to the ecological environment of Rocky Desertification Region, is one of advantage and vanguard tree seed of Rocky Desertification Control.Guangxi conduct One of China's walnut appropriate area, existing more than 10,000 hm of walnut woods area2, the 0.5% of the Zhan Quanguo walnut woods gross area, main point Cloth rivers and ponds, Baise, Liuzhou, 4 cities in He Prefecture 21 counties, wherein Northwest Guangxi Province walnut plantation more concentrate.Walnut Industry Just gradually become Rocky Desert of Land in Guangxi comprehensive treatment, promote Regional Economic Development and the strong industry increased farmers' income, leading production Industry, rising industry.
Chinese mahonia (Mahonia fortunei (Lindl.) Fedde) is Berberidaceae, the medicinal shrub of Mahonia, life At 350~2000 meters of height above sea level of hillside hayashishitas and bushes or more dark and damp place.As temperate plant, there is stronger cold-resistant energy Power is unaccommodated to the hot weather in summer.Chinese mahonia likes the weather of warm and moist, property is strong, it is resistance to it is shady, avoid burning sun exposure, have certain cold resistance, It is more drought-resistant.Its source area is grown in dark and damp valley and forest in the following, belonging to heliophobous plant more.Like well-drained acid humus Soil, not alkaline-resisting, flood afraid of water.7~September of florescence, 9~November of fruiting period.By seminal propagation, root, stem, Ye Junke are used as medicine, and have The effect of clearing heat and detoxicating, detumescence, antidiarrheal diarrhea, be as treatment dysentery, icterohepatitis, burn, scald and sore raw material it One.
In plantation solid space distribution, Chinese mahonia is perennial herb medicinal plant, and happiness temperature, is not afraid of impoverishment tolerant Frost and direct sunlight are not afraid of in cool place.Walnut belongs to tall and big arbor species, and the two interplanting spatial distribution is complementary to one another, Xiang get Yi It is evident.On growth cycle, walnut has that growth cycle long (entering mature period generally in 5~8 years), early investment is big, increases The slow feature of fruit of producing effects slowly to the effect of Rocky Desertification Region walnut plantation Increase Income of Peasant Households is unfavorable for walnut and is planted in stony desertification controlling Sustainable development in reason, and Chinese mahonia has growth cycle relatively short, less input, increases income relatively fast feature.Such as What makes walnut and Chinese mahonia Interplanting technique standardizes and systematization, and improves walnut plantation overall economic efficiency, enhances stony desert Change the enthusiasm of regional walnut plantation peasant household production, it is ensured that walnut is planted in the sustainable development during Rocky Desertification Control, is Current urgent problem.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by the invention is to provide a kind of cultivations of Rocky Desertification Region walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia Training management method sustainably plays walnut in Rocky Desertification Control to improve the utilization rate in Rocky Desertification Region walnut woods soil Effect, promote Rocky Desertification Region Improvement of Ecological Environment, while increase walnut plantation peasant household income.
The present invention solves above-mentioned technical problem with following technical solution:
A kind of cultivation management method of Rocky Desertification Region walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia of the present invention, including step is operated as follows It is rapid:
(1) selection of land and site preparation
Choose Rocky Desertification Region walnut woods as interplanting Chinese mahonia region, selection the walnut seed of forest plant line space >= 5m, hereinafter, canopy density are between 0.3~0.5, growing way is medium for life in 8 years;In 3 months spring, the last ten-days period to the walnut forest land chosen into Row ploughs deeply 25cm~30cm, and then rake is thin, leveling, applies decomposed manure 45000kg/hm in conjunction with site preparation2~50000kg/hm2 With calcium superphosphate 225kg/hm2~300kg/hm2
(2) vernalization
When planting walnut, the green peel of collected fresh walnut dry fruit is removed, seed soaking is after walnut fruit cracking Carry out sowing plantation;
When planting Chinese mahonia, the seed of mahonia bealei is selected to carry out Steeping and budding, the seed soaked seed is equal Wet fine sand covering that is even to sow on seedbed, and uniformly sowing with a thickness of 0.3cm~0.5cm, can emerge for 4~5 days;
(3) nursery
When to walnut nursery, Walnut Seed is directly sowed and is directly planted in stony desert after seedling bed nursery, nursery success With changing level land, hillside fields or the tor in area etc. in landform;
When to Chinese mahonia nursery, using bare-root seeding cultivating method or the progress nursery of non-woven fabrics environment-protective cup seedling method of growing directly from seeds;
(4) domestication and thinning
When Chinese mahonia seedling plants be unfolded 4~5 true leaves when, by spacing in the rows × line-spacing=70cm~80cm × 70cm~ 100cm final singling, planting density are 300 plants/667m2;When thinning, depauperation, Abnormal Plants are pulled out in time;Chinese mahonia seedling Chinese mahonia seedling is carried to cultivation place and nearby adapts to local environment, while strict control being needed to water by the preceding 20d of field planting Frequency and dosage, prevent seedling from growing suddenly, and seedling is promoted to take root and increase its anti-adversity ability downwards, improve transplanting survival rate;
(5) it is colonized
Walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia generally carries out Chinese mahonia field planting in annual mid or late April current year, is colonized mode By level land, hillside fields and tor 3 kinds of modes carry out specification respectively:
Level land: seedling is transplanted apart from walnut plant 2.5m field planting Chinese mahonia, is colonized in such a way that cave plants, spacing in the rows × row Away from 1m × 1.2m, every 667m2350~400 plants of plantation;
Hillside fields: Chinese mahonia seedling is colonized apart from walnut plant 1.0m~1.5m, spacing in the rows × line-spacing=0.5m × 0.8m ~1.0m, every 667m2Planting density is 600~700 plants;
Tor: Chinese mahonia seedling is colonized apart from walnut plant 0.5m~0.8m, seeding row spacing is determined according to landform, often 667m2Planting density is 300~500 plants and differs.
(6) tillage and weeding and irrigation
Chinese mahonia field planting respectively intertill annual April, July and November and is hoed up weeds 1 time after surviving, and when intertillage avoids hurting root, filling It loosens the soil in due course after water and rainfall, carries out 3 times in mid-April, 7~August, 10~November respectively every year and effectively irrigate;Rainy season is timely Draining;
(7) it applies fertilizer
For the fertilizing operation of walnut:
Walnut fertilising is divided into 2 kinds of forms of base manure and top dressing and carries out, and when basal dressing, ferments organic fertilizer as base using decomposed livestock and poultry Fertilizer applies kind of a plant hole bottom according to the sowing amount in the cave 15~20kg/, carries out walnut seedling transplanting after covering 8~10cm of hack;
Field planting starts to apply 1 top dressing after 45 days, and to promote growth of seedling, it is compound that total nutrient content >=45% is applied in top dressing Fertilizer, for the Juglans in age of tree half a year by 150g/ plants of applications, the age of tree is more than the Juglans of half a year by 300g/ plants of applications;It is fertile when fertilising Material excavates annular fertilization ditch along tree crown water droplet line, and fertilizer ring is applied mode and applied;When applying fertilizer to walnut of the age of tree within half a year, It is width x depth=10cm × 10cm that annular fertilization ditch, which excavates specification,;When applying fertilizer to the walnut that the age of tree is more than half a year, ring It is width x depth=20cm × 20cm that shape dressing furrow, which excavates specification,.
