CN101263777A - Method for using sponge block and solution culture facilities to breed vegetable seedling - Google Patents

Method for using sponge block and solution culture facilities to breed vegetable seedling Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101263777A
CN101263777A CNA2007101689454A CN200710168945A CN101263777A CN 101263777 A CN101263777 A CN 101263777A CN A2007101689454 A CNA2007101689454 A CN A2007101689454A CN 200710168945 A CN200710168945 A CN 200710168945A CN 101263777 A CN101263777 A CN 101263777A
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seedling
sponge block
seedlings
vegetable
groove
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CNA2007101689454A
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别之龙
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Huazhong Agricultural University
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Huazhong Agricultural University
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    • Y02P60/216

Abstract

The invention relates to a water culture method in raising seedlings of vegetable cavernosum, belonging to the technical field of vegetable seedling. The invention is characterized in that, the method has the matching between the water culture facility in raising seedlings of vegetable cavernosum and a nutrient solution specialized for seedlings; year-round production of water cultured vegetable seedlings is realized. The water culture method in raising seedlings of vegetable cavernosum has the advantages that, the growth process of the invention does not need to adopt convention nursery substrate; the drawbacks of conventional plug seedlings that the conventional plug seedlings are easy to be influenced by the nursery substrate and the conventional plug seedlings are not suitable to be used as water cultured vegetable are overcome; the nutrient required by the growth of the cultivated seedlings is provided by the special nutrient solution; the invention has the advantages of neat seedlings, no recovery period, short seedling period, high strong seedlings rate and other excellences.

Description

Utilize the method for sponge block and solution culture facilities to breed vegetable seedling
Technical field
The invention belongs to the grow seedlings of vegetable technical field, be specifically related to a kind of method of utilizing sponge block and solution culture facilities to breed vegetable seedling, it comprises new sowing matrix, solution culture facilities, nutrient solution and breeding method.
Technical background
Growing seedlings is the key technology that vegetables produce, and traditional grow seedlings of vegetable cycle is long, growth of seedling is irregular, sowing quantity is big, damage by disease and insect is serious, can not satisfy the needs that scale vegetable is produced.The vegetable plug seedling technology of wideling popularize application in recent years is to be seedling medium with light host material such as the peat composed of rotten mosses, vermiculite, cocoa husk, perlite, make container for plant growth with the cave dish, adopt the modern seedling growing process of mechanization precision drilling and once-seedling forming, have saving of labor, advantage such as laborsaving and efficient.But some outstanding shortcomings have also appearred in the existing point disk seedling growing practical application, as the quality of growing seedlings is subjected to the influence of factors such as the specification of physical property, chemical property and matrix nutrition supply, seedling-cultivating tray of matrix and seedling raising process water management, differ greatly between seedling and the seedling, if mismanagement very easily forms the excessive growth seedling.The seedling that this external application point disk seedling growing method is cultivated can't be used in water planting, because the base portion of cave dish seedling twines matrix, if be applied to water planting production, need wash the matrix of its root earlier off, labor intensive not only, and wash the root process and damage root system easily, cause long slow seedling process occurring after the field planting.Therefore seek the emphasis that new grow seedlings of vegetable just becomes the grow seedlings of vegetable research and development.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to overcome the defective that prior art exists, develop a kind of method of grow seedlings of vegetable, the present invention adopts a kind of new matrix (sponge block), solution culture facilities and supporting nutrient solution that is used for vegetable seedling sowing usefulness, realized batch production production water planting vegetable seedling, overcome existing cave dish seedling and be subjected to the seedling medium physicochemical property to influence the shortcoming that is not easy for the water planting vegetable growing with cave dish seedling.The needed nutrition of growth of seedling has and grows seedlings neatly by the nutrient solution supply, does not have slow seedling, the short and high outstanding advantage of rate in strong sprout of growing-seedling period.Seedling medium of the present invention adopts sponge block, and this material porous easily absorbs water, and its physical characteristic is fit to the growth of root system of plant very much.
