JP4740518B2 - Automated liquid dispensing method and system for transfer lithography process - Google Patents

Automated liquid dispensing method and system for transfer lithography process Download PDF

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JP4740518B2
JP4740518B2 JP2002512749A JP2002512749A JP4740518B2 JP 4740518 B2 JP4740518 B2 JP 4740518B2 JP 2002512749 A JP2002512749 A JP 2002512749A JP 2002512749 A JP2002512749 A JP 2002512749A JP 4740518 B2 JP4740518 B2 JP 4740518B2
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substrate
template
liquid
patterned template
pattern
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JP2004504714A (en
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ウィルソン,シイ・グラント
エッカート,ジョン
コルバーン,マシュー
スリーニバサン,エス・ブイ
チョイ,ビュン・ジン
ベイリー,トッド
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ボード・オブ・リージエンツ,ザ・ユニバーシテイ・オブ・テキサス・システム
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Priority to US60/218,754 priority
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Priority to PCT/US2001/022536 priority patent/WO2002006902A2/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/0002Lithographic processes using patterning methods other than those involving the exposure to radiation, e.g. by stamping
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y10/00Nanotechnology for information processing, storage or transmission, e.g. quantum computing or single electron logic
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y40/00Manufacture or treatment of nanostructures
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/16Coating processes; Apparatus therefor
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/16Coating processes; Apparatus therefor
    • G03F7/164Coating processes; Apparatus therefor using electric, electrostatic or magnetic means; powder coating
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/26Layer connectors, e.g. plate connectors, solder or adhesive layers; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/28Structure, shape, material or disposition of the layer connectors prior to the connecting process
    • H01L2224/29Structure, shape, material or disposition of the layer connectors prior to the connecting process of an individual layer connector
    • H01L2224/29001Core members of the layer connector
    • H01L2224/2901Shape
    • H01L2224/29012Shape in top view
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/26Layer connectors, e.g. plate connectors, solder or adhesive layers; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/28Structure, shape, material or disposition of the layer connectors prior to the connecting process
    • H01L2224/30Structure, shape, material or disposition of the layer connectors prior to the connecting process of a plurality of layer connectors
    • H01L2224/3001Structure
    • H01L2224/3003Layer connectors having different sizes, e.g. different heights or widths
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/26Layer connectors, e.g. plate connectors, solder or adhesive layers; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/28Structure, shape, material or disposition of the layer connectors prior to the connecting process
    • H01L2224/30Structure, shape, material or disposition of the layer connectors prior to the connecting process of a plurality of layer connectors
    • H01L2224/301Disposition
    • H01L2224/3012Layout
    • H01L2224/3016Random layout, i.e. layout with no symmetry
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/01Chemical elements
    • H01L2924/01067Holmium [Ho]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/10Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices to be connected
    • H01L2924/146Mixed devices
    • H01L2924/1461MEMS

Description

[0001]
(Background of the Invention)
1. Field of Invention
The present invention relates generally to a liquid dispensing system and a dispensing method that can be applied to an imprint lithography process.
[0002]
2. Explanation of related technology
Transfer lithography is a technique that can print features on the substrate that are less than 50 nm in size. Transfer lithography has the potential to replace photolithography as an option for semiconductor manufacturing in sub-100 nm regimes. Several transfer lithography processes were introduced during the 1990s, but most of them have multiple limitations that cannot be used as a practical alternative to photolithography. Limitations of these prior art include, for example, large changes with temperature, the need for high pressure, and the use of flexible templates.
[0003]
Recently, a transfer lithography process may be used to transfer high resolution patterns from a quartz template to a substrate surface using low pressure at room temperature. In the Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (SFIL) process, a hard quartz template is in indirect contact with the substrate surface in a photocurable liquid material. The liquid is cured by applying light, and the pattern of the template is transferred to the cured liquid.
[0004]
By using a hard and transparent template, a high resolution overlay can be incorporated as part of the SFIL process, and by using a low viscosity liquid that can be processed at low pressure and room temperature by photocuring, it is desirable No layer strain is minimal. Layer strain makes it extremely difficult to perform overlay alignment.
[0005]
Bubbles and local deformations cause major defects in devices manufactured by transfer lithography. High transfer pressures used in some transfer processes cause distortions that make overlay alignment extremely difficult. In order for transfer lithography to be successful, it is important to apply the liquid used for transfer lithography with a micro area and volume of a level of less than 100 nm.
[0006]
Prior art processes for applying a thin layer of liquid to a substrate required the use of a spin coating scheme. The spin coating method utilizes the application of a relatively viscous liquid (eg, about 20 centipoise (CPS) or more) to the substrate. If a highly viscous liquid is used, a uniform distribution of the liquid on the substrate becomes possible.
[0007]
Summary of the Invention
The method for forming a pattern on a substrate is achieved by providing a photocuring liquid on the substrate. A photo-curing liquid is a composition that chemically changes in the presence of light. Light that causes a chemical change includes radiation sources such as ultraviolet light (eg, light having a wavelength between about 300 nm and about 400 nm), chemical light, visible light, infrared light, and electron beam sources and x-ray sources. is there. Chemical changes appear in a variety of ways. Chemical changes include, but are not limited to, any chemical reaction that results in polymerization. In some embodiments, the chemical change forms an initiator that can initiate a chemical polymerization reaction in the composition forming the lens.
[0008]
In one embodiment, the photocurable composition is a photoresist composition. Photoresist compositions include any composition that cures upon exposure to UV light. A feature of a photoresist composition is that only those portions of the composition that are exposed to light (eg, ultraviolet light) cause a chemical reaction. Any of a variety of photoresist agents widely used in the semiconductor industry can be used. In one embodiment, the photocurable composition includes an acylating monomer.
[0009]
In most photolithographic processes, the photoresist agent typically has a high viscosity (about 20 centipoise (cps or greater)). For transfer lithography, the use of highly viscous liquids makes it increasingly difficult to produce sub-100 nm structures. Low viscosity liquids have been found to produce much more accurate regeneration products with sub-100 nm structure. In one embodiment, the photocured liquid has a viscosity of less than about 20 cps, preferably less than about 10 cps and more preferably less than about 5 cps.
[0010]
When the photocuring liquid is applied to the substrate, the patterned template is oriented on the substrate portion where the photocuring liquid is applied. When processing a semiconductor, a plurality of semiconductor devices are formed on a single substrate. Individual semiconductor devices are formed in a plurality of layers. Each of these layers is sequentially formed on the previously formed layer. Due to the small feature size of the individual components of the semiconductor device, the alignment of each layer with respect to other layers is extremely important for the semiconductor device to function properly. Prior to curing, the template and substrate are properly aligned to ensure alignment of the newly formed layer and the underlying layer.
[0011]
When the alignment between the template and the substrate is completed, the processing is completed, and the photocurable liquid is irradiated with the curing light. At least a part of the photocuring liquid is cured by the curing light. When the photocuring liquid is at least partially cured, the template is removed, leaving a structure in the cured photocuring liquid that complements the pattern etched on the template.
[0012]
Application of the photo-curing liquid to the substrate can be achieved by various methods. In one embodiment, a liquid dispenser is coupled to the top frame of the transfer lithography device. The liquid dispenser is adapted to dispense a photocurable liquid onto the substrate. The liquid dispenser is adapted to apply a drop of liquid or a continuous stream to the substrate. Examples of liquid dispensers that can be used include, but are not limited to, displacement-based liquid dispensers, micro solenoid valve liquid dispensers, and piezoelectric actuated liquid dispensers. By using a liquid dispenser, the liquid can be applied to the substrate in a predetermined pattern. The predetermined pattern may be a single line, a plurality of lines, or a drop pattern.
[0013]
In one embodiment, the liquid dispenser is coupled to the frame of the transfer lithography device. In addition, an orientation stage including a template is coupled to the frame. The substrate is mounted on a substrate stage disposed below the alignment stage. The substrate stage is configured to controllably move the substrate in a plane substantially parallel to the template. The photocuring liquid is applied to the substrate by moving the substrate relative to the liquid dispenser and controlling the amount of liquid applied to the substrate. According to this method, the liquid can be applied to the substrate in various patterns. Such a pattern is predetermined in order to minimize or eliminate the formation of bubbles or pockets between the template and the substrate. In use, when the template is positioned in the vicinity of the substrate, the liquid is dispersed and the gap between the template and the substrate is filled. As the gap fills, bubbles or pockets appear as liquid fills the gap. The bubbles or pockets are formed by a pattern in which the liquid forms a closed loop before the gap is filled. In some embodiments, a pattern in which a closed loop state is avoided is predetermined. Patterns used to minimize bubble and pocket formation include sinusoidal patterns, X patterns, and patterns that include multiple liquid drops.
[0014]
The process of transfer lithography is also used to produce a flat surface on the substrate. The flatness used in this specification is defined as a change in the curvature of the substrate surface. For example, a flatness of 1 μm indicates that the curvature of the surface has changed by 1 μm above and / or below the center point of the flat surface. In one embodiment, a non-patterned, substantially flat template is used to produce a flat cured layer on the substrate. The flatness of this flat template is less than about 500 nm. In order to flatten the surface, a photo-curing liquid is placed on the surface. A flat cured liquid layer is formed on the surface of the substrate by bringing a non-patterned substantially flat template into contact with the liquid and directing the curing light toward the photocuring liquid.
[0015]
When either the patterned template or the non-patterned template comes into contact with the liquid disposed on the substrate surface, a deformation force is applied to the template by the liquid. This deformation force deforms the template in such a way as to change the desired transfer feature. In some embodiments, this deformation force is used to self-correct the positioning of the template relative to the substrate. In most embodiments, it is desirable for the template and the substrate to be parallel. Because both the substrate and the template have a plurality of irregular features on their surface, the “parallel orientation” used herein is drawn through the centerline (ie, the center of the template or substrate). Is used to mean that they are parallel to each other. In some embodiments, the device disclosed herein is used to position the template in a substantially parallel arrangement with respect to the substrate. The device includes an actuator and a flexure that allows for precise positioning of the template relative to the surface.
[0016]
In an alternative embodiment, the template positioning device with respect to the substrate has a certain flexibility embedded in the device. For example, the flexible member is adapted to move according to the pressure applied to the template. When the template is positioned in the vicinity of the substrate, the flexible member moves due to the pressure of the liquid against the template. By controlling the amount of movement allowed by the liquid pattern and the flexure arm, the template becomes “self-correcting” for a substantially parallel orientation. The liquid force on the template causes the template to pivot about a pivot point defined by the movement of the flexure member.
