CN105052444A - Planting method of oil-used peonies in cold areas - Google Patents

Planting method of oil-used peonies in cold areas Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105052444A
CN105052444A CN201510421179.2A CN201510421179A CN105052444A CN 105052444 A CN105052444 A CN 105052444A CN 201510421179 A CN201510421179 A CN 201510421179A CN 105052444 A CN105052444 A CN 105052444A
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planting
soil
oil
nursery stock
tree peony
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CN105052444B (en
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赵潜龙
郑爱霞
张吉平
崔同霞
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Gansu Zhongchuan Peony Industry Co Ltd
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Gansu Zhongchuan Peony Industry Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention discloses a large-scale industrial planting method of oil-used peonies in cold areas so as to solve the problem that a conventional cultivation method of the oil-used peonies cannot meet the planting requirements of the oil-used peonies in Northern cold areas. The planting method comprises the following steps of: choosing soil, performing soil improvement, performing soil preparation, performing preliminary treatment before planting nursery stocks, planting the nursery stocks, and performing later-stage management after planting the nursery stocks. The planting time of the oil-used peonies is changed into two planting seasons from one planting season. According to the planting method disclosed by the invention, the variety selection, the planting density and relevant key technique points are improved, so that the survival rate of the oil-used peonies in the cold areas is increased, the mechanized large-scale scientific reasonable planting method of the oil-used peonies is provided, human resources and material resources are saved, besides, the planting survival rate of the oil-used peonies can be ensured to be more than 98%, a theory basis and a good directive function are provided for the development and the research of oil-used peony industry, and the planting method disclosed by the invention is particularly suitable for planting the oil-used peonies in the cold areas in North China.

Description

A kind of cold district oil method for planting of tree peony
Technical field
The invention belongs to planting technique field, particularly relate to the method for planting of north cold area oil with tree peony.
Background technology
Security issues become increasingly urgent for China's edible vegetable oil, and external dependence degree is more than 60%, and urgently domestic oil crop diversification is planted.In tree peony edible oil, unsaturated fatty acid content is up to 92%, and wherein alpha-linolenic acid content is up to 49%, becomes the safest, nontoxic, pollution-free in the world, the fully natural green organic food very useful to health.China 60% is distributed in the ground such as arid, semiarid Gansu, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Qinghai, the Inner Mongol suitable for afforestationly, also has low production forest, the inferior woods of 300,000,000 mu urgently to transform nearly, and these are local, and soils are barren, high and cold, arid mostly.
Paeonia papaveracea high yield period output every mu can reach 400 kilograms, seed oil content 22%, and plant type is tall and big, growth potential is strong, drought-enduring, barren-resistant, resistance to high and cold, is especially suitable for north cold area plantation.But existing oil uses tree peony planting technique simple, extensive, that great majority adopt or traditional ornamental peonies planting technique, there is no scientific and reasonable applicable oil planting technique and the method for tree peony, especially lack the planting technique of north cold area Paeonia papaveracea.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide the method for planting of the tree peony scale of a kind of cold district oil, industrialization, to solve the problem that existing oil Peony growing method can not meet the oily demand of planting with tree peony in north cold area.
Technical scheme provided by the invention is: a kind of cold district oil method for planting of tree peony, comprises the steps:
A, selection of land
Planting-site is selected: annual precipitation is greater than the planting-site ridging of 600mm, and water ground in river adopts wide-narrow row planting; Arid hillside field requires that soil possesses cultivation condition substantially, pH value between 6.5 ~ 8.2, good permeability and tree peony of not planting;
B, soil melioration: apply fertilizer, select overall fertilising or partial fertilizer;
C, whole: flood that oil tree peony root is the most water funk, annual precipitation is greater than 600mm needs ridging; And prevention waterlogging measure must be carried out, dug drain ditch.
D, transplanted seedling tree early stage process: transplanted seedling tree early stage work for the treatment of need under sunshade net or shady and cool place carry out.
Cut damage: cut nursery stock root because of the mechanical damage part that causes in handling and transportation, but notice that removal part must not exceed 20% of whole root, if nursery stock root mechanical damage part more than 50% or stem's terminal bud part major injury, then discards.
Leaching sterilization: nursery stock to be put in bactericide soaking disinfection 15 ~ 30 minutes, in case rotten; Bactericide is selected from carbendazim or thiophanate methyl;
Root-inducing powder soaks: be put in by nursery stock in rooting powder solution and soak 10 ~ 15 minutes, hestening rooting;
E, to plant
Nursery stock is put into the planting hole central authorities of digging, nursery stock root is fully contacted with soil, bankets, simultaneously slowly upwards carry seedling, allow root system unfold, when earthing 2/3, planting hole soil is treaded, continue to banket to burying kryptoblast 2cm place and ground is fair, then tread; The normal root water that after planting, pouring is sufficient in time.Normal root water can carry out flood irrigation, also only locally can water in planting hole, generally not need drip irrigation, because oil is male drought-enduring and have stronger resistance with purple plague purpura, planting-site not easily cultivates ground mainly for barren hill, deserted mountain etc., does not strive ground with good farmland, the low input of high production.But it is noted that must ensure that normal root water will water foot, irrigate.