It is colonized from the 2nd year, annual top dressing 1~2 time, dressing time are as follows: spring is 2~March, and summer is 5~June, fertilizer It is applied in a manner of annular fertilization ditch along tree crown water droplet line by excavating, excavation specification is width x depth=20cm × 20cm, and application is total Nutrient content >=45% compound fertilizer, dose increase with the age of tree and are stepped up, and dose regards feelings within the scope of 0.5~2.0kg Increase and decrease.
Fertilising for Chinese mahonia, the implantation time according to walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia carry out fertilizing operation:
It interplants the 1st year: fertilising 3 times.1st time: during 5~June, applying total nutrient content >=45% compound fertilizer 1 time, distance It is applied at Chinese mahonia plant 10cm, every plant of application 15g;Early June need to impose organic fertilizer 1 time, every 667m2Apply fermentation maturity 2 000kg of 1 000kg of cattle and sheep excrement or barnyard manure, then admix normal superphosphate 20kg~30kg and spread fertilizer over the fields;During 8~September, application Total nutrient content >=45% compound fertilizer 1 time, every plant of application 18g of Chinese mahonia;
It interplants the 2nd year: fertilising 2 times.1st time: during 2~April, applying total nutrient content >=45% compound fertilizer 1 time, distance It is applied at Chinese mahonia plant 10cm, every plant of application 20g;2nd time: during 6~July, using same amount compound fertilizer, distance It is applied at Chinese mahonia plant distance 15cm, every plant of application 25g;
It interplants the 3rd year: fertilising 2 times.1st time: during 2~April, 15cm depth, 20cm wide are excavated at plant distance 30cm Cyclic annular dressing furrow, apply the cattle and sheep excrement or barnyard manure of fermentation maturity, every plant of Chinese mahonia applies 3kg;2nd time: during 6~July, Excavate same size kind planting ditch at plant distance 50cm, every plant of application the 1st fertilising same type organic fertilizer 4.5kg, the 2nd time Fertilising outside under Chinese mahonia tree crown drip excavates 15cm and applies fertilizer deeply, after the cyclic annular dressing furrow of 20cm wide;
It interplants the 4th year: fertilising 1 time.During 2~April, under Chinese mahonia tree crown drip outside excavate 15cm it is deep, The cyclic annular dressing furrow of 20cm wide is applied, every plant of application 6kg~8kg with the cattle and sheep excrement or barnyard manure of fermentation maturity;
Interplant the 5th year: Chinese mahonia, which is planted the 5th year, enters picking time, does not apply fertilizer;
(8) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
The pest control of walnut woods, main prevention and treatment batocera horsfieldi and walnut are chrysomelid, and concrete operations are as follows:
The prevention and treatment of batocera horsfieldi: precautionary measures: Tu Qiubai.Annual April and September respectively apply once, by quick lime: sulphur powder: Salt: the mass ratio that water is 20:2:1:80 configures, and walnut butt is coated on after mixing, prevents longicorn from laying eggs;Adult mating Egg-laying season: using 100~300 times of liquid of 90% trichlorfon technical, 1000 times of liquid or Lu se weilei to the tree for endangering walnut woods in flakes Cadre position concentrate and sprays, and kills adult;Roundheaded borer endangers the phase: annual 5~August, check by strain to walnut woods, hair Now after worm channel, net poison label 3~7 days from worm channel insertion longicorn, 98% or more larval mortality, validity period is long, and use is safe, square Just, investment is saved;
The chrysomelid prevention and treatment of walnut: in larva harm phase application, using 25% high chlorophoxim missible oil or 45% chlopyrifos 1000~1500 times of liquid of missible oil are prevented and treated by spraying.
The disease control object of walnut woods is mainly black spot and anthracnose, and concrete operations are as follows:
Black spot prevention and treatment: removing disease fruit, sick leaf in time, and concentration is burnt or buried, to reduce germ source.Before walnut germination The lime sulfur of 3~5 Baume degrees of spray, May~sprinkling in June Bordeaux mixture (Bordeaux mixture presses copper sulphate: quick lime: water=1:2: 200 mass ratio configures) or 50% thiophanate methyl wettable powder, 500~800 times of liquid before female flower is bloomed, Post flowering It is respectively sprayed with young fruit period 1 time;
Anthracnose prevention and treatment: winter removes sick branch, deadwood and burns in time, reduces pathogeny;Anthracnose early stage, uses first 700~800 times of liquid of base thiophanate or carbendazim spray 2~3 times or P applied levels spray 1~2 time in 800~1000 times of liquid.
The pest control object of Chinese mahonia is mainly aphid, grub, withered leaf noctuid and psychid, and concrete operations are as follows:
Prevention and control of aphids: removing weeds and stubble disease leaf after harvest, overwintering pest is removed in prevention and treatment;Use 10% imidacloprid 1500 ~2000 times of liquid 1% kill really refreshing 2000~2500 times of liquid of missible oil and prevent and treat by spraying;
Grub control: it carries out the autumn and ploughs, reduce worm sources radix;Chlopyrifos pulvis and thin dry ground are mixed into poison in 1:10 ratio Soil, along ridge row replacement, shallow hoe, covers ridge face with black agricultural membrane after smoothing, or pesticide-clay mixture is spread on kind of planting ditch or ground, turns over immediately immediately It ploughs or is mixed into barnyard manure and apply;Mid-June to early July installs insecticidal lamp trapping using the phototaxis of adult.
Withered leaf noctuid, psychid prevention and treatment: prevention and treatment is sprayed using 90% trichlorfon technical, 1000 times of liquid;
Chinese mahonia disease control object is mainly spot disease and anthracnose, and concrete operations are as follows:
Spot disease prevention and treatment: spot disease is outstanding using 1% bacterium water cleaning agent, 300~500 times of liquid or using 50% thiophanate methyl Floating 1500~2000 times of liquid of agent use 50% iprodione wettable powder, 1000~1500 times of progress spraying operation prevention and treatments;
Anthracnose prevention and treatment: Chinese mahonia anthracnose is using 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder or sprays 25% charcoal Trane 500 times of liquid of wettable powder 50% apply 1000 times of liquid of hectogram wettable powder and spray prevention and treatment.
(9) harvesting is prepared with seed
The harvesting of walnut: the collecting method of walnut has two methods of artificial harvesting and mechanical harvesting, in fruit maturation, use Bamboo pole or long rod with elasticity tap the branch where walnut or directly shoot down fruit;
The harvesting of Chinese mahonia: Chinese mahonia, which grows into 5~6 years, to be started to harvest, and selects high-quality mature, stem diameter >=4cm ten Big contribution healthy plant breaks apart by chopping stem using mechanical chain saw or chopper at Chinese mahonia basal part of stem is away from ground 10cm~15cm; It fell after plant, and removed residual stem, soil and sundries, and carried out classification sorting and sunning to absolutely dry by stem, leaf in time, sold after tying up It sells.
The seed of Chinese mahonia: annual Chinese mahonia seed in March to April starts maturation, and Chinese mahonia fruit is in atropurpureus It can manually harvest;After harvesting, artificial screening is carried out the Chinese mahonia fruit come is collected, is uniformly stacked into the thick pile of 10cm; After covering agricultural film, agricultural film is rolled using wooden stick, under conditions of not damaging Chinese mahonia kernel, squeezes out seed in fruit;It will grind Demucilage, kind skin and seed after pressing the fruit completed and seed to filter;Spare seed natural air drying 3d~5d uses drying It can be sealed after 35 DEG C of drying 20h~25h of machine spare.
In step (1) of the present invention, level land selection is leeward on the sunny side or half yin and half yang;Level land and hillside fields require soil property Loose, fertile soil, without damage or crop failure caused by waterlogging;The soil layer for needing to tor basement rock top that there is enough walnut nursery stocks and Chinese mahonia to grow.