[0017]
The techniques herein can be used for many devices. For example, a semiconductor device can be manufactured. The semiconductor device comprises at least some features having a lateral dimension of less than about 200 nm, preferably less than 100 nm. Such features are formed by forming a transfer photoresist layer on the semiconductor substrate and patterning the semiconductor substrate using the transfer photoresist layer as a mask. Other devices formed by a transfer lithography process that have a feature size of less than about 250 nm include optoelectronic devices, biological devices, MEMS devices, photonic devices, surface acoustic wave devices, microfluidic devices, and microoptical devices. There is.
[0018]
Other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent upon reading the following detailed description and upon reference to the accompanying drawings.
[0019]
While the invention is susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific embodiments thereof are shown by way of example in the accompanying drawings and will be described in detail herein. However, the drawings and the detailed description to the drawings are not intended to limit the invention to the specific forms disclosed by them, and conversely, the invention is defined in the claims. It should be understood that all modifications, equivalents and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the invention are encompassed.
[0020]
(Detailed description of the invention)
The embodiments presented herein relate generally to manufacturing processes related to the manufacture of systems, devices, and small devices. More particularly, the embodiments presented herein relate to systems, devices, and processes related to transfer lithography. For example, these embodiments have the application of transferring very small features onto a substrate such as a semiconductor wafer. In addition to the applications described above, these embodiments have applications to other tasks, such as the manufacture of cost-effective micro-electro-mechanical systems (ie MEMS). You should understand that. In addition, embodiments have application to the manufacture of other types of devices including, but not limited to, patterned magnetic media for data storage, micro-optical devices, biological and chemical devices, X-ray optical devices, and the like. is doing.
[0021]
With reference to the figures, and in particular, FIGS. 1A and 1B, there is shown an array of templates 12 pre-positioned relative to a substrate 20 to transfer the desired features using transfer lithography. Specifically, the template 12 includes a surface 14 that is manufactured with a desired feature shape to be transferred to the substrate 20. In some embodiments, the transfer layer 18 is disposed between the substrate 20 and the template 12. The transfer layer 18 receives desired features from the template 12 via the transferred layer 16. As is well known in the art, the transfer layer 18 can provide a high aspect ratio structure (ie, feature) from a low aspect ratio transferred feature.
[0022]
For transfer lithography, it is important to keep the template 12 and the substrate 20 as close as possible to each other and in a parallel state. For example, for features with a width and depth of about 100 nm, a successful transfer lithography process requires an average gap of about 200 nm or less and a gap variation of less than about 50 nm with respect to the entire transfer region of the substrate 20. is there. The embodiments presented herein provide a method of controlling the spacing between the template 12 and the substrate 20 for successful transfer lithography given such stringent and precise gap requirements. .
[0023]
1A and 1B illustrate two types of problems that arise in transfer lithography. In FIG. 1A, since the template 12 is too close to the substrate 20 at one end of the transferred layer 16, the transferred layer 16 has a wedge shape. FIG. 1A illustrates the importance of keeping the template 12 and substrate 20 substantially parallel while transferring the pattern. FIG. 1B shows that the transferred layer 16 is too thick. Such a state is an extremely undesirable state. The embodiments shown herein provide systems, processes, and related devices that can eliminate the conditions shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B and other orientation problems associated with prior art lithographic techniques. The
[0024]
2A through 2E collectively illustrate one embodiment of a transfer lithography process at 30. In FIG. 2A, the template 12 is oriented at a distance from the substrate 20 such that a gap 31 is formed in the gap separating the template 12 and the substrate 20. The surface 14 of the template 12 is treated with a thin layer 13 that reduces the interfacial energy of the template and promotes separation of the template 12 from the substrate 20. Hereinafter, an alignment method and a device for controlling the gap 31 between the template 12 and the substrate 20 will be considered. The gap 31 is then filled with a substance 40 that conforms to the shape of the treated surface 14. Alternatively, in one embodiment, the substrate 20 is provided with a substance 40 prior to moving the template 12 to a desired position relative to the substrate 20.
[0025]
The substance 40 forms a transfer layer such as the transfer layer 16 shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B. The substance 40 is preferably a liquid that can fill the gap 31 in the gap 31 relatively easily without using high temperature and can seal the gap without requiring high pressure. The proper selection of material 40 will be discussed in further detail below.
[0026]
A curing agent 32 is applied to the template 12 in order to cure the material 40 and form a gap defined by the gap 31. According to this method, the desired feature 44 (FIG. 2D) can be transferred from the template 12 to the upper surface of the substrate 20. The transfer layer 18 is directly provided on the upper surface of the substrate 20. The transfer layer 18 facilitates amplification of features transferred from the template 12 to produce high aspect ratio features.
[0027]
As shown in FIG. 2D, the template 12 is removed from the substrate 20, leaving the desired features 44 on the substrate 20. Separation of the template 12 and the substrate 20 must be performed without detaching or tearing off the surface of the substrate 20 so that the desired features 44 remain intact. Embodiments described herein refer to methods and related systems (“peel pull” method) for peeling and pulling template 12 from substrate 20 after transfer that can maintain desired features 44. ) Is provided.
[0028]
Finally, in FIG. 2E, the size of the feature 44 transferred from the template 12 to the material 40 is vertically amplified by the action of the transfer layer 18, as is known when using a bilayer resist process. Has been. The resulting structure is further processed using well-known techniques to complete the manufacturing process. FIG. 3 summarizes, in flow chart form, one embodiment of a transfer lithography process, indicated generally at 50. Initially, in step 52, a rough orientation of the template and the substrate is performed to achieve a rough alignment of the template and the substrate. The advantage of the rough orientation in step 52 is that pre-calibration can be performed in a manufacturing environment where a large number of devices are manufactured with high efficiency and good manufacturing yield. For example, if the substrate has one of many dies on a semiconductor wafer, a rough alignment (step 52) is performed once for the first die and the other during a single production run. Can be applied to all dies. According to this method, the production cycle time can be shortened and the yield can be improved.
[0029]
In step 54, a substance is placed on the substrate. The material is a curable organosilicon solution or other organic liquid that becomes a solid when exposed to activating light. Because liquids are used, there is no need to use the high temperatures and pressures associated with prior art lithography techniques. Next, at step 56, the spacing between the template and the substrate is controlled to create a relatively uniform gap between the two layers that allows the precise orientation necessary for successful transfer. The embodiments presented herein provide devices and systems for achieving the required orientation (both coarse and fine orientation) at step 56.
[0030]
At step 58, the gap is closed by finely orienting the template to the substrate and material. The material is cured (step 59) and the cured material is shaped to have template features. Next, at step 60, the template and substrate are separated and the features of the template are transferred to the substrate. Finally, in step 62, the structure is etched using a pre-etch to remove residual material and a well-known oxygen etch technique to etch the transfer layer.
[0031]
In various embodiments, the template incorporates i) a planar surface having a template surface, ii) recessed in the template, iii) protruding from the template, or iv) a combination of the above unpatterned regions. Yes. Templates are manufactured using hard protrusions. Such protrusions provide a uniform spacer layer useful for particle tolerance and optical devices such as gratings and holograms. Alternatively, the template is manufactured using compressible protrusions.
[0032]
The template generally has a rigid body that supports the template via surface contact with i) side, ii) back, iii) front, or iv) combinations described above. Template support has the advantage of limiting template deformation or strain under applied pressure. In some embodiments, some regions of the template are coated with a reflective coating. In some such embodiments, holes are incorporated into the reflective coating of the template to allow light to enter or pass through the template. Such a coating is useful for template positioning when overlay correction is performed using interferometry. Such a coating also allows for curing using a source of curing agent that irradiates through the side rather than the top surface of the template. This makes the design of the template holder particularly flexible in gap sensing techniques and overlay mark detection systems. Template exposure is performed i) by normal incidence on the template, ii) from the diagonal of the template, or iii) through the side of the template. In some embodiments, a hard template is used in combination with a flexible surface.
[0033]
Templates include optical lithography, electron beam lithography, ion beam lithography, x-ray lithography, extreme ultraviolet lithography, scanning probe lithography, focused ion beam milling, interference lithography, epitaxial growth, thin film deposition, chemical etching, plasma It can be manufactured using etching, ion milling, reactive ion etching, or a combination of the above. The template is formed on a substrate having a planar, parabolic, spherical, or other surface topography. The template can be used with substrates having a planar, parabolic, spherical, or other surface topography. The substrate includes a pre-patterned topography and / or a thin film stack of multiple materials.
[0034]
In one embodiment shown in FIG. 4, the template comprises a patterned area 401, an entrainment channel 402 and an edge 403. The template edge 403 is used to hold the template in the template holder. Entrainment channel 402 prevents excess liquid from spreading to adjacent patterned areas by absorbing excess liquid, as discussed in more detail below. In some embodiments, the patterned area of the template is planar. Such an embodiment is useful for planarizing a substrate.
[0035]
In some embodiments, the template is manufactured with a multi-depth design. That is, the various features of the template are at different depths relative to the surface of the template. For example, the depth of the entrainment channel 402 is deeper than the depth of the patterned region 401. The advantage of such an embodiment is that the accuracy of sensing the gap between the template and the substrate is improved. It is difficult to sense very narrow gaps (eg, less than about 100 nm), thus adding a step of known depth to the template allows for more accurate gap sensing. The advantage of the dual-depth design is that it uses a standardized template holder to hold a given size transfer template containing dies of various sizes Be able to. A third advantage of the two depth design is that the peripheral region can be used to hold the template. In such a system, any part of the interface between the template and the substrate having a functional structure can be exposed to the curing agent. As shown in FIG. 5, the template 500 in which the depth of the peripheral region 501 is appropriately designed is in contact with the adjacent transfer members 502 and 503, but the peripheral region 501 of the transfer template 500 is separated from the transfer member 503. Maintain a safe vertical distance.
[0036]
As explained above, the two depth transfer templates are manufactured using various methods. In one embodiment shown in FIG. 6, a single thick substrate 601 having a high resolution and shallow depth die pattern 602 and a low resolution and deep peripheral pattern 603 is formed. Yes. As shown in FIG. 7, in one embodiment, a thin substrate 702 (eg, a quartz wafer) having a high resolution and shallow depth die pattern 701 is formed, and the die pattern 701 is cut from the substrate 702. And bonded to a thicker substrate 703. The substrate 703 is sized to fit the transfer template holder on the transfer machine. This adhesion is preferably achieved using an adhesive 704 having a hardener (eg, ultraviolet light) refractive index similar to that of the template material.