F, final-period management of planting
Mend crack: watered normal root water after 1 ~ 2 day, surface has been carried out to soil in planting hole and loosens the soil and cover loosened soil, to cut off soil capillary; Reduce moisture evaporation, play soil moisture conservation effect, keep soil from packing together simultaneously.If crack appears in nursery stock surrounding soil, cover loosened soil and crack is sealed simultaneously; Otherwise moisture in a large number from gap evaporation, can will have a strong impact on plant percent.
Loosening soil, weeding: weed with a hoe 3 ~ 4 times (generally respectively in June, August and October) every year, specifically can suitably increase depending on local careless gesture situation or reduce number of times of hoeing up weeds.
Preferably, oil is planted in two seasons with the tree peony time of planting, and plant spring, in 10 ~ April 20 March, after soil thaws, plants when daily mean temperature reaches 10 DEG C time; Plant autumn is time between 20 ~ October 10 July.
Preferably, in the whole ground of step C, water ground in river adopts wide-narrow row planting, and the width that wide line width 80 ~ 100cm(mainly looks its rotovator determines), the wide 60cm of narrow row, single file configures; Be convenient to mechanized operation, can land utilization rate be improved simultaneously.Require that plot is smooth, fertile soil, soil neutral or micro-alkali are advisable, and irrigation canal system is supporting river water, the good and tree peony of not planting of the gas permeability of soil.
Arid hillside field requires that soil possesses cultivation condition substantially, pH value between 6.5 ~ 8.2, good permeability and tree peony of not planting; Below annual precipitation 400mm should have irrigation conditions.Arid hillside field is trimmed to reversed terrace or horizontal stand according to landform horizontal line, reversed terrace width 1.5 ~ 3m, and horizontal stand width is not less than 1m; Length is determined according to landform.Water ground, river planting density is 1110 ~ 1330 plants/acre, and spacing in the rows is 50 ~ 60cm; Arid hillside field planting density is 667 ~ 1042 plants/acre, and line-spacing is 0.8 ~ 1.00m, and spacing in the rows is 0.8 ~ 1.00m.
Preferably, nursery stock kind be chosen as that purple plague purpura is white, Lan He volleys, moral purity purple, grey crane, match queen, saussurea involucrata, timely, erythema is white, beautiful butterfly, purple phoenix, powder lotus, red golden stamen or blue lotus, selection seedling age is the bareroot seedling of life in 2 ~ 3 years, require that branch is healthy and strong, root system is complete, terminal bud and lateral bud full, have no mechanical damage, without damage by disease and insect.
Preferably, before transplanted seedling tree, in the packaging of nursery stock and transport, increase moisturizing liver moss, before nursery stock cartonning carton bottom and around paving layer of plastic film, one deck nursery stock one deck moisturizing liver moss, moisturizing liver moss humidity is advisable under not becoming drippage.Must shrug off the moisturizing liver moss that nursery stock adheres to when planting, otherwise liver moss imbeds the rear easily breed bacteria of soil, affects plant percent.
Preferably, in described step D process in early stage, before transplanted seedling tree, nursery stock storage place is heat and moisture preserving storehouse or shady and cool warehouse place, must ensure that oil uses tree peony nursery stock in no-wind environment, nursery stock is placed on wind speed and is greater than in the environment of 5m/s after 1 hour, and the survival rate of nursery stock is only 10%, and no-wind environment is major issue very important in nursery stock storage.
When described step e is planted, oil tree peony and other plant interplanting, other plant comprises pear tree, willow, capsicum, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers or pea.Both effectively can solve the problem of plantation oil income of tree peony several leading year not setting seeds, do not have, can also land utilization efficiency be improved, and photo-thermal air water clay fertilizer resources supplIes shared, increase the input and output rate in unit soil.
Preferably, in step B soil melioration, fertilizer 1000 ~ 1500kg that overall fertilising every mu of ground is executed to become thoroughly decomposed or cake fertilizer 250kg, or take partial fertilizer, in the planting hole dug, be affixed by the mixture of a kind of or this two seed manure in microorganism fertilizer, soil vitality functional fertilizer, fertilizing amount is 150g/ cave; Step F is planted in final-period management, combines annual October to plough deeply to adopt ditch spread or ring-type fertilising, and the fertilizer through becoming thoroughly decomposed is selected in ditch spread, and fertilizing amount is 1000kg/ mu; Spread manuer in holes and select cake fertilizer or microorganism fertilizer, fertilizing amount is 150g/ cave.
Preferably, step F is planted in final-period management, prunes twice every year to nursery stock, wipes out withered branch before entering the winter, and centralized burning or buried, to reduce damage by disease and insect generation in the coming year, promote the sprouting of new branch; Second Year is cut root and newly sprout branch spring, prevents water sprout from grabbing nutrition, promotes old branch flower bud differentiation simultaneously;
Oil is not water-fast wet with tree peony, should ensure that draining dredge, avoids ponding, should not often water, but need water in right amount time arid especially, waters 2 ~ 3 times depending on soil moisture content generally every year.Northern area must water 10 ~ December 10 annual October, and waters foot, irrigates, and carries out winter irrigation.