In step (3) of the present invention, the concrete operations using the bare-root seeding cultivating method that grows directly from seeds are: playing furrow and begin to rehearse in surrounding Ditch, kind planting ditch of the lateral trench of furrow face away from 15cm~20cm, ditch depth 2cm, kind planting ditch is interior to press 10cm hill spacing, 3, every cave Seed sowing, and cover one layer of straw moisturizing;According to sand storage germination hastening method, needed after vernalization using non-woven fabrics environment-protective cup nursery Method carries out transplanting nursery, after non-woven fabrics environment-protective cup sprinkles profoundly water, by the intact Chinese mahonia seedling replanting in root into nutrition cup, often 1 plant of plantation in circular hole is preset in a nutrition cup, earthing fills circular hole and fixed Chinese mahonia seedling, turns green in one week.
Walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia of the present invention by certain age of tree, the spy with three-dimensional, complexity, popularity Sign, breaches the limitation of previous single walnut, is a kind of composite plant tactic pattern efficiently, three-dimensional, economic.Firstly, tool Have three-dimensional, under this Compound Planting Model, high level is the tall and big canopy of walnut, forms gloomy environment in its bottom, is suitble to Some happinesses negative Chinese medicine, crop-planting.Secondly, merged the multi industries such as forestry, agricultural, is formed to influence each other and be mutually promoted Industry Model, so that the industrial structure is more efficient.The more traditional agriculture and forestry implantation methods of the method for the present invention have high efficiency, comprehensive The features such as conjunction property, meet the requirement of Ecological Sustainable Development, forest ecosystem can be stablized, improves the production effect of forest resourceies Rate increases peasant economy income.The method of the present invention strong operability, significant effect have broad application prospects, for accelerating Shaking off poverty and setting out on the road to prosperity for stony desertification poverty-stricken area is of great significance.
Compared with prior art, the present invention having the advantages that following following and effect:
1, the present invention uses stereo cultivating method, in the case where following walnut, Chinese mahonia itself productive prospecting, passes through Sturdy effective site test, obtains optimal interplanting method, this interplanting method takes full advantage of walnut and Chinese mahonia Corresponding growth phase have and needs condition, walnut have the characteristics that applicability it is good, growth it is rapid, there is also fruitings In evening, take effect slow deficiency.In walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia, arbor: walnut, shrub: the height between Chinese mahonia Difference is obvious, is capable of forming a three-dimensional cultivation mode, and the natural shading effect for making full use of walnut to be formed efficiently controls Its light transmittance is controlled, the growth of Chinese mahonia is promoted, improves quality.
2, the method for the present invention changes traditional walnut single cropping mode, and unit area land utilization ratio and output capacity are inclined Low deficiency shortens the empty window phase of walnut planting income.In the walnut woods brephic, also there is the harvesting of high value Chinese medicine, increase Household income promotes sustainable development of the Walnut Industry in Rocky Desertification Control.The method of the present invention combines forest and medicinal material The theory of fusion development constructs symbiosis, prevents the soil erosion of Rocky Desertification Region, keep stony desertification by rationally interplanting The regional ecological balance;And local forest has been driven to process, the processing of woods fruit, the development of Chinese herbal medicine plantation processing industry attract investment, promote Into local economic development, attract surrounding peasant household to obtain employment nearby, form benign business cycle chain, pushes Rocky Desertification Region de- Poor work of assaulting fortified position.
Specific embodiment
Further description of the technical solution of the present invention below, but the present invention is limited in any way, Based on any transformation of the present invention and replacement, all belong to the scope of protection of the present invention.
A kind of cultivation management method of Rocky Desertification Region walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia of the present invention, concrete operation step is such as Under:
Step 1, selection of land and site preparation: the walnut woods of Rocky Desertification Region (including level land, hillside fields and tor) is chosen as set The region of Chinese mahonia is planted, the walnut seed of forest of selection plants line space >=5m, and life in 8 years is hereinafter, canopy density between 0.3~0.5, are grown Gesture is medium;It plants in 3 months spring of current year of Chinese mahonia, the last ten-days period, the walnut forest land chosen is carried out deep in the domain of walnut forest zone 25cm~30cm is turned over, then rake is thin, leveling, applies decomposed manure 45000kg/hm in conjunction with site preparation2~50000kg/hm2And mistake Calcium phosphate 225kg/hm2~300kg/hm2
Level land selection is leeward on the sunny side or half yin and half yang;Level land and hillside fields require the soil is porous, fertile soil, without flood Evil;The soil layer for needing to tor basement rock top that there is enough walnut nursery stocks and Chinese mahonia to grow.
Step 2, vernalization:
When planting walnut, the green peel of the walnut dry fruit of fresh acquisition is removed, is soaked seed 7 days or so, is cracked to walnut fruit After can carry out sowing plantation.
When planting Chinese mahonia, Chinese mahonia seed generally uses mahonia bealei to carry out vernalization, according to practical feelings Condition, which can be used, commonly urges method and sand storage germination hastening method to carry out vernalization.Common having technical point that for germination hastening method dries in the air Chinese mahonia seed After shining 1d~2d, seed is placed in 40 DEG C of warm water and impregnates 12h, remove shrivelled seed, vernalization under the conditions of being placed in 25 DEG C For 24 hours, showing money or valuables one carries unintentionally after seed can be sowed after 70%.The nursery for having technical point that prefabricated band sunshade net of sand storage germination hastening method is husky Bed, simultaneously laying thickness 5cm moistens thin river sand for furrow face leveling, and the Chinese mahonia seed of preparatory sunning 1d is placed in 40 DEG C of warm water and is soaked Kind 12h, the empty flat seed of removal.The spare seed soaked seed uniformly is sowed on seedbed, and uniformly sows 0.3cm~0.5cm Wet fine sand covering, can emerge for 4~5 days.
Step 3, nursery:
When to walnut nursery, Walnut Seed is directly sowed and is directly planted in stony desert after seedling bed nursery, nursery success With changing level land, hillside fields or the tor in area;
When to Chinese mahonia nursery, according to Chinese mahonia actual conditions, using bare-root seeding cultivating method or the non-woven fabrics ring of growing directly from seeds Protect the 2 kinds of method nursery of cup seedling method.The bare-root seeding cultivating method that wherein grows directly from seeds had technical point that furrow and begun to rehearse ditch in surrounding, The lateral trench of furrow face is away from 15cm~20cm, and the kind planting ditch of ditch depth 2cm, kind planting ditch is interior to press 10cm hill spacing, and 3, every cave seed is broadcast Kind, and cover one layer of straw moisturizing.When using sand storage germination hastening method, need to carry out using non-woven fabrics environment-protective cup seedling method after vernalization Nursery is transplanted, after non-woven fabrics environment-protective cup sprinkles profoundly water, by the intact Chinese mahonia seedling replanting in root into nutrition cup, each nutrition 1 plant of plantation in the default circular hole of cup, earthing fill circular hole and fixed Chinese mahonia seedling, turn green in one week.
Step 4, domestication and thinning:
Chinese mahonia seedling plants be unfolded 4~5 true leaves when, by spacing in the rows × line-spacing=70cm~80cm × 70cm~ 100cm final singling, planting density are 300 plants/667m2.When thinning, depauperation, Abnormal Plants are pulled out in time.Using non-woven fabrics ring It protects seedling method plantation and is then subject to practical cup number, wherein non-woven fabrics seedling method needs to carry out hardening treatment, the field planting of Chinese mahonia seedling Preceding 20d, the Chinese mahonia seedling of non-woven fabrics nursery is carried to cultivation place and nearby adapts to local environment, while need to strictly be controlled The frequency and dosage for making watering, prevent seedling from growing suddenly, and seedling is promoted to take root and increase its anti-adversity ability downwards, improve field planting transplanting Survival rate.
Step 5, be colonized: annual mid or late April, walnut forest land start to be colonized Chinese mahonia.According to Rocky Desertification Region, walnut The topography and landform character for interplanting Chinese mahonia area, is divided into following 3 kinds of field planting modes:
Level land: transplanting seedling apart from walnut plant 2.5m field planting Chinese mahonia, be colonized in such a way that cave plants, and spacing in the rows × Line-spacing=1m × 1.2m, every 667m2350~400 plants of plantation;
Hillside fields: Chinese mahonia is colonized apart from walnut plant 1.0m~1.5m, and spacing in the rows × line-spacing=0.5m × 0.8m~ 1.0m, every 667m2Planting density is 600~700 plants;
Tor: Chinese mahonia is colonized apart from walnut plant 0.5m~0.8m, seeding row spacing is determined according to landform, often 667m2Planting density is 300~500 plants and differs.
Step 6, tillage and weeding and irrigation:
Field planting after surviving annual April, July and November respectively intertill and hoes up weeds 1 time, when intertillage around rhizosphere preferably shallowly, at a distance can be slightly It is deep, it avoids hurting root.It pours water and loosens the soil in due course after rainfall.3 times are carried out effectively in mid-April, 7~August, 10~November respectively every year It irrigates;Rainy season drains in time.
Step 6, it applies fertilizer:
The fertilising of walnut is divided into 2 kinds of forms of base manure and top dressing and carries out.Using decomposed livestock and poultry fermentation organic fertilizer as base manure, according to The sowing amount in the cave 15~20kg/ applies kind of a plant hole bottom, carries out walnut seedling transplanting after covering 8~10cm of hack.
Start to carry out 1 top dressing after field planting 45 days, to promote growth of seedling.Total nutrient content >=45% is applied in top dressing Compound fertilizer's (total content that the total nutrient is nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), the walnut sapling in age of tree half a year is by 150g/ plants of applications, the age of tree Walnut sapling more than half a year applies by 300g/ plants.Fertilizer excavates annular fertilization ditch along tree crown water droplet line, and ditch spread mode is applied Enter;When walnut of the age of tree within half a year is applied fertilizer, it is width x depth=10cm × 10cm that annular fertilization ditch, which excavates specification,;The age of tree When walnut more than half a year is applied fertilizer, it is width x depth=20cm × 20cm that annular fertilization ditch, which excavates specification,.
From walnut plants the 2nd year, annual top dressing 1~2 time, dressing time are as follows: spring in 2~March, summer in 5~June, Fertilizer excavates annular fertilization ditch along tree crown water droplet line, and ditch spread mode applies, annular fertilization ditch by width x depth=20cm × 20cm specification is excavated.Dose increases with the walnut age of tree and is increased, and applies total nutrient content >=45% compound fertilizer, and fertilizer is applied Dosage is view feelings increase and decrease within the scope of 0.5~2.0kg.
Fertilising for Chinese mahonia, the implantation time according to walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia carry out fertilizing operation:
It interplants the 1st year: fertilising 3 times, the 1st time: during 5~June, applying total nutrient content >=45% compound fertilizer 1 time, distance It is applied at Chinese mahonia plant 10cm, every plant of application 15g;Early June need to impose organic fertilizer 1 time, every 667m2Apply fermentation maturity 2 000kg of 1 000kg of cattle and sheep excrement or barnyard manure, then admix normal superphosphate 20kg~30kg and spread fertilizer over the fields;During 8~September, application Total nutrient content >=45% compound fertilizer 1 time, every plant of application 18g of Chinese mahonia;
It interplants the 2nd year: fertilising 2 times, the 1st time: during 2~April, applying total nutrient content >=45% compound fertilizer 1 time, distance It is applied at Chinese mahonia plant 10cm, every plant of application 20g;2nd time: during 6~July, using same concentrations compound fertilizer, distance It is applied at Chinese mahonia plant distance 15cm, every plant of application 25g;
It interplants the 3rd year: during 2~April, 15cm depth, 20cm wide fertilising 2 times, the 1st time: is excavated at plant distance 30cm Cyclic annular dressing furrow, ditch applies the cattle and sheep excrement or barnyard manure of fermentation maturity, and every plant of Chinese mahonia applies 3kg;2nd time: the phase in 6~July Between, same size annular fertilization ditch, the 1st fertilising same type organic fertilizer of every plant of application are excavated at plant distance 50cm 4.5kg, the 2nd fertilising outside under Chinese mahonia tree crown drip excavates that 15cm is deep, ditch spread after cyclic annular dressing furrow of 20cm wide Fertilizer;
It interplants the 4th year: fertilising 1 time, during 2~April, on the outside of under Chinese mahonia tree crown drip, excavation 15cm depth, The cyclic annular dressing furrow of 20cm wide, the cattle and sheep excrement or barnyard manure of ditch spread fermentation maturity, every plant of application 6kg~8kg;
Interplant the 5th year: Chinese mahonia, which is planted the 5th year, enters picking time, does not apply fertilizer;
Step 8, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
It aims at prevention, integrated control is principle;Cultural control, physical control, biological control are preferentially used, cooperation is reasonable Use chemical prevention.
Pest control for walnut:
Walnut insect pest is mainly that batocera horsfieldi and walnut are chrysomelid.(1) longicorn prevents and treats: precautionary measures: Tu Qiubai.Annual April It is respectively coated with September 1 time, by lime: sulphur powder: salt: the mass ratio that water is 20:2:1:80 configures, and is coated on walnut after mixing Butt prevents longicorn from laying eggs;The adult mate and oviposit phase: 90% trichlorfon technical, 1000 times of liquid or Lu se weilei 100 are used ~300 times of liquid to endanger in flakes walnut woods to trunk carry out concentrate spray, kill adult;Roundheaded borer endangers the phase: annual 5~8 Month, walnut woods check by strain.It was found that after worm channel, net poison label 3~7 days from worm channel insertion longicorn, larval mortality 98% On, validity period is long, using conveniently, safely, saves investment.(2) the chrysomelid prevention and treatment of walnut: spraying in larva harm phase phase, with 1000~1500 times of liquid of 25% high chlorophoxim missible oil or 45% chlorpyrifos ec are prevented and treated by spraying.
Disease control to walnut woods:
Walnut disease is mainly black spot, anthracnose etc..(1) black spot prevents and treats: removing the pathogenies such as disease fruit, sick leaf in time Object, concentration is burnt or buried, to reduce germ source.3~5 Baume degrees lime sulfurs are sprayed before walnut germination.May~sprinkling in June Bordeaux mixture (Bordeaux mixture is by copper sulphate: quick lime: water=1:2:200 mass ratio configures) uses 50% methyl support 500~800 times of liquid of cloth saliva wettable powder spray, and before female flower is bloomed, Post flowering and young fruit period respectively spray 1 time.(2) anthracnose is anti- Control: winter removes sick branch, deadwood and burns in time, reduces pathogeny;Anthracnose early stage uses thiophanate methyl or carbendazim 700~800 times of liquid are sprayed 2~3 times or are sprayed 1~2 time using 800~1000 times of liquid of P applied levels.