[0037]
FIGS. 8A, 8B and 8C show other transfer template designs, which are collectively referred to as number displays 801, 802 and 803, respectively. Each of the template designs 801, 802 and 803 includes a recessed area useful for gap measurement and / or absorption of excess liquid.
[0038]
In one embodiment, the template includes a mechanism based on the physical properties of the material and the geometry of the template to control the spread of the liquid. The amount of excess liquid that can be tolerated without causing loss of substrate area is limited by the interfacial energy, liquid density, and template geometry of the various materials. Thus, the relief structure is used to absorb excess liquid surrounding the desired molding area, ie the area surrounding the patterned area. This region is commonly referred to as a “kerf”. The relief structure in the kerf is recessed in the template surface, as discussed above, using standard processing techniques used to build the pattern or shaped relief structure.
[0039]
In conventional photolithography, the use of optical proximity correction in photomask design is becoming the standard for generating accurate patterns according to design dimensions. Similar concepts can be applied to micro- and nano-molding or transfer lithography. A substantial difference in the transfer lithography process is that the error is not due to diffraction or optical interference, but to a change in physical properties that occurs during processing. Such changes in physical properties determine the nature or necessity of relief corrections that have been devised in the geometry of the template. Such physical properties when the pattern relief structure is a conceptual template similar to the optical proximity correction used in optical lithography, designed to accommodate material changes (such as shrinkage or expansion) during transfer The error due to the change of the is eliminated. By taking into account changes in physical properties such as volume expansion or contraction, the relief structure can be adjusted to produce the exact replica features desired. For example, FIG. 9 shows a transfer example 901 formed without considering changes in material characteristics and a transfer example 902 formed considering changes in material characteristics. In some embodiments, shrinkage of the material during curing has deformed the template with features having a substantially rectangular profile 904. To compensate for such material shrinkage, the template features are provided with an angled profile 905.
[0040]
For the transfer lithography process, template durability and template release characteristics are important. The durable template is formed of a silicon substrate or a silicon dioxide substrate. Other suitable materials include, but are not limited to, silicon germanium carbide, gallium nitride, silicon germanium, sapphire, gallium arsenide, epitaxial silicon, polysilicon, gate oxide, quartz, or combinations thereof. The template also includes a material that is used to form a detectable feature, such as an alignment mark. For example, the detectable feature is formed of SiOx where x is less than 2. In some embodiments, x is about 1.5. This material is opaque to visible light but is said to be transparent to some activation light wavelengths.
[0041]
Experimental results have shown that the durability of the template can be improved by treating the template to form a thin layer on the surface of the template. For example, an alkylsilane layer, a fluoroalkylsilane layer, or a fluoroalkyltrichlorosilane layer can be formed on the surface, and in particular, tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyltrichlorosilane (C 5 F 13 C 2 H 4 SiCl 3 ) Is used. By such treatment, a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is formed on the surface of the template.
[0042]
Optimize surface treatment process for low interfacial energy coverage. Such a coating can be used to make a transfer template for transfer lithography. The processed template has desirable release characteristics over the unprocessed template. For example, a newly processed template has an interface free energy α of about 14 dynes / cm. treated have. Interfacial free energy α on the surface of the untreated template untated Is about 65 dynes / cm. The processing procedures disclosed herein result in a thin film having a high level of durability. If it is durable, it can be a template that can withstand many transfers during manufacture, so it is highly desirable that it be excellent in durability.
[0043]
The coating on the template surface is formed using either a liquid phase process or a gas phase process. In the case of a liquid phase process, the substrate is immersed in the precursor solution and solvent, and in the case of a gas phase process, the precursor is delivered via an inert carrier gas. It is difficult to obtain a purely anhydrous solvent for use in liquid phase processing. Bulk phase moisture during processing can cause clamp deposits that adversely affect the final quality or coverage of the coating. In one embodiment of the gas phase process, the template is placed in a vacuum vessel, after which the vacuum vessel is cycle purged to remove excess moisture. Some adsorbed moisture may remain on the surface of the template. A small amount of moisture is required to complete the surface reaction that forms the coating. The reaction has the following formula:
R-SiCl3 + 3H2O => R-Si (OH) 3 + 3HCl
Can be described by: In order to facilitate the reaction, the temperature of the template can be brought to the desired reaction temperature via a temperature control chuck. Next, the precursor is supplied to the reaction vessel for a predetermined time. Reaction parameters such as template temperature, precursor concentration, flow geometry, etc. can be tailored to a particular precursor and template substrate combination.
[0044]
As described above, the substance 40 is a liquid and can therefore fill the gap 31. For example, the substance 40 is a low viscosity liquid monomer solution. A suitable solution viscosity range is from about 0.01 cps to about 100 cps (measured at 25 ° C.). In the case of a high resolution (for example, less than 100 nm) structure, a low viscosity is particularly desirable. Specifically, for less than 50 nm, the viscosity of the solution should be about 25 cps or less, more preferably less than about 5 cps (measured at 25 ° C.). In one embodiment, a suitable solution includes a mixture of 50 wt% n-butyl acrylate and 50 wt% SIA0210.0 (3-acrylooxypropyltristrimethylsiloxane) silane. A small amount of a polymerization initiator (for example, a photoinitiator) can be added to this solution. For example, a 3 wt% solution of 1: 1 Irg819 and Irg184 and 5% SIB1402.0 are suitable. The viscosity of this mixture is about 1 cps.
[0045]
In one embodiment, a transfer lithography system includes an automated liquid dispensing method and system for dispensing liquid onto the surface of a substrate (eg, a semiconductor wafer). The automated liquid dispensing method uses a modular automated liquid dispenser with one or more extended dispenser tips. An automated liquid dispensing method uses an XY stage to generate relative lateral movement between the dispenser tip and the substrate. This method solves several problems of transfer lithography using low viscosity liquids. For example, this method eliminates bubble trapping and local deformation of the transfer area. Embodiments also provide a method for achieving a low transfer pressure while spreading the liquid across the gap between the transfer template and the substrate without unnecessarily discarding excess liquid.
[0046]
In one embodiment, the amount dispensed is typically 1 inch. 2 And less than about 130 nl (nanoliter) for the transfer area. When dispensing is complete, the next process includes exposing the template and substrate assembly to a curing agent. By separating the template and the substrate, a transfer image is left on top of the transfer surface. The transferred image is left on the remaining thin layer of exposed material. The residual layer is called the “base layer”. The base layer must be thin and uniform for manufacturable transfer.
[0047]
The transfer process requires high pressures and / or high temperatures at the template / substrate boundary, but for manufacturable transfer lithography processes that include high resolution overlay alignment, high pressures and high temperatures are avoided. There must be. The embodiments disclosed herein avoid the need for high temperatures by using a low viscosity photocuring fluid. Also, the transfer pressure is minimized by reducing the force required to spread the liquid over the entire transfer area. Thus, for liquid-based transfer lithography, the liquid dispensing process must satisfy the following characteristics:
1. Air bubbles should not be trapped between the template and the substrate.
2. In order to minimize particle generation, direct contact between the dispenser tip and the substrate must be avoided.
3. The pressure required to fill the gap between the template and the substrate must be minimized.
4). In order to reduce non-uniform local deformation at the template-substrate interface, non-uniform liquid build-up and / or pressure gradients must be minimized.
5. Dispensing of dispense liquid should be minimized.
[0048]
In some embodiments, a relative motion between the dispensing base liquid dispenser tip and the substrate is used to form a pattern having substantially continuous lines on the transfer area. Line cross-sectional size and line shape can be controlled by balancing dispense speed and relative motion. During the dispensing process, the dispenser chip is fixed in the vicinity of the substrate (eg, on the order of tens of microns). 10A and 10B illustrate two methods for forming a line pattern. The patterns shown in FIGS. 10A and 10B are sinusoidal patterns, but other patterns are possible. As shown in FIGS. 10A and 10B, either a single dispenser chip 1001 or a plurality of dispenser chips 1002 can be used to draw a continuous line pattern.
[0049]
Dispensing speed V d , And the relative velocity V of the substrate s Can be related as follows:
V d = V d / T d (Dispensing volume / dispensing cycle) (1)
V s = L / t d (Line length / Dispensing cycle) (2)
V d = AL ("a" is the cross-sectional area of the line pattern) (3)
Therefore
V d = AV s (4)
The width of the initial line pattern is usually determined by the tip size of the dispenser. The tip dispenser is fixed. In one embodiment, the liquid dispense controller 1111 (shown in FIG. 11) is used to dispense the volume of liquid to be dispensed (V d ) And the time required to dispense the liquid (t d ) Is controlled. V d And t d Is constant, increasing the length of the line reduces the cross-sectional height of the patterned line. The extension of the pattern length is achieved by increasing the spatial frequency of the periodic pattern. By reducing the height of the pattern, the amount of liquid displaced during the transfer process is reduced. By using multiple chips connected to the same dispense line, a longer length line pattern can be formed faster than with a single dispenser chip. In one embodiment, the discharge-based liquid delivery system includes a liquid container 1101, an inlet tube 1102, an inlet valve 1103, an outlet valve 1104, a syringe 1105, a syringe actuator 1106, a dispenser tip 1107, an X stage actuator 1109, and a Y stage. An actuator 1110, a dispenser controller 1111, an XY stage controller 1112, and a main control computer 1113 are provided. A suitable dispensing base dispenser can be purchased from Hamilton.
[0050]
FIG. 12 illustrates some undesirable liquid patterns or dispensing methods for low viscosity liquids. These dispensing patterns create one or more problems, including bubble trapping, local deformation, and liquid waste. For example, when a drop is dispensed in the center of the transfer area 1201 or when irregular lines are dispensed 1205, local deformation occurs in the template and / or substrate. When dispensing a plurality of drops 1202, or when dispensing a circumferential pattern line 1206, bubble trapping occurs. When another pattern having a pattern close to the closed circumference is dispensed 1204, bubble trapping also occurs. Similarly, in the case of a spray, i.e. a randomly displaced splash, 1203 also traps bubbles. When a substrate is spin-coated with a low viscosity liquid, a “dewetting” problem due to instability of the thin film arises. By dewetting, not a thin and uniform liquid layer, but a large number of micro liquid droplets are formed on the substrate.