Preferably, step F is planted in final-period management, and after Survival rate of nursery stock, select weather more gentle, the Second Year that rainfall is plentiful or the 3rd year spring carry out stump.Can oil Key to high-yielding production step be stump with tree peony, and no matter south is planted or plant in the north, all needs stump process.Gentle at weather, condition is good, the area that dust storm is little, just can carry out stump process when planting, consider and save time and manpower, after being generally transported to planting-site, take bundled stump again, in the reason of nursery stump be not, after stump, moisture evaporates from wound, also has larger root to damage, be unfavorable for that nursery stock survives in transportation.When northern area is planted, planting then generally can not stump, and owing to planting season, northern most places air oxygen detrition, dust storm are large, and after planting, weather conditions will speed up the moisture evaporation of wound part, have a strong impact on plant percent.
Planting density is determined: oil with tree peony require Setting percentage and oil yield high, grow thickly for optimal plant type with plant, Paeonia papaveracea plant type is tall and big, and growth potential is strong, and its planting density is also different from ornamental peonies and medicinal tree peony.The biological property that planting density is grown thickly with tree peony self by oil and economic needs determine jointly, have very large difference with the dense planting of ornamental peonies and medicinal tree peony.
The present invention is by the improvement of Fruit variety, planting density and correlation technique main points; improve the survival rate of cold district oil with tree peony; provide a set of mechanization, scale, scientific and reasonable oil tree peony method for planting; can ensure that while using manpower and material resources sparingly the planting survival rate of oil with tree peony is more than 98%; for oil tree peony industry development and research provide theoretical foundation and good directive function, be particularly useful for north of China cold district oil planting with tree peony.
Embodiment
In embodiment, microorganism fertilizer, soil vitality functional fertilizer (Distributions in Liaocheng of Shandong Province sunlight Fei Ye Co., Ltd), cake fertilizer, carbendazim, thiophanate methyl are and are purchased.Root-inducing powder is purchased from Xianyang Zhao Feng bio-fertilizer industry Co., Ltd.
(1) time of planting and density are determined:
One, the time of planting is determined
1.1 times of planting were divided into spring and autumn, and namely after soil thaws, daily mean temperature reached more than 10 DEG C and entered the cultivation phase in spring generally in 10 ~ April 20 March spring.To plant spring the custom broken and planted traditional autumn, changing plants in a season is planted in two seasons, particularly enhance the north cold area oil survival rate of planting with tree peony, alleviate the time in autumn harvest busy farming season, for the oil spread of tree peony and industrialized development create feasibility.
Plant the time 1.2 autumns generally between 20 ~ October 10 July, namely plant before soil is freeze-up, be conducive to root system to take root in advance and the germination ahead of time of nursery stock in the coming year although plant winter, but for cold especially northern area, because the seedling root of just having planted is undeveloped, resistivity is weak, and autumn cultivation can reduce the plant percent of oil with tree peony.Oil is unsuitable for autumn cultivation with tree peony on the contrary at northern area, is more suitable for planting spring.Because the plant weather conditions in region of difference are different, the weather conditions of different year are also different, and the time of specifically planting can suitably shift to an earlier date or postpone along with the change of local climate condition.
Two, Fruit variety
Selection good stress resistance, the Gansu purple plague purpura oil Varieties of Peony that Setting percentage is high, oil yield is high, by the checking of " constructions of northwest tree peony gene pool " engineering in early stage and screening, especially with " purple plague purpura is white ", " Lan He volleys ", " moral purity is purple ", " grey crane ", " match queen " 5 kinds for selection emphasis.Relatively excellent several kinds can be selected in addition, as the kind such as " saussurea involucrata ", " timely ", " erythema is white ", " beautiful butterfly ", " purple phoenix ", " powder lotus ", " red golden stamen " and " Lan He ".The tree peony of these kinds is by our company's public offering.
Paeonia papaveracea cultivar has stronger resistance, and in Gansu, growth generally seldom has damage by disease and insect to occur.But along with the popularization of Paeonia papaveracea and the expansion of cultural area, if other local generation disease and insects, lamp light trapping device or biological organic agricultural chemical should be adopted to prevent and treat.
Three, interplanting
When planting oil with tree peony can with other plant (pear tree, willow, capsicum, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers, pea etc.) interplanting, both the problem of plantation oil income of tree peony several leading year not setting seeds, do not have can effectively have been solved, land utilization efficiency can also be improved, and photo-thermal air water clay fertilizer resources supplIes is shared, increase the input and output rate in unit soil.But suggestion north cold area had better not with perennial plant intercropping and interplanting because when the later stage, plant reached high yield period, interplanting crops can affect illumination, contention nutrient, and weeding, pluck seed time have a strong impact on operating efficiency, bad management.After transplanted seedling tree, the first two years can carry out interplanting with the annual crop of increasing soil fertility such as beans, has both been conducive to increasing soil fertility, and increases soil vegetative cover coverage rate, water conservation, and improve land utilization rate, this season can be gathered in the crops again in time, avoids the later stage to fight for nutrient, and impact oil grows with tree peony.When oil reaches high yield period with tree peony, or else interplant, later stage unmanageable phenomenon can not be caused like this.