Technical scheme that the present invention adopts is: the preparation that the present invention includes the structure and the grow seedling nutritional liquid of water planting culture facility.Described facility comprises a kind of seedling medium, carrier and the groove of growing seedlings, and wherein seedling medium is the polyethers sponge block, and it comprises plurality of sub sponge block (10), and each sub-sponge block base portion links to each other; Described carrier is polystyrene foam plate (7), and this plate is established field planting hole at regular intervals (6), on the polystyrene foam plate floatability nutrient solution of cultivation seedling.Will sponge block be positioned in the seedling culture hole plate that is covered with waterproofing membrane after the suction, treat that vegetable seeds shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally after, the cross-sow point (13) that is seeded in sub-sponge block is gone up (keeping the moistening of this sponge block with clear water).After treating that cotyledon is open and flat, divide seedling on polystyrene foam plate, and place nutrient solution to carry out the kickboard cultivation this plate.The described groove of growing seedlings is equipped with nutrient solution, has a husky head to connect flexible pipe every the 1m place and carries out the root oxygen supply by oxygen supply trunk line (2) and the oxygen supply branch pipe(tube) (3) that air compressor connects.
More detailed technical scheme is as described below:
A kind of vegetables water planting seedling-cultivating method, according to following step:
A kind of vegetables water planting seedling-cultivating method, earlier vegetable seeds is sowed on matrix, again seedling is placed under the solution culture facilities and cultivate into seedling, this facility comprises a kind of carrier and the groove of growing seedlings, described seedling medium adopts sponge block, described carrier is a kind of polystyrene foam plate (7), according to following steps production:
(1) will open vertical and horizontal otch (11,12) on the described sponge block, and with described planting seed on the cross-sow point (13) of sponge block, keep this sponge block moistening with clear water;
(2) with running water preparation grow seedling nutritional liquid, the effective element concentration content of this nutrient solution is as follows:
Cucumber seedling-raising prescription: NH 4 +-N 9mg/L, NO 3 --N 403mg/L, P 15.5mg/L, K 117mg/L, Ca 70mg/L, Mg 24mg/L, S 32mg/L, Fe 1.425-2.8mg/L, B 0.25mg/L, Mn 0.25mg/L, Zn 0.025mg/L, Cu 0.01mg/L, Mo 0.005mg/L, accent pH is 6.5-6.7;
Tomato seedling prescription: NH 4 +-N 6.12mg/L, NO 3 --N 217mg/L, P 10.54mg/L, K 78mg/L, Ca 30mg/L, Mg 12mg/L, S 16mg/L, Fe 1.425-2.8mg/L, B 0.25mg/L, Mn 0.25mg/L, Zn 0.025mg/L, Cu 0.01mg/L, Mo 0.005mg/L, accent pH is 6.5-6.7;
Romaine lettuce prescription: the NH that grows seedlings 4 +-N 4.5mg/L, NO 3 --N 186mg/L, P 7.75mg/L, K 78mg/L, Ca 20mg/L, Mg 6mg/L, S 8mg/L, Fe 1.425-2.8mg/L, B 0.25mg/L, Mn 0.25mg/L, Zn 0.025mg/L, Cu 0.01mg/L, Mo 0.005mg/L, accent pH is 6.5-6.7;
(3) with the seed culture of step (1) to the open and flat phase of cotyledon, divide seedling then;
(4) with the seedling replanting of step (3) to polystyrene foam plate (7), and this polystyrene foam plate (7) is transferred in the groove of growing seedlings (1) of step (2) the described nutrient solution of implantation step (2) in advance in this groove of growing seedlings (1);
(5) seedling that the seedling culture one-tenth of step (4) can be transplanted.
In the present invention, the technical scheme of optimizing is, seedling medium is preferably the polyethers sponge block, it comprises sub-sponge block (10), each sub-sponge block (10) base portion links to each other, and described carrier is preferably polystyrene foam plate (7), and its unit weight is 〉=23kg, the spacing of field planting hole is 5cm, and the density of field planting hole is 320 holes/m 2Or 525 holes/m 2
Description of drawings
Fig. 1: be the vegetables sponge block water planting of the present invention groove structural representation of growing seedlings.Among the figure: the 1-groove of growing seedlings, 2-oxygen supply trunk line, 3-oxygen supply branch pipe(tube), 4-air compressor.
Fig. 2: be the groove vertical view of growing seedlings of the present invention.Among the figure: the husky head of 5-.
Fig. 3: be polystyrene foam plate schematic diagram of the present invention.Among the figure: 6-field planting hole, 7-polystyrene foam plate.
Fig. 4: be sponge block schematic diagram of the present invention.Among the figure: 8-divides seedling groove otch 1, and 9-divides seedling groove otch 2,10-sponge block.
Fig. 5: be sub-sponge block enlarged diagram of the present invention.Among the figure: 11,12-vertical, horizontal otch, 13-cross-sow point.