[0051]
According to the liquid dispensing method of one embodiment, a plurality of micro liquid droplets that become a continuous body by spreading later are dispensed. FIG. 13 shows the case where five liquid drops are used. The five drops in this case are merely used for explanation. Other “open” patterns such as sinusoidal lines, “W” or “X” can also be implemented using this method. As the gap between the template and the substrate becomes narrower, the circular drop 1301 becomes thinner and wider and the adjacent drops become one 1302. Thus, even when the initial dispense does not include a continuous shape, the liquid spreads and air is expelled from the gap between the template and the substrate. Effective patterns for use with this method must be dispensed in such a way that as the splash spreads, they do not trap any air between the template and the substrate.
[0052]
Micro liquid droplets with precisely defined volumes are dispensed using a micro solenoid valve with a pressure support unit. Another type of liquid dispensing actuator includes a piezoelectric actuated dispenser. The advantages of a system with a micro solenoid valve dispenser compared to a dispense-based liquid dispenser are faster dispense time and more accurate control of volume. These advantages are particularly desirable when the size of the transfer is larger (eg, a few inches). FIG. 14 shows an embodiment of a system including a micro solenoid valve. This system includes a liquid container 1401, an inlet tube 1402, an inlet valve 1403, a pump 1404, an outlet valve 1405, a pump controller 1406, a micro solenoid valve 1407, a micro solenoid valve controller 1408, an XY stage 1409, an XY stage, A controller 1410 and a main computer 1412 are provided. A substrate 1411 is placed on the XY stage 1409. A suitable microvalve dispenser system can be purchased from Lee.
[0053]
FIG. 15A shows a large transfer area (eg, a few inches 2 In this case, the design of the pattern is useful. In this embodiment, liquid parallel lines 1503 are dispensed. The liquid parallel lines 1503 spread in such a way that air is expelled from the gap as the template 1501 approaches the substrate 1502. To facilitate the spreading of the line 1503 in the desired manner, the template 1501 can be brought closer to the gap in a deliberately wedged configuration (as shown in FIG. 15B). That is, the template / substrate gap is closed along line 1503 (eg, the wedge angle can be parallel to line 1503).
[0054]
An advantage of providing a well-distributed initial liquid layer is that the alignment error between the template and the substrate is compensated. This is due to the fluid dynamics of the thin layer of liquid and the compliance of the orientation stage. The lower part of the template comes into contact with the dispensed liquid earlier than the other parts of the template. As the gap between the template and the substrate decreases, the reaction force imbalance between the lower and upper portions of the template increases. This unbalance of forces modifies the movement of the template and the substrate so that the template and the substrate are substantially parallel.
[0055]
Successful transfer lithography requires precise alignment and orientation of the template with respect to the substrate in order to control the gap between the template and the substrate. The embodiments presented herein provide a system that can achieve accurate alignment and gap control in the manufacturing process. In one embodiment, the system comprises a high resolution XY translation stage. In one embodiment, the system provides a pre-calibration stage for performing a rough pre-alignment operation between the template and the substrate surface to allow relative alignment within the range of motion of the micro-motion orientation stage. This pre-calibration stage is only necessary when a new template is installed in the apparatus (often known as a stepper). The pre-calibration stage consists of a base plate, a flex component, and a plurality of micrometers or high resolution actuators that couple the base plate and the flex component.
[0056]
If the alignment alignment between the template and the substrate is independent of XY motion, the placement error need only be compensated once for the entire substrate wafer (eg, “overall overlay”). If the alignment alignment between the template and the substrate is coupled with XY motion and / or there is an extreme local orientation change on the substrate, the XY partial change of the template relative to the substrate must be compensated ( Ie field vs. field overlay). The overlay alignment problem will be discussed further in connection with the overlay alignment section. 21 and 22 show the overall overlay error compensation algorithm and the field-to-field overlay error compensation algorithm, respectively.
[0057]
In one embodiment, template and substrate orientation is achieved by a pre-calibration stage (either automatically using an actuator or manually using a micrometer) and a precision orientation stage. The precision orientation stage may be active or passive. Other mechanisms can be provided for either or both of these stages, but a flexure-based mechanism is preferred to avoid particles. The calibration stage is attached to the frame and the precision orientation stage is attached to the preliminary calibration stage. Such an embodiment thus forms a serial machine arrangement.
[0058]
The precision orientation stage includes one or more passive compliant menber. A “passive compliant member” generally refers to a member that obtains its motion from compliant. That is, the movement is activated by direct or indirect contact with the liquid. If the fine alignment stage is passive, the fine alignment stage is designed to have the most dominant compliance about the two alignment axes. The two orientation axes are orthogonal and are located on the lower surface of the template (described with reference to FIG. 43). If the template is square, usually the two orthogonal torsional compliance values are the same. The precision alignment stage is such that when the template is non-parallel to the substrate, such as when the template is in contact with liquid, the non-uniform liquid pressure due to non-parallel will quickly correct the alignment error Designed to. In one embodiment, this correction is performed with minimal or no overshoot. The precision orientation stage also maintains a substantially parallel orientation between the template and the substrate for a sufficiently long period of time to cure the liquid, as described above.
[0059]
In one embodiment, the fine orientation stage comprises one or more actuators. For example, a piezoelectric actuator (described with reference to FIG. 46) is suitable. In such an embodiment, the effective passive compliance of the fine orientation stage coupled with the pre-calibration stage must still be substantially torsional compliance about the two orientation axes. Both the geometric and material parameters of all structural and active elements contribute to this effective passive stiffness. For example, piezoelectric actuators are also compliant in tension and compression. Geometric and material parameters can be combined to obtain the desired torsional compliance about two orthogonal orientation axes. A simple approach for synthesizing geometric and material parameters is to make the actuator's compliance along the direction of movement of the actuator in the precision orientation stage greater than the structural compliance of the rest of the stage system. This provides a passive self-correction function when the non-parallel template contacts the liquid on the substrate. Also, this compliance must be selected so that the alignment error is corrected quickly with minimal or no overshoot. The fine alignment stage maintains a substantially parallel orientation between the template and the substrate for a period long enough to cure the liquid.
[0060]
The overlay alignment scheme includes accurate alignment of the transfer template and measurement of alignment error to achieve the desired transfer position on the substrate, and error compensation following the alignment error measurement. Measurement techniques used in proximity lithography, x-ray lithography and photolithography (eg, laser and interferometry, capacitance sensing, masks and automatic image processing of overlay marks on the substrate, etc.) should be appropriately modified Can be adapted to the transfer lithography process.
[0061]
Types of overlay errors in a lithography process include placement errors, theta errors, magnification errors, and mask distortion errors. An advantage of the embodiments disclosed herein is that there is no mask distortion error because the disclosed process operates at relatively low temperatures (eg, room temperature) and low pressure. Thus, in these embodiments, no significant strain is induced. Also, because these embodiments use a template made of a relatively thick substrate, mask (ie, template) distortion errors compared to other lithography processes where the mask is made of a relatively thin substrate. Is much smaller. In addition, because the entire template area for the transfer lithography process is transparent to the curing agent (eg, ultraviolet light), heating by energy from the curing agent is minimized. Due to the small heating, the occurrence of strain induced by heating is minimized compared to a photolithography process in which a significant portion of the bottom surface of the mask is opaque due to the presence of the metal coating.
[0062]
The placement error is generally due to an XY position error between the template and the substrate (ie translation along the X and / or Y axis). Theta errors are generally due to relative orientation errors around the Z axis (ie, rotation around the Z axis). Magnification errors are generally due to thermal or material induced shrinkage or expansion in the transfer area compared to the original patterned area on the template.
[0063]
In the transfer lithography process, if there is an excessive field-to-field surface change on the substrate, the alignment between the template and the substrate corresponding to the angles α and β shown in FIG. Must be implemented. In general, it is desirable that the change in the entire transfer area be less than about half the height of the transferred feature. If the alignment alignment is coupled with the XY position of the template and substrate, field-to-field placement errors must be compensated. However, in the case of the alignment stage embodiments shown herein, alignment alignment can be performed without inducing placement errors.
[0064]
In a photolithographic process using a focusing lens system, the mask and the substrate so that the images of the two alignment marks (one on the mask and the other on the substrate) can be placed on the same focusing plane. Is positioned. The alignment error is induced by referring to the relative positions of these alignment marks. In the transfer lithography process, while measuring the overlay error, the template and the substrate maintain a relatively narrow gap (less than a micrometer), so the overlay error measurement tool can detect two overlay marks from different planes. The focus must be on the same focusing plane. Such a requirement is less critical for the device if the feature is relatively large (eg, about 0.5 μm), but to achieve a high resolution overlay error measurement for critical features below the 100 nm region. Must capture images of two overlay marks on the same focusing plane.
[0065]
Therefore, an overlay error measurement method and error compensation method for a transfer lithography process must satisfy the following requirements.
1. The overlay error measurement tool must be able to focus on two overlay marks that are not coplanar.
2. The overlay error correction tool must be able to move the template and substrate relative to X and Y with a thin layer of liquid present between the template and the substrate.
3. The overlay error correction tool must be able to compensate for theta errors in the presence of a thin layer of liquid between the template and the substrate.
4). The overlay error correction tool must be able to compensate for magnification errors.
[0066]
The first requirement indicated above is i) by moving the optical imaging tool up and down (as in US Pat. No. 5,204,739) or ii) an illumination source having two different wavelengths Can be satisfied by using. In any of these methods, knowledge of the gap measurement between the template and the substrate is useful, particularly in the case of the second method. The gap between the template and the substrate is measured using one of several existing non-contact film thickness measurement tools including broadband interferometry, laser interferometry, and capacitance sensors.
[0067]
FIG. 24 shows the positions of the template 2400, the substrate 2401, the liquid 2403, the gap 2405, and the overlay error measurement tool 2402. The height of the measurement tool is adjusted 2406 based on the gap information to obtain two overlay marks on the same imaging plane. In order to satisfy this method, the image storage device 2403 is necessary. Also, the device for positioning the template and wafer must be isolated from the vibration of the vertical movement of the measuring device 2402. Further, if high resolution overlay alignment requires XY scanning motion between the template and the substrate, this approach cannot produce a continuous image of overlay marks. This approach is therefore compatible with relatively low resolution overlay alignment schemes for transfer lithography processes.