The following examples can further illustrate the present invention, but do not limit the present invention in any way.
embodiment 1
One, to plant time and density
1.1 plant the time: in 7 ~ 8 April of spring, after soil thaws, plant when daily mean temperature reaches 10 DEG C.
1.2 planting densities: plant at Chuan Shuidi, density is 1330 plants/acre, spacing in the rows 60cm.
Two, selection of seedling
Fruit variety purple plague purpura is white, and nursery stock requires: select seedling age to be the bareroot seedling of life in 3 years, branch stalwartness, root system be complete, terminal bud and lateral bud full, have no mechanical damage, without damage by disease and insect.
Three: the packaging of nursery stock, transport and storage
Seedling packing: the nursery stock dug is heeled in process in nursery stock production, heel in ground humidity 60 ~ 70%, cartoning Container Transport is taked in the transport of nursery stock: from taking out nursery stock with heeling in, every 30 strain a bundles, lash rope with plastics to tie, when lashing, classification basically identical for nursery stock length is lashed, below 30cm ties together in nursery stock centre position, if nursery stock length is greater than 30cm, can in nursery stock two ends 1/3 place bundle twice, rope degree of tightness wants appropriateness, and rope bundle too tightly can damage nursery stock epidermis, and too pine likely scatters in transit on the way.Often tying nursery stock quantity can not be too many, otherwise central local temperature can be caused too high, the growth of microorganism such as breed bacteria.
Seedling transportation: nursery stock production ground and planting-site distance 180km, can complete transport in the same day.Simultaneously when casing and transport, handling with care as far as possible, reducing mechanical damage.
Vanning transport is taked in the transport of nursery stock, takes the soonest, means of transportation the most easily when cost-saving, and haulage time can not more than 8 days, because the respiration of root system, the long meeting of haulage time makes local temperature drift in the middle of nursery stock, and easy breed bacteria, is unfavorable for that nursery stock survives.This kind of transportation resources solves the extensive long-distance transport problem of oil with tree peony nursery stock, can ensure the survival rate of nursery stock, again for foreign exchange earning creates condition.
Nursery stock is stored: the nursery stock dug must be left in shady and cool warehouse after arriving planting-site, within second day, plants, without the need to heeling in process.
If can not plant in one week need long storage time, the heat and moisture preserving storehouse that nursery stock can be placed near planting-site with good conditionsi, or carry out heeling in process, require that relative moisture of the soil is greater than 60% with heeling in entering.Before planting, nursery stock necessarily can not be exposed to the sun or wind, takes out when planting again.
Four, selection of land and whole
4.1 selection of lands: planting-site place can peaceful hondo town in Gansu, and annual precipitation is 300mm, soil pH value is 7.6, and good permeability and tree peony of not planting, possess the condition of planting.
4.2 soil melioration: fertilizer (sheep excrement, cow dung or the chicken manure etc.) 1500kg that overall fertilising every mu of ground is executed to become thoroughly decomposed, plough deeply leveling after evenly spreading fertilizer over the fields, make sure to keep in mind unavailable raw fertile;
4.3 wholely: flood that oil tree peony root is the most water funk, and annual precipitation is greater than 600mm needs ridging, and must carry out prevention waterlogging measure, dug drain ditch;
Require that plot is smooth, fertile soil, soil neutral or micro-alkali are advisable, and irrigation canal system is supporting river water, the good and tree peony of not planting of the gas permeability of soil.For river water ground, adopt wide-narrow row planting, behind the whole ground of rotovator, take wide-and narrow-row to plant, wide row 1m, narrow row 60cm, spacing in the rows 60cm; Plantation cave diameter 40cm, degree of depth 40cm.Be convenient to mechanized operation, can land utilization rate be improved simultaneously.Suitably adjust the planting hole degree of depth according to the size of actual nursery stock when planting, final guarantee seedling root fully contacts and need tamp soil with soil, to take root.
Five, transplanted seedling tree process in early stage
Transplanted seedling tree process in early stage under sunshade net or shady and cool place carry out, nursery stock makes sure to keep in mind to tan by the sun, wind, and is carried out as follows:
Cut damage: cut the mechanical damage part of nursery stock root because causing in handling and transportation, but notice that removal part must not exceed 20% of whole root, if nursery stock root mechanical damage part more than 50% or stem's terminal bud part major injury, then discards, otherwise has a strong impact on plant percent.
Leaching sterilization: get out container, according to carbendazim specification obtain solution, is put in the solution soaking disinfection for preparing 30 minutes, in case rotten by nursery stock.
Root-inducing powder soaks: get out container, according to root-inducing powder specification obtain solution, nursery stock is put in the solution prepared and soaks 15 minutes, hestening rooting.
Six, plant
Oil tree peony and other plant (pear tree, willow, capsicum, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers or pea) interplanting when planting.
Method for planting: nursery stock is put into the planting hole central authorities of digging, nursery stock root is fully contacted with soil, starts to banket, simultaneously slowly upwards carry seedling, allow root system unfold, when banket 20cm time, planting hole soil is treaded, continues to banket to burying kryptoblast 2cm place and ground maintains an equal level, then tread.The normal root water that after planting, pouring is sufficient in time, due to local water shortage, adopts local in planting hole to water, ensures that normal root water will water foot, irrigate.