Pest control for Chinese mahonia includes mainly aphid, grub, withered leaf noctuid and psychid, and concrete operations are:
(1) prevention and control of aphids: weeds and stubble disease leaf are removed after harvest, removes overwintering pest;With 10% imidacloprid 1500~ 2000 times of liquid or 1% to kill really refreshing 2000~2500 times of liquid of missible oil spraying.(2) it grub control: carries out the autumn and ploughs, reduce worm sources base Number;Chlopyrifos pulvis and thin dry ground are mixed into pesticide-clay mixture in 1:10 ratio, and along ridge row replacement, shallow hoe, uses black agricultural membrane after smoothing immediately Ridge face is covered, or pesticide-clay mixture is spread on kind of planting ditch or ground, turns over or is mixed into barnyard manure immediately and applied;Mid-June to early July, Using the phototaxis of adult, insecticidal lamp trapping is installed.(3) withered leaf noctuid, psychid prevention and treatment: 1000 times of 90% trichlorfon technical is used Liquid sprays prevention and treatment.
Disease control to Chinese mahonia mainly includes spot disease and anthracnose, and concrete operations are as follows:
(1) spot disease prevents and treats: spot disease 1% bacterium water cleaning agent, 300~500 times of liquid or 50% thiophanate methyl suspending agent 1500~2000 times of liquid or 50% iprodione wettable powder l000~1500 times liquid carry out spraying operation prevention and treatment.(2) anthracnose Prevention and treatment: Chinese mahonia anthracnose is using 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder, 1000 times of liquid or sprays 25% charcoal Trane wettable 500 times of liquid of pulvis 50% apply 1000 times of liquid of hectogram wettable powder and spray prevention and treatment.
Step 9, harvesting is prepared with seed:
Harvesting for walnut: the collecting method of walnut has two methods of artificial harvesting and mechanical harvesting.Its main feature is that When fruit maturation, the long rod with bamboo pole or with elasticity taps the branch where walnut or directly shoots down fruit.Mechanized harvesting Equipment include vibrating fruit picker, clean collection machine and pick up cleaner, operation procedure is first to make walnut with vibrating fruit picker Vibration is fallen to the ground, then the walnut on ground is concentrated into item by cleaning collection machine, is finally picked up by pickup cleaner and is simply cleaned After case.
Harvesting for Chinese mahonia: Chinese mahonia, which grows into 5~6 years, to be started to harvest.Related personnel wears mouth when harvesting Cover, goggles and gloves, to prevent from being hurt by Chinese mahonia limb and blade.High-quality mature, stem diameter >=4cm Chinese mahonia is selected to be good for Health plant, from Chinese mahonia basal part of stem away from ground 10cm~15cm from, use mechanical chain saw or chopper to cut stem;Fell plant Afterwards, residual stem, soil and sundries are removed, classification sorting and sunning is carried out to after absolutely dry by stem, leaf in time, ties up sale.Need ten When big contribution root is as traditional Chinese medicinal material raw materials, is then excavated using hoe along root approximate range, remove undesirable root, stone after digging out Block and soil, take advantage of fresh manual sorting's taproot and lateral root, shine to half-dried, wisp are bundled into after classification, then shine to absolutely dry.It can also be according to phase Close purchasing station need, after the Chinese mahonia plant of fresh harvesting is directly removed impurity removing, directly press the types such as root, stem, leaf into Row categorised collection.
For the seed of Chinese mahonia: annual March to April Chinese mahonia seed start maturation, Chinese mahonia fruit is in Atropurpureus can be harvested manually.After harvesting, artificial screening is carried out the Chinese mahonia fruit come is collected, is uniformly stacked into 10cm thickness Pile;After covering transparent agricultural film, agricultural film surface is rolled by wooden stick, in the condition for not damaging Chinese mahonia kernel, squeezes out fruit Seed in reality.Demucilage, kind skin and and seed after the fruit for rolling completion and seed are filtered.Spare seed natural air drying 3d ~5d or spare using that can be sealed after 35 DEG C of drying 20h~25h of dryer.
It is the example of the method for the present invention below, operating method is as follows:
1. walnut forest land selects: selecting the level land, hillside fields or stone mountain planting walnut triennial age of tree walnut of Rocky Desertification Region Sapling, planting density are 8m × 6m, 0~25 ° of the planting site gradient, level land and hillside fields require the soil is porous, fertile soil, without flood Evil.The soil layer for needing to tor basement rock top that there is enough walnut nursery stocks and Chinese mahonia to grow.
2. interplanting Chinese mahonia in walnut forest land:
(1) plant: site preparation is planted first 1 month, and walnut forest land is turned over, and flattens furrow face.It will in level land, hillside fields and tor Chinese mahonia presses 2.5m, 1.0~1.5m and 0.5m~0.8m distance plantation away from walnut respectively, and seeding row spacing is on level land between Chinese mahonia It presses 1.0m × 1.2m and 0.5m × 0.8~1.0m specification plantation respectively with hillside fields, is planted according to landform suitable position to tor, kind When planting Chinese mahonia, spud need to be used to excavate kind of a plant hole, cave length × wide × depth specification=18cm × 18cm × 15cm.It applies in every cave Enter 15~20kg of organic fertilizer, Chinese mahonia can be planted after earthing.Every cave plants 1 plant of Chinese mahonia, when band soil puts seedling, allows its root It is that nature trails, earthing, which crosses basal part of stem, to be advisable, and soil pressure reality, and is watered with root water.
(2) field management: intertillage, weeding annual April, July and November carry out 1 time respectively.Fertilising intertillage, weeding when into Row, annual fertilising 2 times, applies nutrient content >=45% compound fertilizer, in the tillage and weeding latter progress of April and November.Ten big function Labor seedling stage is averaged every plant of application compound fertilizer 10g, average every plant of application 20g compound fertilizer after the 2nd year.Uniformly spread fertilizer over the fields the annular in excavation In dressing furrow, earth up after fertilising.
(3) it harvests: harvesting Chinese mahonia cauline leaf in September, 2018, gross income is 5000 yuan or so.
It by abovementioned technology, solves in the ecological management of Rocky Desertification Region, it is larger that walnut plants early investment, and passes through The relatively low problem of benefit of helping improves walnut comprehensive ecological, society in Rocky Desertification Control by walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia And economic benefit.Such as the township Zhong Ting, the Deposits, Fengshan, guangxi county village Feng Jie She Dongtun, walnut plants 174 mu, walnut underwood planting Chinese mahonia 96 mu, in September, 2018 harvests 6 mu of Chinese mahonias, and walnut plants 10 plants per acre, the every annual harvesting 13 of every plant of walnut Jin dry fruit, 27 yuan/jin calculate at market price, and the walnut single plant output value is 360 yuan, and gross income is 3600 yuan or so per acre.Chinese mahonia Every plant 30 jin or so of harvest blade, 500 plants of Chinese mahonias are planted per acre, take in 1.5 ten thousand jin of Chinese mahonia blade or so;By purchase 1.0 yuan/jin of valence calculates, and 1.5 ten thousand yuan of gross income or so per acre of Chinese mahonia, 5 Nian Yishou, walnut hayashishita increases income 3,000 every year on average Member.By abovementioned technology, taken in front of realizing walnut fruiting by Chinese herbal medicine plantation increase.It sees in the field in Deposits, Fengshan, guangxi county Survey experiments have shown that, compared with the control group that do not interplant, deduct cost, interplanting method can increase by 1000~1200 yuan of income/ Mu year.As it can be seen that the method for the present invention operates light letter compared with the single walnut plantation of tradition, less input, economic benefits, Walnut plantation Increase Income of Peasant Households is obvious, is suitble to promote and apply in the plantation of Rocky Desertification Region walnut.