[0068]
FIG. 25 shows an apparatus for focusing two alignment marks from different planes onto a single focusing plane. The device 2500 takes advantage of the change in focal length due to light having different wavelengths being used as an illumination source. The apparatus 2500 includes an image storage device 2503, an illumination source (not shown), and a light collecting device 2505. Have distinct wavelengths that can be distinguished by using multiple individual light sources or by using a single broadband light source and inserting an optical bandpass filter between the imaging plane and the alignment mark Can generate light. Depending on the gap between the template 2501 and the substrate 2502, two different wavelengths are selected to adjust the focal length. As shown in FIG. 26, under each illumination, each overlay mark produces two images on the imaging plane. The first image 2601 is a clearly focused image. The second image 2602 is an out-of-focus image. Several methods have been used to remove individual out-of-focus images.
[0069]
In the first method, two images are received by an imaging array (eg, a CCD array) under an illumination source having light of a first wavelength. FIG. 26 shows the received image, which is collectively referred to by the number display 2604. Image 2602 corresponds to an overlay alignment mark on the substrate. The image 2601 corresponds to the overlay alignment mark on the template. When the image 2602 is focused, the image 2601 is out of focus, and vice versa. In one embodiment, certain image processing techniques are used to erase the geometric data corresponding to the pixels associated with the image 2602. The image of the substrate mark that is out of focus by that technique is removed, leaving an image 2601. Images 2605 and 2606 are formed on the imaging array using the same procedure as the second wavelength of light. This procedure removes the out-of-focus image 2606, thus leaving the image 2605. The two remaining focused images 2601 and 2605 are then combined on a single imaging plane 2603 and the overlay error is measured.
[0070]
The second method utilizes two coplanar polarization arrays and a polarized illumination source as shown in FIG. FIG. 27 shows an overlay mark 2701 and an orthogonally polarized array 2702. Polarization array 2702 is built on the template surface or placed above the template surface. Under the two polarized illumination sources, only the image 2703 is imaged on the imaging plane (corresponding to different wavelengths and polarizations). Thus, the defocused image is filtered out by the polarization array 2702. The advantage of this method is that it does not require image processing techniques to remove out-of-focus images.
[0071]
It should be noted that if the gap between the template and the substrate during overlay error measurement is too narrow, error correction becomes difficult due to increased stiction or shear force of the thin layer of liquid. Also, if the gap is too wide, an overlay error due to undesirable vertical motion between the template and the substrate will occur, so the optimum gap between the template and the substrate that will perform the measurement and correction of the overlay error must be determined.
[0072]
The optical lithography process uses overlay measurements based on moire patterns. In the case of a transfer lithography process where the two layers of the moiré pattern are not coplanar and overlap in the imaging array, it is difficult to obtain two separate images that are in focus. By carefully controlling the gap between the template and the substrate within the depth of focus of the optical measurement tool without direct contact between the template and the substrate, the moire Two layers of the pattern can be obtained simultaneously. Other standard overlay schemes based on moire patterns can be directly incorporated into the transfer lithography process.
[0073]
Placement errors are compensated using a capacitance sensor or laser interferometer and a high resolution XY stage. In embodiments where the alignment alignment between the template and the substrate is independent of XY motion, the placement error need only be compensated once for the entire substrate (eg, semiconductor wafer). Such a method is called “overlay”. If the alignment alignment between the template and the substrate is coupled to XY motion and there is an extreme local orientation change on the substrate, a capacitance sensor and / or laser interferometer can be used to -Y Partial change is compensated. Such a method is called “field-to-field overlay”. Figures 28 and 29 show suitable sensor embodiments. FIG. 28 illustrates one embodiment of a capacitance sensing system. The capacitance sensing system includes a capacitance sensor 2801, a conductive coating 2802, and a template 2803. Therefore, by sensing the difference in capacitance, the position of the template 2803 can be accurately measured. Similarly, FIG. 29 illustrates one embodiment of a laser interferometer system that includes a reflective coating 2901, a laser signal 2902, and a receiver 2903. Using the laser signal received by receiver 2903, the position of template 2904 is determined.
[0074]
Any magnification error is compensated for by carefully controlling the substrate and template temperatures. Utilizing the difference in thermal expansion characteristics of the substrate and template, the size of the existing patterned area on the substrate is adjusted to the size of the new template. However, when the transfer lithography process is performed at room temperature and low pressure, the magnitude of the magnification error is considered to be much smaller than the magnitude of the placement error or theta error.
[0075]
Theta errors are compensated using a theta stage that is widely used in photolithography processes. Theta error is compensated using two separate alignment marks that are separated sufficiently to provide a high resolution theta error prediction. Theta error is compensated when the template is positioned several microns away from the substrate. Therefore, the existing pattern is not sheared.
[0076]
Another problem associated with overlay alignment in transfer lithography processes using UV curable liquid materials is the visibility of alignment marks. When measuring overlay errors, two alignment marks, one on the template and one on the substrate, are used, but it is usually desirable to make the template transparent to the curing agent, so it is usually the template overlay.・ The mark does not contain opaque lines. Instead, the overlay mark on the template is a topographical feature on the template surface. In some embodiments, the mark is made of the same material as the template material. In addition, since the UV curable liquid tends to have a refractive index similar to that of the template material (for example, quartz), when the gap between the template and the substrate is filled with the UV curable liquid, the template overlay / It becomes extremely difficult to recognize the mark. If the overlay mark of the template is made of an opaque material (e.g. chrome), the UV curable liquid below the overlay mark will not be properly exposed to UV light, which is a highly undesirable condition.
[0077]
Two methods are disclosed for solving the problem of template overlay mark recognition in the presence of liquid. The first method uses an accurate liquid dispensing system with a high resolution gap control stage. A suitable liquid dispensing system and gap control stage are disclosed herein. For illustration purposes, FIG. 30 shows three overlay alignment steps. The position of the overlay mark and the liquid pattern shown in FIG. 30 are for illustrative purposes only, and should not be construed as limiting the invention. Various other overlay marks, overlay mark locations, and / or liquid dispensing patterns are also possible. First, in step 3001, the liquid 3003 is dispensed on the substrate 3002. Next, in step 3004, using a high resolution orientation stage, the gap between the template and the substrate is carefully controlled so that the gap between the template 3005 and the substrate 3002 is not completely filled with the dispensed liquid 3003. The In step 3004, the gap is only slightly larger than the final transfer gap. Since most of the gap is filled with liquid, overlay correction is performed as if the gap were completely filled with liquid. When the overlay correction is completed, the gap is brought close to the final transfer gap (step 3006). This allows the liquid to spread to the remaining transfer area. Since the change in gap between step 3004 and step 3006 is very small (eg, about 10 nm), no significant overlay error due to gap approach motion will occur.
[0078]
For the second method, a special overlay mark that appears to be an overlay measurement tool must be formed on the template, but not opaque to the curing agent (eg UV light). FIG. 31 shows an embodiment of this technique. In FIG. 31, the overlay mark 3102 on the template is not a completely opaque line but is formed by a fine polarization line 3101. For example, a suitable fine polarization line has a width of about 1/2 to 1/4 of the wavelength of the activating light used as the curing agent. The line width of the polarization line 3101 must be thin enough so that the activation light passing between the two lines is sufficiently diffracted to cure all liquid below the line. In such an embodiment, the activation light is polarized according to the polarization of overlay mark 3102. By polarizing the activation light, all template areas, including areas with overlay marks 3102, are exposed relatively uniformly. The light used to locate the overlay mark 3102 on the template is a special wavelength that does not cure the broadband light or liquid material. There is no need to polarize this light. Polarization line 3101 is substantially opaque to the measurement light and thus makes the overlay mark visible using the installed overlay error measurement tool. The fine polarization overlay mark is formed on the template using existing techniques such as electron beam lithography.
[0079]
In the third embodiment, the overlay mark is formed of a material different from that of the template. For example, the material selected to form the template overlay mark is substantially opaque to visible light but transparent to activation light (eg UV light) used as a curing agent. It is. For example, SiOx where X is less than 2 forms such a material. Specifically, a structure formed of SiOx with X being about 1.5 is substantially opaque to visible light but transparent to UV light.
[0080]
FIG. 32 collectively illustrates an assembly of a system 100 for calibrating and orienting a template, such as template 12, with respect to a substrate to be transferred, such as substrate 20, at 100. FIG. System 100 is utilized for mass production of devices in a manufacturing environment using a transfer lithography process as described herein on a machine such as a stepper. As shown, the system 100 is attached to a top frame 110 that supports a housing 120. The housing 120 includes a pre-calibration stage for roughly aligning the template 150 with respect to the substrate (not shown in FIG. 32).
[0081]
The housing 120 is coupled to the intermediate frame 114, and guide shafts 112 a and 112 b are attached to the intermediate frame 114 on the opposite side of the housing 120. In one embodiment, three guide shafts (in FIG. 32, the rear guide shaft is not visible) are used to support the housing 120 and slide up and down while the template 150 is translated vertically. is doing. Sliders 116a and 116b attached to corresponding guide shafts 112a and 112b around the intermediate frame 114 facilitate this vertical movement of the housing 120.
[0082]
System 100 includes a disc-shaped base plate 122 attached to the bottom portion of housing 120. Base plate 122 is coupled to a disc-shaped flexure ring 124. The flexure ring 124 supports the first flexure member 126 and the second flexure member 128 provided in the downwardly arranged orientation stage. Hereinafter, the orientation and configuration of the flexible members 126 and 128 will be discussed in detail. As shown in FIG. 33, the second flexure 128 includes a template support 130 that holds the template 150 in place during the transfer process. The template 150 typically includes a crystal piece on which desired features are formed. The template 150 also includes other materials according to well-known methods.
[0083]
As shown in FIG. 33, actuators 134 a, 134 b and 134 c are fixed within housing 120 and are operably coupled to base plate 122 and flexure ring 124. In operation, the actuators 134a, 134b and 134c are controlled so that movement of the flexure ring 124 is achieved. Actuator motion allows for rough preliminary calibration. In some embodiments, the actuators 134a, 134b, and 134c include high resolution actuators. In such an embodiment, the actuators are equally spaced around the housing 120. Such an embodiment allows the ring 124 to be translated very accurately in the vertical direction, thereby controlling the gap accurately. Thus, the system 100 can achieve rough orientation alignment of the template 150 with respect to the substrate to be transferred and precise gap control.