Seven, to plant final-period management
Mend crack: watered normal root water after 1 day when ground (people can descend), surface has been carried out to soil in planting hole and loosens the soil and cover loosened soil, to cut off soil capillary, reduce moisture evaporation and play soil moisture conservation effect, prevent from hardening simultaneously.For the crack that nursery stock surrounding soil occurs, cover that loosened soil is simultaneously timely to be sealed crack, control moisture evaporates from gap, affects plant percent.
Loosening soil, weeding: need weed with a hoe every year 3 times, specifically can suitably increase depending on local careless gesture situation or reduce number of times of hoeing up weeds.
Fertilising: annual October combines ploughs deeply employing ditch spread, and the fertilizer through becoming thoroughly decomposed is selected in ditch spread, and fertilizing amount is 1000kg/ mu.
Watering: the precipitation of planting-site meets seedling growth substantially, without the need to manually irrigating, only carrying out winter irrigation in mid or late October, ensure to water and want sufficient, saturating.
Prune: prune twice every year, before entering the winter, wipe out withered branch, and centralized burning or buried, to reduce damage by disease and insect generation in the coming year, promote the sprouting of new branch; Second Year is cut root and newly sprout branch spring, prevents water sprout from grabbing nutrition, promotes old branch flower bud differentiation simultaneously.
The extermination of disease and insect pest: substantially do not have damage by disease and insect to occur during seedling growth, without the need to carrying out the extermination of disease and insect pest.
Embodiment 2
Difference from Example 1 is: in seedling transportation and storage process, increase moisturizing liver moss, and moisturizing liver moss sprays sufficient water before cartonning, is advisable under not becoming drippage.Before cartonning carton bottom and around first spread one deck thin plastic; the nursery stock layering of having tied is placed on plastic foil central authorities; one deck nursery stock one deck moisturizing liver moss, moisturizing liver moss not only plays the blodynamic effect of protection nursery stock root, also can alleviate the friction caused in transportation and damage.Plastic film to wrap after filling and packs by carton, divides evaporation with water prevention.
Must shrug off the moisturizing liver moss that nursery stock adheres to before transplanted seedling tree, otherwise liver moss imbeds the rear easily breed bacteria of soil, affects plant percent.
Stump process: the Second Year spring of nursery stock after surviving, selects weather to carry out stump process relatively gentle period.
Embodiment 3
One, to plant time and density
1.1 plant the time: plant autumn is time between 20 ~ October 10 July.
1.2 planting densities: cold district oil is planted at Chuan Shuidi with Paeonia papaveracea, and density is 1110 plants/acre, spacing in the rows 50cm.
Two, selection of seedling
The blue crane of Fruit variety volleys, select seedling age to be the bareroot seedling of life in 2 years, branch stalwartness, root system be complete, terminal bud and lateral bud full, have no mechanical damage, without damage by disease and insect.
Three: the packaging of nursery stock, transport and storage
Seedling packing: the nursery stock dug is heeled in process in nursery stock production, heel in ground humidity 60 ~ 70%, cartoning Container Transport is taked in the transport of nursery stock: from taking out nursery stock with heeling in, every 30 strain a bundles, lash rope with plastics to tie, when lashing, classification basically identical for nursery stock length is lashed, below 30cm ties together in nursery stock centre position, if nursery stock length is greater than 30cm, can in nursery stock two ends 1/3 place bundle twice, rope degree of tightness wants appropriateness, and rope bundle too tightly can damage nursery stock epidermis, and too pine likely scatters in transit on the way.Often tying nursery stock quantity can not be too many, otherwise central local temperature can be caused too high, the growth of microorganism such as breed bacteria.Before cartonning carton bottom and around first spread one deck thin plastic; the nursery stock layering of having tied is placed on plastic foil central authorities; one deck nursery stock one deck moisturizing liver moss; moisturizing liver moss sprays enough water before cartonning; humidity is advisable under not becoming drippage; moisturizing liver moss not only plays the blodynamic effect of protection nursery stock root, also can alleviate the friction caused in transportation and damage.Plastic film to wrap after filling and packs by carton, divides evaporation with water prevention.
Seedling transportation: nursery stock production ground and planting-site distance 180km, can complete transport in the same day.Simultaneously when casing and transport, handling with care as far as possible, reducing mechanical damage.
Vanning transport is taked in the transport of nursery stock, takes the soonest, means of transportation the most easily when cost-saving, and haulage time can not more than 8 days, because the respiration of root system, the long meeting of haulage time makes local temperature drift in the middle of nursery stock, and easy breed bacteria, is unfavorable for that nursery stock survives.This kind of transportation resources solves the extensive long-distance transport problem of oil with tree peony nursery stock, can ensure the survival rate of nursery stock, again for foreign exchange earning creates condition.
Nursery stock is stored: the nursery stock dug must be left in shady and cool warehouse after arriving planting-site, within second day, plants, without the need to heeling in process.
If can not plant in one week need long storage time, the heat and moisture preserving storehouse that nursery stock can be placed near planting-site with good conditionsi, or carry out heeling in process, require that relative moisture of the soil is greater than 60% with heeling in entering.Before planting, nursery stock necessarily can not be exposed to the sun or wind, takes out when planting again.