Claims (3)

1. a kind of cultivation management method of Rocky Desertification Region walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia, which is characterized in that it includes as follows Operating procedure:
(1) selection of land and site preparation
Choose Rocky Desertification Region walnut woods as interplanting Chinese mahonia region, selection the walnut seed of forest plant line space >=5m, 8 For Nian Sheng hereinafter, canopy density are between 0.3~0.5, growing way is medium;In 3 months spring, the last ten-days period walnut forest land chosen is carried out it is deep 25cm~30cm is turned over, then rake is thin, leveling, applies decomposed manure 45000kg/hm in conjunction with site preparation2~50000kg/hm2And mistake Calcium phosphate 225kg/hm2~300kg/hm2
(2) vernalization
When planting walnut, the green peel of collected fresh walnut dry fruit is removed, seed soaking is broadcast after walnut fruit cracking Kind plantation;
When planting Chinese mahonia, selects the seed of mahonia bealei to carry out Steeping and budding, the seed soaked seed uniformly is broadcast The wet fine sand covering for being sprinkling upon on seedbed, and uniformly sowing with a thickness of 0.3cm~0.5cm, can emerge for 4~5 days;
(3) nursery
When to walnut nursery, Walnut Seed is directly sowed and is directly planted in stony desertification after seedling bed nursery, nursery success Level land, hillside fields or the tor in area;
When to Chinese mahonia nursery, using bare-root seeding cultivating method or the progress nursery of non-woven fabrics environment-protective cup seedling method of growing directly from seeds;
(4) domestication and thinning
When 4~5 true leaves are unfolded in Chinese mahonia seedling plants, by spacing in the rows × line-spacing=70cm~80cm × 70cm~100cm Final singling, planting density are 300 plants/667m2;When thinning, depauperation, Abnormal Plants are pulled out in time;Chinese mahonia Seeding planting Preceding 20d, Chinese mahonia seedling is carried near cultivation place to adapt to local environment;The frequency for needing strict control to water simultaneously Rate and dosage, prevent seedling from growing suddenly, and seedling is promoted to take root and increase its anti-adversity ability downwards, improve transplanting survival rate;
(5) it is colonized
Walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia is colonized in annual mid or late April, field planting specification by level land, hillside fields and tor 3 Kind mode carries out respectively:
Level land: transplanting seedling apart from walnut plant 2.5m field planting Chinese mahonia, be colonized in such a way that cave plants, and spacing in the rows × line-spacing= 1m × 1.2m, every 667m2350~400 plants of plantation;
Hillside fields: Chinese mahonia seedling is colonized apart from walnut plant 1.0m~1.5m, and spacing in the rows × line-spacing=0.5m × 0.8m~ 1.0m, every 667m2Planting density is 600~700 plants;
Tor: Chinese mahonia seedling is colonized apart from walnut plant 0.5m~0.8m;Seeding row spacing is determining according to landform, every 667m2 Planting density is 300~500 plants;
(6) tillage and weeding and irrigation
Chinese mahonia field planting respectively intertill annual April, July and November and is hoed up weeds 1 time after surviving, and when intertillage avoids hurting root, pour water with It loosens the soil in due course after rainfall, carries out 3 times in mid-April, 7~August, 10~November respectively every year and effectively irrigate;Rainy season drains in time;
(7) it applies fertilizer
For the fertilizing operation of walnut:
Walnut fertilising is carried out by base manure and top dressing;When basal dressing, organic fertilizer is fermented as base manure using decomposed livestock and poultry, according to 15~ The sowing amount in the cave 20kg/ applies kind of a plant hole bottom, carries out walnut seedling field planting transplanting after covering 8~10cm of hack;
Field planting carried out 1 top dressing after 45 days, to promote growth of seedling;The compound fertilizer of total nutrient content >=45%, tree are applied in top dressing For walnut sapling in half a year in age by 150g/ plants of applications, the age of tree is more than the walnut sapling of half a year by 300g/ plants of applications;It is fertile when fertilising Material excavates annular fertilization ditch along tree crown water droplet line, and fertilizer ring is applied mode and applied;When to the age of tree, walnut applies fertilizer within half a year, ring It is width x depth=10cm × 10cm that shape dressing furrow, which excavates specification,;When applying fertilizer to the walnut that the age of tree is more than half a year, annular It is width x depth=20cm × 20cm that dressing furrow, which excavates specification,;
It is colonized from the 2nd year, annual top dressing 1~2 time, dressing time are as follows: spring, summer, fertilizer was along tree in 5~June in 2~March Hat water droplet line is applied in a manner of annular fertilization ditch by excavating, and excavations specification is width x depth=20cm × 20cm, dose with The age of tree increases and is stepped up, and using the compound fertilizer of total nutrient content >=45%, dose changes within the scope of 0.5~2.0kg;
Fertilising for Chinese mahonia, the implantation time according to walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia carry out fertilizing operation:
It interplants the 1st year: fertilising 3 times, the 1st time: during 5~June, the compound fertilizer of application total nutrient content >=45% 1 time, distance ten It is applied at big contribution plant 10cm, every plant of application 15g;Early June need to impose organic fertilizer 1 time, every 667m2Apply fermentation maturity 2 000kg of 1 000kg of cattle and sheep excrement or barnyard manure, then admix normal superphosphate 20kg~30kg and spread fertilizer over the fields;During 8~September, application is total The compound fertilizer of nutrient content >=45% 1 time, every plant of application 18g of Chinese mahonia;
It interplants the 2nd year: fertilising 2 times, the 1st time: during 2~April, the compound fertilizer of application total nutrient content >=45% 1 time, distance ten It is applied at big contribution plant 10cm, every plant of application 20g;2nd time: during 6~July, using same concentrations compound fertilizer, distance ten It is applied at big contribution plant distance 15cm, every plant of application 25g;
It interplants the 3rd year: during 2~April, the ring of 15cm depth, 20cm wide fertilising 2 times, the 1st time: is excavated at plant distance 30cm Shape dressing furrow, applies the cattle and sheep excrement or barnyard manure of fermentation maturity, and every plant of Chinese mahonia applies 3kg;2nd time: during 6~July, from plant Spacing in the rows is from excavating same size ring-type dressing furrow at 50cm, every plant of application the 1st fertilising same type organic fertilizer 4.5kg, and the 2nd time Fertilising outside under Chinese mahonia tree crown drip is excavated 15cm and is uniformly applied deeply, after the cyclic annular dressing furrow of 20cm wide;
Interplant the 4th year: fertilising 1 time, during 2~April, 15cm depth, 20cm wide are excavated in the outside under Chinese mahonia tree crown drip Cyclic annular dressing furrow, applied with the cattle and sheep excrement or barnyard manure of fermentation maturity, every plant of application 6kg~8kg;