[0084]
Since the system 100 includes a mechanism that allows the template 150 to be accurately controlled, accurate orientation alignment can be achieved, and the template maintains a uniform gap with respect to the substrate surface. The system 100 also provides a method for separating the template 150 from the surface of the substrate, following transfer, without shearing features from the substrate surface. The configuration of the first flexible member 126 and the second flexible member 128, respectively, facilitates accurate alignment and gap control.
[0085]
In one embodiment, as shown in FIG. 51, an individual fixed support plate 5101 that is transparent to the curing agent is used to hold the template 5102 in place. Although the support plate 5101 on the back side of the template 5102 holds a transfer force, a separation force is generated by applying a vacuum between the fixed support plate 5101 and the template 5102. A piezoelectric actuator 5103 is used to support the template 5102 against lateral forces. This lateral support force is carefully controlled using a piezoelectric actuator 5103. This design also provides magnification and strain correction functions for layer-to-layer alignment in the transfer lithography process. Strain correction is extremely important to overcome stitching and placement errors present in template structures built by e-beam lithography and to compensate for distortions of structures already present on the substrate . Magnification correction is only necessary for one piezoelectric actuator on each side of the template (ie for a total of four piezoelectric actuators in the case of a four-sided template). The piezoelectric actuator is connected to the surface of the template in such a way that a uniform force is applied across the surface. On the other hand, strain correction must be performed on a plurality of individual piezoelectric actuators that apply individually controlled forces to each face of the template. Depending on the level of strain control required, the number of individual piezoelectric actuators is defined. The more piezoelectric actuators, the better strain control is provided. Magnification error correction and distortion correction are controlled correctly only when the top and bottom surfaces of the template are not constrained, so magnification error correction and distortion error correction use vacuum to constrain the top surface of the template. Must be completed before doing. In some embodiments, the template holder system shown in FIG. 51 has a mechanical design that will interfere with the hardener against a portion of the lower region of template 5102. However, this is not desirable because some of the liquid under the template 5102 does not cure. This liquid sticks to the template and will cause adverse effects on subsequent use of the template. The problem with the template holder is that it incorporates a set of mirrors into the template holder and the curative guided to the area under one edge of the template 5102 is bent, causing the other edge of the template 5102 to This can be avoided by diverting the disturbing curing agent in such a way as to cure the lower disturbing part.
[0086]
In one embodiment, high resolution gap sensing is achieved by designing the template such that the minimum gap between the substrate and the template is within a range where sensing techniques can be used. Since the gap being measured is maintained independent of the actual patterned surface gap, the control of the gap can be implemented within the effective range of the sensing technique. For example, if a spectral reflectance analysis technique is used with an effective sensing range of about 150 nm to 20 microns to analyze the gap, the template has features patterned in the template at a depth of about 150 nm or more. Must be. This ensures that the minimum gap to be sensed is larger than 150 nm.
[0087]
As the template is lowered toward the substrate, liquid is expelled from the gap between the substrate and the template. The gap between the substrate and the template approaches the practical lower limit where the viscous force approaches the equilibrium condition with the applied compressive force. This occurs when the surface of the template and the substrate are in close proximity. For example, this regime has a gap height of about 100 nm for a 1 cP liquid when a pressure of 14 kPa is applied to a template with a radius of 1 cm for 1 second. As a result, the gap is self-limiting if a uniform and parallel gap is maintained. Also, the amount of liquid that is expelled (or absorbed) can be clearly predicted. The amount of liquid absorbed can be predicted based on careful calculations of hydrodynamics and surface phenomena.
[0088]
When patterning production scale transfers, it is desirable to control the tilt and gap of the template relative to the substrate. To achieve orientation and gap control, templates manufactured using reticle fabrication techniques are: i) single wavelength interferometry, ii) multiwavelength interferometry, iii) elliptical polarization, iv) capacitance Sensor, or v) used in combination with gap sensing techniques such as pressure sensors.
[0089]
In one embodiment, a method for accurately measuring the gap between the template and the substrate is used to calculate the thickness of the thin film on the substrate. A description of a technique based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of reflection data obtained from a broadband spectrometer is disclosed herein. This technique can be used to measure the gap between the template and the substrate and the thickness of the thin film. For multilayer thin films, this technique provides an average thickness and thickness variation for each thin film. In addition, measurements at at least three different points through one surface can provide average gap information and orientation information between two adjacent surfaces, such as a template and a substrate in a transfer lithography process, for example. .
[0090]
In one embodiment, the gap measurement process is based on a combination of wideband interferometry and fast Fourier transform (FFT). Some applications in this industry use a variety of curve fitting techniques for broadband interferometry to measure the thickness of a single layer, but such techniques are particularly useful for transfer lithography processes. In the case of the multilayer thin film, real-time gap measurement cannot be provided. In order to solve such a problem, first, the reflectance is 1 / λ. high And 1 / λ low Is digitized in the wave number domain between The digitized data is then processed using an FFT algorithm. With this new technique, the peak of the FFT signal is clearly generated. This peak corresponds exactly to the measured gap. In the case of two layers, the FFT signal produces two distinct peaks that are linearly proportional to the thickness of each layer.
[0091]
For optical thin films, the oscillation in reflectivity is periodic in wavenumber (w) rather than wavelength (λ), as shown by the reflectivity of a single optical thin film given by:
[Expression 1]
Where ρ i, i + 1 Is the reflectance coefficient at the interface between the i-1 interface and the i interface, n is the refractive index, d is the thickness of the thin film to be measured (material 2 in FIG. 52), and α is the absorption of the thin film (material 2 in FIG. 52). It is a coefficient. Here, w = 1 / λ.
[0092]
Due to this property, Fourier analysis is a useful technique for determining the period of the function R represented by w. For a single thin layer, a well-defined single peak (p 1 Note that) is the result when a Fourier transform of R (w) is obtained. The film thickness (d) is a function of the position of this peak and is given by the following equation.
d = p 1 / (Δw × 2n) (8)
Where Δw = w f -W s , W f = 1 / λ min And w s = 1 / λ max It is.
[0093]
FFT is an established technique in which frequencies that are discrete signals are calculated in a computationally effective manner. This technique is therefore useful for field analysis and real-time applications. FIG. 34 illustrates one embodiment of a process flow for film thickness or gap measurement via an FFT process of the reflectance signal. In the case of multilayer thin films having different reflectivities, the peak position in the FFT process corresponds to the primary combination of each film thickness. For example, in the case of a two-layer thin film, two different peak positions are provided in the FFT analysis. FIG. 35 shows a method for accurately measuring the thicknesses of two thin films based on two peak positions.
[0094]
The embodiments shown herein allow the gap or thin film thickness to be measured even when the reflectance data oscillations include less than one complete period within the measured wavenumber range. In such a case, the FFT will result in an incorrect peak position. A novel method for solving such a problem and expanding the lower limit of the measurable film thickness is disclosed herein. Instead of using the FFT algorithm to calculate the vibration period, w s And w f Local maximum dot of the reflectance (w 1 ) Or local maximum point (w 2 ) Using an algorithm to find 1 And w 2 Period information dR / dw = 0 at is calculated. The reflectance R (w) in Equation 7 has its maximum at w = 0. The wave number range (Δw) of a typical spectrometer is w s It is getting bigger. For a spectrometer with a wavenumber range of 200 nm to 800 nm, Δw = 3/800, w s = 1/800. Therefore 0 and w s The vibration length of the reflectance data during the period is shorter than Δw. As shown in FIG. 36, assuming that w = 0 is the maximum point of R (w), there are two cases, a case where the minimum position is within the range of Δw and a case where the maximum position is present. Therefore, the film thickness is calculated as follows.
・ Case 1 WW0: Local minimum is w 1 If present. Therefore w 1 = Half of the periodic vibration, hence d = 0.5 / (w 1 × 2n)
・ Case 2 WW1: Local maximum is w 2 If present. Therefore w 2 = 1 period of periodic vibration, hence d = 1 / (w 2 × 2n)
[0095]
Practical configurations for measurement tools include broadband light sources, spectrometers with optical fibers, data collection substrates, and processing computers. Several existing signal processing techniques have improved the sensitivity of the FFT data. For example, but not limited to, techniques such as filtering, magnification, increasing the number of data points, different wavelength ranges, etc. can be utilized with the gap or film thickness measurement methods disclosed herein.
[0096]
The embodiments disclosed herein include a method for high accuracy gap measurement and orientation measurement between two planes (eg, template and substrate). Wideband interferometry and fringe-based interferometry are used for the gap measurement and orientation measurement methods shown here. In one embodiment, the method using broadband interferometry disclosed herein cannot accurately measure the disadvantages of a broadband interferometer, ie, a gap narrower than about 1/4 of the average wavelength of the broadband signal. It solves the shortcoming. Interference fringe-based interferometry is used to sense template orientation errors immediately after installation.
[0097]
A transfer lithography process can be performed to produce single and multilayer devices. Single layer devices such as micron sized optical mirrors, high resolution optical filters, light guides, etc. are manufactured by forming a thin layer of material of a specific geometry on a substrate. In some such devices, the thickness of the transferred layer is less than about ¼ of the average wavelength of the broadband signal and is uniform across the active area. The disadvantage of a broadband interferometer is that it cannot accurately measure gaps that are narrower than about 1/4 of the average wavelength of the broadband signal (eg, about 180 nm). In one embodiment, the template surface is etched with micrometer-sized steps that can be accurately measured. The step is etched in the form of a continuous line 3701 or in the form of a plurality of isolated dots 3702 at the part where the measurement is to be performed, as shown in FIG. From the viewpoint of maximizing the effective active area on the template, the isolation dot 3702 is preferable. Even if the template surface to be patterned is only a few nanometers from the substrate, a wideband interferometer can be used to accurately measure the gap without bothering with the minimum gap measurement problem.
[0098]
FIG. 38 shows a schematic diagram of the gap measurement described here. The probe 3801 can also be used in the case of an inclined configuration as shown in FIG. When using more than four probes, the gap measurement accuracy can be improved by using redundant information. For the sake of clarity, the description will be assured as using three probes. Step size h sAC2 Is expanded for clarity of explanation. Average gap h of the patterned area p Is
h p = [(H 1 + H 2 + H 3 ) / 3] -h s (9)
Given in. If the position of the probe is known ((x i , Y i ), Where the x and y axes are on the substrate surface), the relative orientation of the template relative to the substrate, the unit vector (n) perpendicular to the template surface relative to the frame where the xy axis is located on the top surface of the substrate Can be expressed as
n = r / ‖r‖ (10)
Where r = [(x 3 , Y 3 , H 3 )-(X 1 , Y 1 , H 1 )] × [(x 2 , Y 2 , H 2 )-(X 1 , Y 1 , H 1 ]]. n = (001) T Or h 1 = H 2 = H 3 Then complete alignment alignment between the two planes is achieved.