Four, selection of land and whole
Selection of land: planting-site place can peaceful hondo town in Gansu, and annual precipitation is 300mm, soil pH value is 7.6, and good permeability and tree peony of not planting, possess the condition of planting.
Soil melioration: fertilizer (sheep excrement, cow dung or the chicken manure etc.) 1000kg that overall fertilising every mu of ground is executed to become thoroughly decomposed, ploughs deeply leveling after evenly spreading fertilizer over the fields;
Wholely: flood that oil tree peony root is the most water funk, annual precipitation is greater than 600mm needs ridging, and must carry out prevention waterlogging measure, has dug drain ditch.
For river water ground, adopt wide-narrow row planting, behind the whole ground of rotovator, take wide-and narrow-row to plant, wide row 80cm, narrow row 60cm, spacing in the rows 60cm; Plantation cave diameter 40cm, degree of depth 40cm.Be convenient to mechanized operation, can land utilization rate be improved simultaneously.
Five, transplanted seedling tree process in early stage
Transplanted seedling tree process in early stage under sunshade net or shady and cool place carry out, nursery stock makes sure to keep in mind to tan by the sun, wind, and is carried out as follows:
Except liver moss: must shrug off the moisturizing liver moss that nursery stock adheres to, otherwise liver moss imbeds the rear easily breed bacteria of soil, affects plant percent.
Cut damage: cut the mechanical damage part of nursery stock root because causing in handling and transportation, but notice that removal part must not exceed 20% of whole root, if nursery stock root mechanical damage part more than 50% or stem's terminal bud part major injury, then discards, otherwise has a strong impact on plant percent.
Leaching sterilization: get out container, according to thiophanate methyl specification obtain solution, is put in the solution soaking disinfection for preparing 15 minutes, in case rotten by nursery stock.
Root-inducing powder soaks: get out container, according to root-inducing powder specification obtain solution, nursery stock is put in the solution prepared and soaks 10 minutes, hestening rooting.
Six, planting technique
Interplant pattern: for convenience of final-period management, do not carry out interplanting when planting.
Method for planting: nursery stock is put into the planting hole central authorities of digging, nursery stock root is fully contacted with soil, starts to banket, simultaneously slowly upwards carry seedling, allow root system unfold, when banket 20cm time, planting hole soil is treaded, continues to banket to burying kryptoblast 2cm place and ground maintains an equal level, then tread.The normal root water that after planting, pouring is sufficient in time, due to local water shortage, adopts local in planting hole to water, ensures that normal root water will water foot, irrigate.
Seven, to plant final-period management
Mend crack: watered normal root water after 1 ~ 2 day when ground (people can descend), surface has been carried out to soil in planting hole and loosens the soil and cover loosened soil, to cut off soil capillary, reduce moisture evaporation and play soil moisture conservation effect, prevent from hardening simultaneously.For the crack that nursery stock surrounding soil occurs, cover that loosened soil is simultaneously timely to be sealed crack, control moisture evaporates from gap, affects plant percent.
Loosening soil, weeding: need weed with a hoe every year 3 ~ 4 times, specifically can suitably increase depending on local careless gesture situation or reduce number of times of hoeing up weeds.
Watering: the precipitation of planting-site meets seedling growth substantially, without the need to manually irrigating, only carrying out winter irrigation in mid or late October, ensure to water and want sufficient, saturating.
Prune: prune twice every year, before entering the winter, wipe out withered branch, and centralized burning or buried, to reduce damage by disease and insect generation in the coming year, promote the sprouting of new branch; Second Year is cut root and newly sprout branch spring, prevents water sprout from grabbing nutrition, promotes old branch flower bud differentiation simultaneously.
The extermination of disease and insect pest: substantially do not have damage by disease and insect to occur during seedling growth, without the need to carrying out the extermination of disease and insect pest.
Embodiment 4-difference from Example 1 is as follows:
One, to plant time and density
1.1 plant the time: plant autumn is time between 20 ~ October 10 July.
1.2 planting densities: arid hillside field is trimmed to reversed terrace, density 1042 plants/acre, line-spacing 1.00m, spacing in the rows 1.00m.
Two, selection of seedling
Fruit variety selects moral purity purple, select seedling age to be the bareroot seedling of life in 3 years, branch stalwartness, root system be complete, terminal bud and lateral bud full, have no mechanical damage, without damage by disease and insect.
Three, selection of land and whole
Selection of land: require that soil possesses cultivation condition substantially for arid hillside field, pH value is 8.2, and good permeability and tree peony of not planting, below annual precipitation 400mm should have irrigation conditions.
Soil melioration: the cake fertilizer 250kg that overall fertilising every mu of ground is executed to become thoroughly decomposed, ploughs deeply leveling after evenly spreading fertilizer over the fields, and makes sure to keep in mind unavailable raw fertile;
Four, to plant final-period management
Fertilising: fertilization mode is for spreading manuer in holes, and microorganism fertilizer, in process of planting, earthing one half imposes on planting hole edge, and fertilizing amount is 150g/ cave.
Embodiment 5--difference from Example 1 is as follows:
One, to plant time and density
1.1 plant the time: plant autumn is time between 20 ~ October 10 July.