Fig. 6: be seedling growing block side view of the present invention.Among the figure: 8,9-divides seedling groove otch, and 11,12-vertical, horizontal otch.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1
According to the program of growing seedlings and Figure of description shown in this specification " summary of the invention ", the invention will be further described.
(1) structure of vegetables water planting culture facility: the facility of present embodiment comprises liquid storage tank that grow seedlings of vegetable uses, the groove of growing seedlings (1), polystyrene foam plate plate (7), sponge block, flat seedling-cultivating tray (specification is 54 * 27cm, and is identical with common vegetable, flower seedling raising dish) and air compressor (design power is 185w).
Fig. 1 is the water planting of the present invention groove structural representation of growing seedlings, the gradient of this groove of growing seedlings (1) is designed to 5/1000ths, internal diameter is designed to 60cm or 120cm, external diameter (containing the both sides frame) is 80 or 140cm, the frame of this groove left and right sides is 10cm, and the height of groove is 20cm, and the passage between the groove is 50cm, the middle oxygen supply trunk line (2) of laying, its length is identical with the length of the groove of growing seedlings.The sealing of oxygen supply trunk line one end, the other end links to each other with air compressor.Be provided with oxygen supply branch pipe(tube) (3) every 0.5m on the oxygen supply trunk line, be connected with husky head (5) on it.The method of attachment of air compressor, oxygen supply trunk line and oxygen supply branch pipe(tube) can be with reference to accompanying drawing 2.The groove of growing seedlings adopts the similar structures of cement brick or other materials to make.If employing cement, cement plaster is all adopted in bottom land and both sides, guarantees that it does not seep water.Bottom at this groove is provided with discharge outlet, nutrient solution can be discharged after the end of growing seedlings.
The polystyrene foam plate schematic diagram that Fig. 3 uses for water planting of the present invention, unit weight 〉=the 23kg of this polystyrene foam plate, size is 40 * 60 * 2cm (wide * length * height), two kinds of specifications are arranged, and the user can select as required, and a kind of is to be fit to growing seedlings of melon and solanaceous vegetables, every plate field planting hole (6) number is designed to (7 holes of every row, 77 holes, totally 11 be listed as), pitch of holes is 5cm, plantation density is 320 holes/m 2, another kind of polystyrene foam plate is fit to wild cabbage class and greenery class grow seedlings of vegetable, and every plate field planting hole (6) is 126 holes (9 holes of every row, totally 14 row), and plantation density is 525 holes/m 2
The sponge block schematic diagram that Fig. 4 uses for water planting of the present invention, this polyethers sponge density is 34-37, according to cave this sponge block size of dish size design commonly used, is 52 * 26 * 3cm (length * wide * height), and every row is established 26 sub-sponge blocks, and every row are established 13 sub-sponge blocks.Line is for dividing seedling groove otch (8,9) anyhow among the figure, and otch is 2cm deeply, and all sub-sponge block base portions are continuous (Fig. 6) all.
Fig. 5 is the enlarged diagram of sub-sponge block.Figure neutron sponge block is of a size of 2 * 2 * 3cm (length * wide * height), have on it in length and breadth to otch (11 and 12), the point that two otch intersect is sowing point (13), this notch depth (is example with the romaine lettuce) be 0.8cm (because of vegetable species different with kind, can do suitable adjustment), seed can be sowed on the described cross-sow point (13) during sowing.
(2) according to the needs of vegetable growth to nutrition, the applicant has designed vegetable seedlings nutritious formula of liquid as shown in table 1 (seeing Table 1).
The design of table 1 vegetables water planting of the present invention grow seedling nutritional formula of liquid
(3) the water planting flow process (grow seedlings be example with romaine lettuce) of growing seedlings:
1, seed treatment and vernalization: the romaine lettuce seed that commerce is bought was soaked in water 1-2 hour, make it abundant suction, bind up with gauze, place it in the culture dish, it is moistening that water keeps, and puts into 4 ℃ of refrigerator diels then, will fill the culture dish of taking from the refrigerator seed again and put under the 20-30 ℃ of normal temperature condition, the conventional indoor natural light of employing shines or artificial lighting (1000-3000Lux) was cultivated 12-24 hour, just can sow when germination rate reaches 60%-70%.