[0099]
The measured gap and orientation are used as feedback information to the transfer actuator. The size of the measurement broadband interference beam is about 75 μm. For practical transfer lithography processes, it is desirable to minimize the clear area that is only used to measure the gap, since no pattern can be etched into the clear area. Also, the interference to the hardener due to the presence of the measurement tool must be minimized.
[0100]
FIG. 40 shows a schematic diagram of a multilayer material on a substrate. For example, the substrate 4001 includes layers 4002 and 4003 and a liquid 4005 between the substrate 4001 and the template 4004. Using these material layers, multiple patterns are transferred vertically onto the substrate surface one layer at a time. The thickness of each layer in the clear region where gap measurement is performed using the light beam 4006 is uniform. An accurate measurement of the top layer thickness using broadband interferometry in the presence of a multilayer film is shown. Once the optical properties and thickness of the lower thin film layer are known accurately, gap information and orientation information between the template and the substrate surface (or metal deposit surface in the case of multilayer devices) can be obtained by measuring the thickness of the top layer. Obtainable. The thickness of each layer is measured using the same sensing measurement probe.
[0101]
When a new template is installed, or when mechanical components are reconfigured, orientation measurements and corresponding calibration must be performed. The alignment error between the template 4102 and the substrate 4103 is measured through an interference fringe pattern at the boundary between the template and the substrate as shown in FIG. When there are two optical flats, the interference fringe pattern appears as parallel dark bands and bright bands 4101. Orientation calibration is performed using the pre-calibration stage disclosed herein. A differential micrometer is used to adjust the relative orientation of the template with respect to the substrate surface. If no interference fringe band appears, this approach is used to correct the alignment error to be less than ¼ of the wavelength of the light source being used.
[0102]
42A and 42B, embodiments of the first flexure member 126 and the second flexure member 128, respectively, are shown in greater detail. Specifically, the first flexure member 126 includes a plurality of flexure joints 160 coupled to corresponding rigid bodies 164, 166. Flexible joint 160 and rigid bodies 164, 166 form part of arms 172 and 174 extending from frame 170. The deflection frame 170 has an opening 182. The opening 182 transmits a curing agent (for example, UV light) and reaches the template 150 when held by the support 130. In some embodiments, four flexible joints 160 provide movement about the first orientation axis 180 of the flexible member 126. As shown in FIG. 43, the frame 170 of the first flexible member 126 is provided with a coupling mechanism for coupling with the second flexible member 128.
[0103]
Similarly, the second flexible member 128 includes a pair of arms 202 and 204 extending from the frame 206. The arms 202 and 204 include a flexible joint 162 and corresponding rigid bodies 208 and 210. The rigid bodies 208 and 210 provide movement about the second orientation axis 200 of the flexure member 128. The template support 130 is integrated into the frame 206 of the second flexure member 128. Similar to the frame 182, the frame 206 has an opening 212 that allows the curing agent to pass therethrough and reach the template 150 held on the support 130.
[0104]
In operation, as shown in FIG. 43, the first flexure member 126 and the second flexure member 128 are joined to form an orientation stage 250. Braces 220 and 222 for facilitating the coupling of the first flexible member 126 and the second flexible member 128 are provided such that the first orientation axis 180 and the second orientation axis 200 are substantially orthogonal to each other. It has been. With such a structure, the first orientation axis 180 and the second orientation axis 200 intersect at approximately the pivot point 252 of the template substrate boundary 254. Since the first alignment axis 180 and the second alignment axis 200 are orthogonal and positioned on the boundary 254, fine alignment and gap control can be performed. Specifically, this structure achieves decoupling of orientation alignment from layer-to-layer overlay alignment. Further, as described below, the relative position of the first orientation axis 180 and the second orientation axis 200 allows the orientation used to separate the template 150 and the substrate without causing shearing of the desired features. A stage 250 is provided. Thus, features transferred from the template 150 remain intact on the substrate.
[0105]
Referring to FIGS. 42A, 42B and 43, the flexible joints 160 and 162 are notched and provide motion about a pivot axis positioned along the thinnest cross section of the notches of the rigid bodies 164, 166, 208 and 210. providing. This configuration results in two flex-based subsystems in a finely decoupled orientation stage 250 having decoupled compliant motion axes 180 and 200. Flexure members 126 and 128 are adapted so that movement of template 150 occurs about pivot point 252, thereby substantially eliminating "swings" and other movements that shear the transferred features from the substrate. Combined through the surface. Thus, the orientation stage 250 moves the template 150 about the pivot point 252 accurately, thereby removing the desired feature shear from the substrate from subsequent transfer lithography.
[0106]
Referring to FIG. 44, while the system 100 is operating, a Z translation stage (not shown) controls the spacing between the template 150 and the substrate without providing alignment alignment. Pre-calibration stage 260 performs a pre-alignment operation between template 150 and the substrate surface, bringing relative alignment within the range of motion of orientation stage 250. In certain embodiments, pre-calibration is only required once when a new template is installed on the machine.
[0107]
Referring to FIG. 45, a deflection model useful for understanding the operating principles of a fine decoupling alignment stage such as alignment stage 250 is shown generally at 300. The deflection model 300 includes four parallel joints, joints 1, 2, 3, and 4 that provide a nominal and rotating configuration for the 4-bar linkage system. Line 310 passes through joints 1 and 2. Line 312 passes through joints 3 and 4. Angle α 1 And α 2 Are selected such that the compliant alignment axis (ie, the orientation axis) is substantially located on the template-wafer boundary 254. As the fine orientation changes, the rigid body 314 between the joints 2 and 3 rotates about the axis represented by point C. Rigid body 314 is representative of rigid bodies 170 and 206 of flexure members 126 and 128.
[0108]
By attaching the second flexure component perpendicular to the first flexure component (as shown in FIG. 43), it has two decoupling orientation axes that are orthogonal to each other and located on the template-substrate boundary 254. A device is provided. The flexure component has an opening for passing the template 150 through a curing agent (eg, UV light).
[0109]
The alignment stage 250 can precisely align and move the template 150 with respect to the substrate. By adjusting the orientation, the lateral motion at the boundary can be completely ignored, and the torsional motion due to selectively constrained high structural stiffness around the boundary surface is completely ignored be able to. Another advantage of flexible members 126, 128 with flexible joints 160, 162 is that they do not produce the particles that a friction joint produces. In the case of a transfer lithography process, particles are particularly harmful, so this is an important factor for a successful transfer lithography process.
[0110]
Because precise gap control is required, the embodiments shown herein require the use of a gap sensing method that can measure minute gaps of the order of 500 nm or less between the template and the substrate. Such a gap sensing method requires a resolution of about 50 nanometers or less. Such gap sensing is provided entirely in real time. Since gap sensing is provided in real time, gap sensing can be used to generate a feedback signal for active control of the actuator.
[0111]
In one embodiment, a flexible member having active compliance is provided. For example, in FIG. 46, a flexible member provided with a piezoelectric actuator is collectively indicated by 400. The flexure member 400 is combined with the second flexure member to form an active orientation stage. The flexure member 400 generates a pure tilt motion with no lateral motion at the template / substrate boundary. By using such a flexible member, a layer can be transferred to the entire semiconductor wafer in a single overlay alignment step. This is in contrast to overlay alignment, which has a combined motion between orientation and lateral motion. Such an overlay alignment step disturbs the XY alignment and therefore requires a complex field-to-field overlay control loop to ensure proper alignment.
[0112]
In one embodiment, the flexure member 250 has greater stiffness in the direction where lateral movement or rotation is not desired, and less stiffness in the direction where the required orientation motion is desired. Such an embodiment provides a selective compliance device. That is, the flexure member 250 supports a relatively large load while achieving proper orientation movement between the template and the substrate.
[0113]
As discussed above, the separation of the template 150 and the transferred layer is a very important final step in the transfer lithography process. Because the template 150 and the substrate are almost perfectly parallel, the assembly of the template, transferred layer, and substrate provides a substantially uniform contact between the near optical flats. Such a system generally requires a large separation force. In the case of a flex template or flex substrate, separation is merely a “peeling process”, but from a high resolution overlay alignment perspective, a flex template or flex substrate is not desirable. For quartz templates and silicon substrates, this peeling process is not easy to perform, but the separation of the template and the transferred layer can be successfully performed by a “peel-pull” process. 49A, 49B and 49C illustrate a first peel-pull process. 50A, 50B, and 50C illustrate a second peel-pull process. The process of separating the template and the transferred layer also includes a combination of first and second peel pull processes.
[0114]
For clarity, reference number displays 12, 18, 20 and 40 are referenced according to FIGS. 1A and 1B, respectively, to refer to the template, transfer layer, substrate and curable material. After the material 40 is cured, either the template 12 or the substrate 20 is tilted and an angle 500 is deliberately induced between the template 12 and the substrate 20. Orientation stage 250 is used for this purpose. The substrate 20 is held at a predetermined position by a vacuum chuck 478. The relative lateral movement between the template 12 and the substrate 20 is not important during the tilting movement if the tilt axis is positioned close to the template / substrate boundary. When the angle 500 between the template 12 and the substrate 20 is sufficiently large, the template 12 and the substrate 20 are separated using only Z-axis motion (ie, vertical motion). This peel-pull method leaves the desired features 44 intact on the transfer layer 18 and substrate 20 without causing undesirable shear.
[0115]
50A, 50B and 50C illustrate a second peel-pull method. In the second peel-pull method, one or more piezoelectric actuators 502 are installed adjacent to the template. One or more piezoelectric actuators 502 are used to induce a relative tilt between template 12 and substrate 20 (FIG. 50A). One end of the piezoelectric actuator 502 is in contact with the substrate 20. Therefore, when the actuator 502 becomes large (FIG. 50B), the template 12 is pushed out of the substrate 20 and an angle is induced between the template 12 and the substrate 20. Next, the template 12 and the substrate 20 are separated using the Z-axis motion (FIG. 50C) between the template 12 and the substrate 20. One end of the actuator 502 is subjected to a surface treatment similar to the treatment of the lower surface of the template 12 in order to prevent the transferred layer from sticking to the actuator surface.