1.2 planting densities: arid hillside field is trimmed to horizontal stand, density 667 plants/acre.Line-spacing 0.8m, spacing in the rows 0.8m.
Two, selection of seedling
Fruit variety grey crane, selects seedling age to be the bareroot seedling of life in 3 years, branch stalwartness, root system are complete, terminal bud and lateral bud full, have no mechanical damage, without damage by disease and insect.
Three, selection of land and whole
Selection of land: pH value is 6.5, and good permeability and tree peony of not planting, below annual precipitation 400mm should have irrigation conditions.
Soil melioration: fertilization mode is for spreading manuer in holes, and microorganism and soil vitality functional fertilizer 1:1 are mixed, in process of planting, earthing one half imposes on planting hole edge, and fertilizing amount is 150g/ cave.
Four, to plant final-period management
Fertilising: spread manuer in holes and select microorganism fertilizer, fertilizing amount is 150g/ cave.
Embodiment 6-difference from Example 1 is as follows:
Soil melioration step: fertilization mode is microorganism fertilizer of spreading manuer in holes, in process of planting, earthing one half imposes on planting hole edge, and fertilizing amount is 150g/ cave.
Embodiment 7-difference from Example 1 is as follows: soil melioration step: fertilization mode is soil vitality functional fertilizer of spreading manuer in holes, and in process of planting, earthing one half imposes on planting hole edge, and fertilizing amount is 150g/ cave.

Claims (10)

1. a cold district oil method for planting for tree peony, is characterized in that it comprises the steps:
A, selection of land
Planting-site is selected: annual precipitation is greater than the planting-site ridging of 600mm, and water ground in river adopts wide-narrow row planting; Arid hillside field requires that soil possesses cultivation condition substantially, pH value between 6.5 ~ 8.2, good permeability and tree peony of not planting;
B, soil melioration: apply fertilizer, select overall fertilising or partial fertilizer;
C, whole: the region that annual precipitation is greater than 600mm needs ridging;
The process in early stage of D, transplanted seedling tree
Cut damage: cut the mechanical damage part of nursery stock root because causing in handling and transportation,
Leaching sterilization: nursery stock to be put in bactericide soaking disinfection 15 ~ 30 minutes, in case rotten; Bactericide is selected from carbendazim or thiophanate methyl;
Root-inducing powder soaks: be put in by nursery stock in rooting powder solution and soak 10 ~ 15 minutes, hestening rooting;
E, to plant
Nursery stock is put into the planting hole central authorities of digging, nursery stock root is fully contacted with soil, bankets, slowly upwards carry seedling simultaneously, allow root system unfold, when earthing 2/3, planting hole soil is treaded; The normal root water that after planting, pouring is sufficient in time;
F, final-period management of planting
Mend crack: watered normal root water after 1 ~ 2 day, surface has been carried out to soil in planting hole and loosens the soil and cover loosened soil, to cut off soil capillary; If crack appears in nursery stock surrounding soil, cover loosened soil and crack is sealed simultaneously;
Loosening soil, weeding: weed with a hoe every year 3 ~ 4 times.
2. a kind of cold district oil according to claim 1 method for planting of tree peony, it is characterized in that: oil is planted in two seasons with the tree peony time of planting, plant spring, in 10 ~ April 20 March, after soil thaws, plants when daily mean temperature reaches 10 DEG C time; Plant autumn is time between 20 ~ October 10 July.
3. a kind of cold district oil method for planting of tree peony according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: in the whole ground of step C, water ground in river adopts wide-narrow row planting, wide line width 80 ~ 100cm, the wide 60cm of narrow row, and single file configures; Arid hillside field requires that soil possesses cultivation condition substantially, pH value between 6.5 ~ 8.2, good permeability and tree peony of not planting; Arid hillside field is trimmed to reversed terrace or horizontal stand according to landform horizontal line, reversed terrace width 1.5 ~ 3m, and horizontal stand width is not less than 1m; Water ground, river planting density is 1110 ~ 1330 plants/acre, and spacing in the rows is 50 ~ 60cm; Arid hillside field planting density is 667 ~ 1042 plants/acre, and line-spacing is 0.8 ~ 1.00m, and spacing in the rows is 0.8 ~ 1.00m.
4. the method for planting of tree peony of a kind of cold district oil according to Claims 2 or 3, it is characterized in that: nursery stock kind be chosen as that purple plague purpura is white, Lan He volleys, moral purity purple, grey crane, match queen, saussurea involucrata, timely, erythema is white, beautiful butterfly, purple phoenix, powder lotus, red golden stamen or blue lotus, selection seedling age is the bareroot seedling of life in 2 ~ 3 years.
5. a kind of cold district oil according to claim 4 method for planting of tree peony, it is characterized in that: before transplanted seedling tree, increase moisturizing liver moss in the packaging of nursery stock and transport, before nursery stock cartonning carton bottom and around paving layer of plastic film, one deck nursery stock one deck moisturizing liver moss.
6. a kind of cold district oil method for planting of tree peony according to claim 5, is characterized in that: in described step D process in early stage, before transplanted seedling tree, nursery stock storage place is heat and moisture preserving storehouse or shady and cool warehouse place, in no-wind environment; When described step e is planted, oil tree peony and other plant interplanting, other plant comprises pear tree, willow, capsicum, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers or pea.