2, preparation nutrient solution: calculate the consumption of nutrient solution according to the size of nutrition groove, keeping the height of nutrient solution in the nutrition groove is 8-10cm, calculates required fertilizer total amount according to the nutrition liquid measure that the vegetables water planting is required.The nutrient solution prescription that is provided according to this specification " summary of the invention ", grow seedlings with romaine lettuce and to be example, for easy to use, the applicant is mixed with mother liquor A in advance with nutrient solution of the present invention, B, C, wherein mother liquor A is as follows: potassium nitrate 2020g, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) 285g, after the epsom salt 615g dissolving, replenish running water to 50L (200 times of concentrated mother liquors), mother liquor B is as follows: nitrate of lime 1180g, the dissolving back replenishes running water to 50L (200 times of concentrated mother liquors), mother solution C is as follows: chelated iron (EDTA) 150g, boric acid 14.3g, manganese sulphate 10.65g, copper sulphate 0.4g, zinc sulphate 1.1g, ammonium molybdate 0.1g, the dissolving back replenishes running water to 10L (1000 times of concentrated mother liquors).Cultivation experiments is carried out in Hua Zhong Agriculture University water planting greenhouse, and each nutrition groove needs preparation nutrient solution 600L if keep liquid level 8-10cm.During application, get A liquid and each 3L of B liquid, C liquid 600mL, add water to 600L (this nutrient solution contains nitrate of lime 70.8g, potassium nitrate 121.2g, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) 17.1g, epsom salt 36.9g, chelated iron 9g, boric acid 0.858g, manganese sulphate 0.639g, copper sulphate 0.066g, zinc sulphate 0.024g and ammonium molybdate 0.006g).The cultivation of other vegetables is prepared according to similar method.
3, sowing: before the sowing polyethers sponge block is carried out dividing processing according to the mode shown in the accompanying drawing 4, making each sub-sponge block length * wide * height is 2 * 2 * 3cm, be immersed in the running water, make it fully absorb moisture, after in seedling-cultivating tray, spreading fluid-tight plastic film, sponge block is packed in the seedling-cultivating tray, seed of each sub-sponge block sowing, seed must be put on the cross-sow point (13) of this sub-sponge block during sowing, make its root downward, watering after planting keeps the water in the seedling-cultivating tray not to be higher than the cross-sow point degree of depth, along with the evaporation of moisture, need keep the skin wet every day.
4, divide seedling: treat the cotyledon of seedling open and flat after with sub-sponge block separately, the field planting hole (6) that is inserted on the polystyrene foam plate gets final product, the polystyrene foam plate of cultivation seedling is floated on the nutrient solution, the seedling root all is immersed in the nutrient solution, and the needed oxygen of root growth is supplied with by the oxygen supply arm that the method shown in the accompanying drawing 1-2 is inserted in the groove of growing seedlings.Air compressor is connected with timer, and per hour oxygen supply 15min stops 45min.
5, seedling management: during seedling culture, for generally not needing to change nutrient solution in the short gourd vegetables seedling raising process of growing-seedling period, long for the solanaceous vegetables seedling cycle, need to measure initial electrical conductivity (EC) value (according to conventional method), carry out moisturizing and extra-nutrition liquid in the seedling raising process as required, keep the pH of nutrient solution to be stabilized between the 6.5-6.7 constant substantially with the EC value.Through experiment repeatedly, adopt experiment index in strong sprout of the present invention to be significantly higher than existing substrate seedling method, invention effect of the present invention is as shown in table 2.
The comparison of table 2 the present invention and conventional container substrate seedling method effect
Annotate: the thick * of index=stem in strong sprout (overground part dry weight+underground part dry weight)/stem height.