Interplant the 5th year: Chinese mahonia, which is planted the 5th year, enters picking time, does not apply fertilizer;
(8) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
The pest control of walnut woods, main prevention and treatment batocera horsfieldi and walnut are chrysomelid, and concrete operations are as follows:
The prevention and treatment of batocera horsfieldi: precautionary measures: Tu Qiubai;Annual April and September respectively apply once, by lime: sulphur powder: salt: water The mass ratio of=20:2:1:80 configures, and walnut butt is coated on after mixing, prevents longicorn from laying eggs;The adult mate and oviposit phase: Using 100~300 times of liquid of 90% trichlorfon technical, 1000 times of liquid or Lu se weilei to endanger in flakes the stem sample site of walnut woods into Row is concentrated and is sprayed, and adult is killed;Roundheaded borer endangers the phase: annual 5~August, check by strain to walnut woods, finds worm channel Afterwards, net poison label 3~7 days from worm channel insertion longicorn;
The chrysomelid prevention and treatment of walnut: in larva harm phase application, using 25% high chlorophoxim missible oil or 45% chlorpyrifos ec 1000~1500 times of liquid are prevented and treated by spraying.
Walnut disease control object is mainly black spot and anthracnose, and concrete operations are as follows:
Black spot prevention and treatment: removing disease fruit, sick leaf in time, and concentration is burnt or buried, to reduce germ source;It is sprayed before walnut germination 1 3~5 degree of Baume degrees lime sulfur sprays Bordeaux mixture May~June, and Bordeaux mixture presses copper sulphate: quick lime: water=1:2: 200 mass ratio configures, or sprinkling 50% thiophanate methyl wettable powder, 500~800 times of liquid before female flower is bloomed, open It is respectively sprayed 1 time after spending with young fruit period;
Anthracnose prevention and treatment: winter removes sick branch, deadwood and burns in time, reduces pathogeny;Anthracnose early stage uses methyl support 700~800 times of liquid of cloth saliva or carbendazim spray 2~3 times or P applied levels spray 1~2 time in 800~1000 times of liquid.
Chinese mahonia pest control object mainly include be aphid, grub, withered leaf noctuid and psychid, concrete operations are as follows:
Prevention and control of aphids: weeds and stubble disease leaf are removed after harvest, removes overwintering pest;When aphid is broken out, 10% imidacloprid is used 1500~2000 times of liquid 1% kill really refreshing 2000~2500 times of liquid of missible oil and prevent and treat by spraying;
Grub control: it carries out the autumn and ploughs, reduce worm sources radix;Chlopyrifos pulvis and thin dry ground are mixed into pesticide-clay mixture in 1:10 ratio, Along ridge row replacement, shallow hoe, covers ridge face with black agricultural membrane after smoothing, or pesticide-clay mixture is spread on kind of planting ditch or ground, turns over immediately immediately Or it is mixed into barnyard manure and applies;Mid-June to early July installs insecticidal lamp and is trapped and killed using the phototaxis of adult;
Withered leaf noctuid, psychid prevention and treatment: prevention and treatment is sprayed using 90% trichlorfon technical, 000 times of liquid.
Disease control to Chinese mahonia is mainly spot disease and anthracnose, and concrete operations are as follows:
Spot disease prevention and treatment: spot disease is using 1% bacterium water cleaning agent, 300~500 times of liquid or uses 50% thiophanate methyl suspending agent 1500~2000 times of liquid carry out spraying prevention and treatment using 1000~1500 times of 50% iprodione wettable powder;
Anthracnose prevention and treatment: Chinese mahonia anthracnose is using 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder, 1000 times of liquid or sprays 25% charcoal Wettable powder 500 times of liquid in Trane 50% apply 1000 times of liquid of hectogram wettable powder and spray prevention and treatment.
(9) harvesting is prepared with seed
Harvesting for walnut: the collecting method of walnut has two methods of artificial harvesting and mechanical harvesting, in fruit maturation, use Bamboo pole or long rod with elasticity tap the branch where walnut or directly shoot down fruit;
Harvesting for Chinese mahonia: Chinese mahonia, which grows into 5~6 years, to be started to harvest, and selects high-quality mature, stem diameter >=4cm ten Big contribution healthy plant cuts stem using mechanical chain saw or chopper at Chinese mahonia basal part of stem is away from ground 10cm~15cm; It fell after plant, and removed residual stem, soil and sundries, and carried out classification sorting by stem, leaf in time and dried to absolutely dry.
For the seed of Chinese mahonia: annual Chinese mahonia seed in March to April starts maturation, and Chinese mahonia fruit is in atropurpureus It can manually harvest;After harvesting, artificial screening is carried out the Chinese mahonia fruit come is collected, is uniformly stacked into the thick pile of 10cm Shape;After covering agricultural film, by wooden stick rolled-on method, under conditions of not damaging Chinese mahonia kernel, seed in fruit is squeezed out;It will grind Demucilage, kind skin and seed after pressing the fruit completed and seed to filter;Spare seed natural air drying 3d~5d uses drying It can be sealed after 35 DEG C of drying 20h~25h of machine spare.
2. the cultivation management method of Rocky Desertification Region walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia, feature exist according to claim 1 In in step (1), level land selection is leeward on the sunny side or half yin and half yang;Level land and hillside fields require the soil is porous, fertile soil, Without damage or crop failure caused by waterlogging;The soil layer for needing to tor basement rock top that there is enough walnut nursery stocks and Chinese mahonia to grow.
3. the cultivation management method of Rocky Desertification Region walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia, feature exist according to claim 1 In in step (3), the concrete operations using the bare-root seeding cultivating method that grows directly from seeds are: playing furrow and begin to rehearse ditch in surrounding, furrow face is laterally opened Kind planting ditch of the ditching away from 15cm~20cm, ditch depth 2cm, kind planting ditch is interior to press 10cm hill spacing, the seed sowing of 3, every cave, and covers one Layer straw moisturizing;According to sand storage germination hastening method, need to carry out transplanting nursery, nothing using non-woven fabrics environment-protective cup seedling method after vernalization After woven fabric environment-protective cup sprinkles profoundly water, by the intact Chinese mahonia seedling replanting in root into nutrition cup, 1 plant of each nutrition cup, earthing Fill circular hole and fixed Chinese mahonia seedling.
CN201811353766.2A 2018-11-14 2018-11-14 Cultivation management method for interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut forest in stony desertification region Active CN109526506B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201811353766.2A CN109526506B (en) 2018-11-14 2018-11-14 Cultivation management method for interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut forest in stony desertification region