[0116]
In summary, the embodiments presented herein disclose systems, processes and related devices for successful transfer lithography without requiring the use of high temperature or high pressure. In certain embodiments, precise control of the gap between the template and the substrate that transfers the desired features from the template is achieved. It is also possible to separate the template and the substrate (and the transferred layer) without destroying the desired features or causing shear. Embodiments herein also disclose a method for holding a substrate in place during transfer lithography in the form of a suitable vacuum chuck. In addition, embodiments include a high precision XY translation stage suitable for use in transfer lithography systems. A method for forming and processing a suitable transfer lithography template is also provided.
[0117]
Although the present invention has been described with reference to various illustrative embodiments, the above description should not be construed in a limiting sense. Referring to the description, various modifications, combinations, and other embodiments of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Accordingly, the appended claims are intended to cover all such modifications or embodiments.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view showing a gap between a template and a substrate.
FIG. 2A is a cross-sectional view illustrating a transfer lithography process.
FIG. 2B is a cross-sectional view illustrating a transfer lithography process.
FIG. 2C is a cross-sectional view illustrating a transfer lithography process.
FIG. 2D is a cross-sectional view illustrating a transfer lithography process.
FIG. 2E is a cross-sectional view illustrating a transfer lithography process.
FIG. 3 is a process flow diagram showing the sequence steps of the transfer lithography process.
FIG. 4 is a bottom view of a patterned template.
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view showing a template positioned on a substrate.
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view showing a process for forming a transfer lithography template according to the first embodiment.
FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a process for forming a transfer lithography template according to a second embodiment.
FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view of a patterned template.
FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view showing a patterned alternative template design.
FIG. 10 is a top view showing a process for applying a curable liquid to a substrate.
FIG. 11 is a schematic diagram illustrating an apparatus for dispensing liquid during a transfer lithographic process.
FIG. 12 shows a liquid dispense pattern used in a transfer lithographic process.
FIG. 13 is a diagram showing a liquid pattern including a plurality of droplets on a substrate.
FIG. 14 is a schematic diagram illustrating an alternative apparatus for dispensing liquid during a transfer lithographic process.
FIG. 15 shows a liquid pattern including a plurality of substantially parallel lines.
FIG. 16 is a projection view of a substrate support system.
FIG. 17 is a projection view of an alternative substrate support system.
FIG. 18 is a schematic representation of a 4-bar linkage showing the flexure joint motion.
FIG. 19 is a schematic representation of a four bar linkage showing an alternative motion of a flex joint.
FIG. 20 is a projection view of a magnetic linear servo motor.
FIG. 21 is a process flowchart showing the entire process of multiple transfer.
FIG. 22 is a process flowchart showing local processing of multiple transfer.
FIG. 23 is a projection view showing the rotation axis of the template with respect to the substrate.
FIG. 24 shows a measurement device positioned on a patterned template.
FIG. 25 is a schematic diagram illustrating an optical alignment measurement device.
FIG. 26 shows a scheme for accurately measuring alignment of a template with respect to a substrate using alignment marks.
FIG. 27 shows a scheme for accurately measuring the alignment of a template with respect to a substrate using alignment marks using polarizing filters.
FIG. 28 is a schematic diagram illustrating a capacitance template alignment measurement device.
FIG. 29 is a schematic diagram illustrating a laser interferometer alignment measurement device.
FIG. 30 shows a scheme for accurately measuring alignment using a gap between a template and a substrate when the gap is partially filled with liquid.
FIG. 31 shows an alignment mark including a plurality of etched lines.
FIG. 32 is a projection view of an alignment stage.
FIG. 33 is an exploded view of an alignment stage.
FIG. 34 shows a process flow for a gap measurement technique.
FIG. 35 is a cross-sectional view showing a technique for accurately measuring the gap between two materials.
FIG. 36 is a graph showing an accurate measurement of the local minimum and local maximum of a gap.
FIG. 37 is a view showing a template having a gap measurement recess.
FIG. 38 is a schematic diagram illustrating the use of an interferometer to measure the gap between a template and an interferometer.
FIG. 39 is a schematic diagram illustrating probing a gap between a template and a substrate using a probe-prism combination.
FIG. 40 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a transfer lithographic process.
FIG. 41 is a schematic diagram illustrating a process for illuminating a template.
FIG. 42 is a projection view showing a flexible member.
43 shows first and second flexure members assembled for use. FIG.
FIG. 44 is a projected view of the bottom surface of the alignment stage.
FIG. 45 is a schematic diagram showing a flexure arm.
FIG. 46 is a transverse sectional view showing a pair of flexible arms.
FIG. 47 shows a scheme for planarizing a substrate.
48 is various views showing a vacuum chuck for holding a substrate. FIG.
FIG. 49 shows a scheme for removing a template from a substrate after curing.
FIG. 50 is a cross sectional view showing a method for removing a template from a substrate after curing.
FIG. 51 is a schematic diagram illustrating a template support system.
FIG. 52 is a side view showing a gap between a template and a substrate.

Claims (5)

  1. A method of forming a pattern on a substrate using a patterned template, comprising:
    Activating light curable liquid is applied to the substrate in a predetermined pattern, and the surface area of the activating light curable liquid on the substrate, so as to be smaller than the surface area of the patterned template, the portion of the substrate a step of applying the activating light curable liquid,
    Said activating light curable liquid that is applied is the patterned to substantially fill the gap template is arranged to be spaced apart with respect to said substrate, between said the patterned template substrate as the gap is generated, a step of positioning at a distance from each other the substrate and the patterned template,
    It said activating light curable liquid is substantially cured, in the cured activating light curable liquid, as in the pattern of the patterned template is formed, irradiated with activation light to said activating light curable liquid And steps to
    Separating said cured activating light curable liquid and the patterned template,
    With
    The predetermined pattern has a pattern in which the patterned template and the substrate are oriented at an interval, and when the patterned template comes into contact with the activation photocuring liquid, the bubbles of the activation photocuring liquid Is a pattern configured to suppress the formation of
    Wherein a call.
  2. A system for forming a pattern on a substrate using a patterned template,
    A top frame;
    A combined oriented stage to the top frame, the alignment stage,
    In use, a first flexure member adapted to pivot about a first orientation axis;
    A second flexure member coupled to the first flexure member, wherein the second flexure member is adapted to pivot about a second orientation axis during use;
    In use, coupled to the second deflection member, and a support for holding the patterned template, the patterned template is arranged in the support, its patterned template, using among the above to move about the pivot point of the first and second orientation axis intersects the orientation stage the second flexure member is coupled to the first flexible member,
    And the patterned template is placed in the support,
    A liquid dispenser coupled to the top frame,
    A made a substrate stage configured to support the substrate, it is positioned on the lower side of the alignment stage and adapted to move the substrate along a plane substantially parallel to the patterned template Substrate stage,
    System is configured, the liquid dispenser, wherein during use, that is adapted to apply the liquid to the substrate which is positioned on the substrate stage from.
  3. A system for forming a pattern on a substrate using a patterned template,
    A top frame;
    A combined oriented stage to the top frame, the alignment stage,
    In use, a first flexure member adapted to pivot about a first orientation axis upon contact with a liquid disposed on the substrate;
    In use, when contacted with disposed liquid onto the substrate, it is adapted to pivot about a second axis of orientation, and a second flexure member coupled to the first flexible member,
    In use, coupled to the second deflection member, and a support for holding the patterned template and the patterned template is arranged in the support, the patterned template, in use, to move about the pivot point, wherein the first and second orientation axis intersects the alignment stage and the second flexure member is coupled to the first flexible member,
    Templates placed during support,
    A substrate stage which is positioned and adapted to support the substrate on the lower side of the alignment stage,
    A system characterized by comprising.
  4. A method of forming a pattern on a substrate using a patterned template that is substantially transparent to curing light, comprising:
    Step activating light curable liquid is applied to the substrate in a predetermined pattern, and as activating light curable liquid by the presence of the curing light cures, for applying the activating light curable liquid on a part of the substrate When,
    A step wherein the patterned template, in contact with at least a portion of the activating light curable liquid disposed on the substrate, positioning the patterned template and the substrate,
    It said activating light curable liquid that is applied is, to substantially fill the substantially uniform gap between the said patterned template substrate, between the said patterned template substrate Adjusting the gap between
    As the activating light curable liquid by irradiation of the curing light cures substantially the step of irradiating the curing light to said activating light curable liquid through the template,
    Consisting of
    The predetermined pattern has a pattern in which the patterned template and the substrate are oriented at an interval, and when the patterned template comes into contact with the activation photocuring liquid, the bubbles of the activation photocuring liquid Is a pattern configured to suppress the formation of
    Wherein a call.
  5. A system for forming a pattern on a substrate using a patterned template,
    A top frame;
    An alignment stage, wherein the alignment stage is
    In use, comprising a support for holding the patterned template and the is disposed patterned template, the patterned template, about a pivot point of the surface of the patterned template An orientation substructure made to move, and
    An alignment stage and a liquid dispenser coupled to the top frame,
    Is positioned on the lower side of the alignment stage and a substrate stage for supporting the substrate to move the substrate along a plane substantially parallel to the patterned template,
    Consisting of
    The liquid dispenser is configured such that, in use, the activated photocurable composition is applied to the substrate in a predetermined pattern;
    The predetermined pattern has a pattern in which the patterned template and the substrate are oriented at an interval, and the activated photocuring composition is in contact with the patterned photocurable composition when the patterned template is in contact with the activated photocuring composition. A system configured to suppress the formation of bubbles .
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EP1303793B1 (en) 2015-01-28
US20080199816A1 (en) 2008-08-21
WO2002006902A2 (en) 2002-01-24
EP2270592A2 (en) 2011-01-05
JP5325914B2 (en) 2013-10-23
JP2011176321A (en) 2011-09-08
WO2002006902A3 (en) 2002-10-03
CN1262883C (en) 2006-07-05
AU7790701A (en) 2002-01-30
EP2270592A3 (en) 2011-11-30
CN1455888A (en) 2003-11-12
KR20030079910A (en) 2003-10-10
US20020094496A1 (en) 2002-07-18
KR100827741B1 (en) 2008-05-07
US9223202B2 (en) 2015-12-29
EP2270592B1 (en) 2015-09-02
JP2004504714A (en) 2004-02-12
EP1303793A2 (en) 2003-04-23

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