Claims (3)

1, a kind of method of utilizing sponge block and solution culture facilities to breed vegetable seedling, earlier vegetable seeds is sowed on matrix, again seedling is placed under the solution culture facilities and cultivate into seedling, this facility comprises a kind of carrier and the groove of growing seedlings, it is characterized in that, described seedling medium adopts sponge block, and described carrier is a kind of polystyrene foam plate (7), according to following steps production:
(1) will open vertical and horizontal otch (11,12) on the described sponge block, and with described planting seed on the cross-sow point (13) of sponge block, keep this sponge block moistening with clear water;
(2) with running water preparation grow seedling nutritional liquid, the effective element concentration content of this nutrient solution is as follows:
Cucumber seedling-raising prescription: NH 4 +-N 9mg/L, NO 3 --N 403mg/L, P 15.5mg/L, K 117mg/L, Ca 70mg/L, Mg 24mg/L, S 32mg/L, Fe 1.425-2.8mg/L, B 0.25mg/L, Mn 0.25mg/L, Zn 0.025mg/L, Cu 0.01mg/L, Mo 0.005mg/L, accent pH is 6.5-6.7;
Tomato seedling prescription: NH 4 +-N 6.12mg/L, NO 3 --N 217mg/L, P 10.54mg/L, K 78mg/L, Ca30mg/L, Mg 12mg/L, S 16mg/L, Fe 1.425-2.8mg/L, B 0.25mg/L, Mn 0.25mg/L, Zn 0.025mg/L, Cu 0.01mg/L, Mo 0.005mg/L, accent pH is 6.5-6.7;
Romaine lettuce prescription: the NH that grows seedlings 4 +-N 4.5mg/L, NO3 --N 186mg/L, P 7.75mg/L, K 78mg/L, Ca20mg/L, Mg 6mg/L, S 8mg/L, Fe 1.425-2.8mg/L, B 0.25mg/L, Mn 0.25mg/L, Zn 0.025mg/L, Cu 0.01mg/L, Mo 0.005mg/L, accent pH is 6.5-6.7;
(3) with the seed culture of step (1) to the open and flat phase of cotyledon, divide seedling then;
(4) with the seedling replanting of step (3) to polystyrene foam plate (7), and this polystyrene foam plate (7) is transferred in the groove of growing seedlings (1) of step (2) the described nutrient solution of implantation step (2) in advance in this groove of growing seedlings (1);
(5) seedling that the seedling culture one-tenth of step (4) can be transplanted.
2, vegetables water planting seedling-cultivating method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described sponge block is the polyethers sponge block, and it comprises sub-sponge block (10), and each sub-sponge block (10) base portion links to each other.
3, vegetables water planting seedling-cultivating method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described polystyrene foam plate (7), unit weight be 〉=23kg, the spacing of field planting hole is 5cm, the density of field planting hole is 320 holes/m 2Or 525 holes/m 2
CNA2007101689454A 2007-12-19 2007-12-19 Method for using sponge block and solution culture facilities to breed vegetable seedling Pending CN101263777A (en)

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CN101898911A (en) * 2010-07-30 2010-12-01 宁夏大学 Tomatine sandy cultivation nutrient fluid and preparation method thereof
CN101913935A (en) * 2010-08-16 2010-12-15 宁夏大学 Compound fertilizer special for drip irrigation of cucumber in greenhouse and preparation method thereof
CN102884974A (en) * 2012-07-02 2013-01-23 杨建伟 Sponge seedling raising bed
CN103053394A (en) * 2012-12-19 2013-04-24 中国农业大学 Method and special seedling growing box for growing seedlings of apocynum venetum
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CN101898911A (en) * 2010-07-30 2010-12-01 宁夏大学 Tomatine sandy cultivation nutrient fluid and preparation method thereof
CN101913935A (en) * 2010-08-16 2010-12-15 宁夏大学 Compound fertilizer special for drip irrigation of cucumber in greenhouse and preparation method thereof
CN101913935B (en) * 2010-08-16 2012-10-03 宁夏大学 Compound fertilizer special for drip irrigation of cucumber in greenhouse and preparation method thereof
CN102884974A (en) * 2012-07-02 2013-01-23 杨建伟 Sponge seedling raising bed
CN103053394A (en) * 2012-12-19 2013-04-24 中国农业大学 Method and special seedling growing box for growing seedlings of apocynum venetum
CN103891507A (en) * 2014-03-28 2014-07-02 台州市绿沃川农场(普通合伙) Vegetable cultivation method
CN103891507B (en) * 2014-03-28 2016-03-30 台州市绿沃川农场(普通合伙) Vegetable cultivation implantation methods
CN103947528A (en) * 2014-05-05 2014-07-30 安徽科技学院 Hydroponic gynura bicolor indoor preparation method
CN103960087A (en) * 2014-05-05 2014-08-06 安徽科技学院 Light source control method for indoor production of water planted leaf lettuce
CN103960111A (en) * 2014-05-05 2014-08-06 安徽科技学院 Indoor production technology for water planted sonchus oleraceus
CN103975834A (en) * 2014-05-05 2014-08-13 安徽科技学院 In-house production technology for hydroponic swamp cabbages
CN103999749A (en) * 2014-05-05 2014-08-27 安徽科技学院 Gynura bicolor indoor producing technology by utilizing LED light source
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