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201811353766.2A CN109526506B (en) 2018-11-14 2018-11-14 Cultivation management method for interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut forest in stony desertification region

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN109526506A true CN109526506A (en) 2019-03-29
CN109526506B CN109526506B (en) 2020-10-02

Family

ID=65847158

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201811353766.2A Active CN109526506B (en) 2018-11-14 2018-11-14 Cultivation management method for interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut forest in stony desertification region

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN109526506B (en)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110178620A (en) * 2019-04-19 2019-08-30 安徽泓森高科林业股份有限公司 A kind of Rocky Desertification Region locust tree water retention cultivating method
CN111011092A (en) * 2019-12-28 2020-04-17 贵州景峰注射剂有限公司 Planting and processing method of mahonia stem medicinal material
CN111296153A (en) * 2020-03-03 2020-06-19 云南农业大学 Planting method for interplanting costus root under walnut forest

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105325250A (en) * 2015-11-12 2016-02-17 安徽大墅龙山园林绿化有限公司 Planting technology of carya illinoensis
CN106550850A (en) * 2016-11-30 2017-04-05 莫玉明 A kind of method that Mahonia fortunei (Lindl.) Fedde is planted between anistree forest land
CN106577151A (en) * 2017-01-03 2017-04-26 黄振忠 Chinese mahonia nutrition cup seedling-raising method
CN107041271A (en) * 2017-05-22 2017-08-15 宾川拉乌峨溪核桃金果有限责任公司 A kind of implantation methods of walnut
CN108513852A (en) * 2018-04-08 2018-09-11 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 A kind of method of karst forest interplanting Chinese medicine

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105325250A (en) * 2015-11-12 2016-02-17 安徽大墅龙山园林绿化有限公司 Planting technology of carya illinoensis
CN106550850A (en) * 2016-11-30 2017-04-05 莫玉明 A kind of method that Mahonia fortunei (Lindl.) Fedde is planted between anistree forest land
CN106577151A (en) * 2017-01-03 2017-04-26 黄振忠 Chinese mahonia nutrition cup seedling-raising method
CN107041271A (en) * 2017-05-22 2017-08-15 宾川拉乌峨溪核桃金果有限责任公司 A kind of implantation methods of walnut
CN108513852A (en) * 2018-04-08 2018-09-11 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 A kind of method of karst forest interplanting Chinese medicine

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
谭宏超等: "云南漾濞泡核桃丰产栽培技术", 《林业科技通讯》 *
陈德眉等: "百色市阔叶十大功劳栽培技术", 《现代农业科技》 *

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110178620A (en) * 2019-04-19 2019-08-30 安徽泓森高科林业股份有限公司 A kind of Rocky Desertification Region locust tree water retention cultivating method
CN111011092A (en) * 2019-12-28 2020-04-17 贵州景峰注射剂有限公司 Planting and processing method of mahonia stem medicinal material
CN111296153A (en) * 2020-03-03 2020-06-19 云南农业大学 Planting method for interplanting costus root under walnut forest

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN109526506B (en) 2020-10-02

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN103918449B (en) A kind of stereo cultivating method of Cortex Phellodendri Rhizoma Paridis interplanting
CN105230429B (en) A kind of mountain area Quercus acutissima, the method for forestation of cork oak bio-energy forest
CN103960036A (en) Method for conducting wild tending of Chinese Paris rhizome under trees
CN102771284B (en) Ecological cultivation method for houttuynia cordata
CN103875403A (en) Mountainous area non-reclaimed slope water-collecting and fertilizer-maintaining forest medicine ecological combined method
CN103477844A (en) Polygonum multiflorum planting method
CN104541917B (en) A kind of method of forest land, hillside improvement high yield interplanting tea oil tree
CN104521531A (en) Method for culturing paris polyphylla through kiwi fruit woodland
CN109526506A (en) A kind of cultivation management method of Rocky Desertification Region walnut forest interplanting Chinese mahonia
CN104488652B (en) Method for cultivating Paris polyphylla by using grape forest lands
CN108513852A (en) A kind of method of karst forest interplanting Chinese medicine
CN105794584A (en) Potted fruit tree, soft-seed pomegranate and chrysanthemum three-crop interplanting method in greenhouse planting
CN104542164A (en) Tea interplanting method
CN104904466A (en) Planting method for herba epimedii
CN104641893A (en) Method for interplanting of camellia oleifera trees
CN110140584A (en) A kind of method for building up of apocarya fruit and timber forest
CN104541914B (en) Insect damage prevention type tea planting method
CN106718541B (en) A kind of Rocky Desertification Region white popinac live streaming forest culture and management method
CN104686162A (en) Selenium-enriched fruit and vegetable high-yield interplanting technology
CN104692943A (en) Selenium-rich soil fertilizer for planting selenium-enriched vegetables
CN105248082B (en) A kind of method of quickly breeding prairie pine bulb
CN104541648B (en) A kind of method of hillside fields improvement plantation vegetables and fruits
CN104756689B (en) A kind of high yield joint implant method of selenium-rich loquat and vegetables
CN105580585B (en) Chinese chestnut is preced with the wild change man of lower northeast radix pseudostellariae and plants cultural method
CN106105969A (en) High gloomy Fructus Ligustri Lucidi cuttage breeding method

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
PB01 Publication
PB01 Publication
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
GR01 Patent grant
GR01 Patent grant