7. a kind of cold district oil method for planting of tree peony according to claim 6, is characterized in that: in step B soil melioration, fertilizer 1000 ~ 1500kg that overall fertilising every mu of ground is executed to become thoroughly decomposed or cake fertilizer 250kg; Or take partial fertilizer, be affixed by the mixture of a kind of or this two seed manure in microorganism fertilizer, soil vitality functional fertilizer in the planting hole dug, fertilizing amount is 150g/ cave.
8. a kind of cold district oil according to claim 7 method for planting of tree peony, it is characterized in that: step F is planted in final-period management, combine annual October to plough deeply and adopt ditch spread or ring-type fertilising, the fertilizer through becoming thoroughly decomposed is selected in ditch spread, and fertilizing amount is 1000kg/ mu; Spread manuer in holes and select cake fertilizer or microorganism fertilizer, fertilizing amount is 150g/ cave.
9. a kind of cold district oil according to claim 8 method for planting of tree peony, it is characterized in that: step F is planted in final-period management, prunes twice every year to nursery stock, before entering the winter, wipe out withered branch, and centralized burning or buried, Second Year is cut root and newly sprout branch spring; Ensure that draining is dredged, avoid ponding, water every year 2 ~ 3 times; Northern area waters 10 ~ December 10 annual October, and waters foot, irrigates, and carries out winter irrigation.
10. a kind of cold district oil method for planting of tree peony according to claim 9, it is characterized in that: step F is planted in final-period management, after Survival rate of nursery stock, select weather more gentle, the Second Year that rainfall is plentiful or the 3rd year spring carry out stump.
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CN105815104A (en) * 2016-06-01 2016-08-03 云南滇香国色农业科技有限公司 Four-step method for raising branching rate of transplanted oil-used peony
CN106034615A (en) * 2016-05-25 2016-10-26 郎溪县天香油用牡丹种植专业合作社 Oil peony plantation method
CN106105953A (en) * 2016-06-27 2016-11-16 全椒县西王镇成名家庭农场 A kind of method that pear tree is interplanted with Folium Camelliae sinensis
CN106386286A (en) * 2016-08-31 2017-02-15 大理青索花果山中药材种植有限公司 Cold and freezing preservation method of peony planting
CN106386355A (en) * 2016-09-19 2017-02-15 唐山供销农业开发有限公司 A cultivation method for increasing the yield of paeonia ostii through close planting and fertilizing
CN107493946A (en) * 2017-10-11 2017-12-22 苏州农业职业技术学院 Gardening cloth mulching plant anti-oil removing tree peony weeds in field method
CN107493858A (en) * 2017-07-21 2017-12-22 襄阳市林业科学研究所 The Hubei province oil cultural method of tree peony
CN107950262A (en) * 2017-12-04 2018-04-24 江苏省林业科学研究院 A kind of hills hillock cultivation oil herbicidal methods of tree peony
CN108496676A (en) * 2018-03-23 2018-09-07 湖北省林业科学研究院 A kind of oil tree peony overlay film composite plant method
CN109169130A (en) * 2018-09-12 2019-01-11 吉林冠州生物科技有限公司 Prolong the Region In Yanbian purple plague purpura oil cultural method of tree peony
CN109169129A (en) * 2018-09-12 2019-01-11 吉林冠州生物科技有限公司 Prolong the cultural method that the red oil of Region In Yanbian phoenix uses tree peony
CN111631062A (en) * 2020-04-29 2020-09-08 亿利首建生态科技有限公司 Plant planting management and protection method

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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CN106034615A (en) * 2016-05-25 2016-10-26 郎溪县天香油用牡丹种植专业合作社 Oil peony plantation method
CN105815104A (en) * 2016-06-01 2016-08-03 云南滇香国色农业科技有限公司 Four-step method for raising branching rate of transplanted oil-used peony
CN106105953A (en) * 2016-06-27 2016-11-16 全椒县西王镇成名家庭农场 A kind of method that pear tree is interplanted with Folium Camelliae sinensis
CN106386286A (en) * 2016-08-31 2017-02-15 大理青索花果山中药材种植有限公司 Cold and freezing preservation method of peony planting
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CN107493946A (en) * 2017-10-11 2017-12-22 苏州农业职业技术学院 Gardening cloth mulching plant anti-oil removing tree peony weeds in field method
CN107950262A (en) * 2017-12-04 2018-04-24 江苏省林业科学研究院 A kind of hills hillock cultivation oil herbicidal methods of tree peony
CN108496676A (en) * 2018-03-23 2018-09-07 湖北省林业科学研究院 A kind of oil tree peony overlay film composite plant method
CN109169130A (en) * 2018-09-12 2019-01-11 吉林冠州生物科技有限公司 Prolong the Region In Yanbian purple plague purpura oil cultural method of tree peony
CN109169129A (en) * 2018-09-12 2019-01-11 吉林冠州生物科技有限公司 Prolong the cultural method that the red oil of Region In Yanbian phoenix uses tree peony
CN111631062A (en) * 2020-04-29 2020-09-08 亿利首建生态科技有限公司 Plant planting management and protection method

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