CN109220465B - Method for cultivating and trimming pepper trees - Google Patents

Method for cultivating and trimming pepper trees Download PDF

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CN109220465B
CN109220465B CN201811148586.0A CN201811148586A CN109220465B CN 109220465 B CN109220465 B CN 109220465B CN 201811148586 A CN201811148586 A CN 201811148586A CN 109220465 B CN109220465 B CN 109220465B
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pepper
seedling
soil
pits
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CN109220465A (en
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王斌
王逸帆
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/25Root crops, e.g. potatoes, yams, beet or wasabi
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/28Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing peat, moss or sphagnum
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/40Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor characterised by their structure
    • A01G24/44Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor characterised by their structure in block, mat or sheet form
    • A01G24/46Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor characterised by their structure in block, mat or sheet form multi-layered

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Botany (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Inorganic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Cultivation Of Plants (AREA)
  • Agricultural Chemicals And Associated Chemicals (AREA)
  • Pretreatment Of Seeds And Plants (AREA)
  • Catching Or Destruction (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for cultivating and trimming pepper trees, and belongs to the technical field of crop planting. The method comprises the following steps: 1) selection and treatment of a garden, 2) seed collection and treatment, 3) seedling raising, 4) seedling stage management, 5) overwintering management of a seedling stage, 6) transplanting and interplanting, 7) cultivation management and trimming, and 8) pest control. Compared with common interplanting cultivation, the method for interplanting Chinese prickly ash trees and coptis has the advantages that the Chinese prickly ash trees and the Chinese prickly ash trees grow vigorously, the yield of a single Chinese prickly ash plant is improved by 2.7%, the yield of the Chinese goldthread in each seedling raising pit area is improved by about 8.5%, and good economic benefit is obtained.

Description

Method for cultivating and trimming pepper trees
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of crop planting, and particularly relates to a method for cultivating and trimming pepper trees.
Background
The fructus Zanthoxyli is Largeleaf shrub or small arbor of Zanthoxylum of Rutaceae, and is important flavoring agent, spice and woody oil tree species. The pepper has the characteristics of fast growth, early fruiting, strong adaptability, easy cultivation, good management and the like, can obtain good economic benefit only by slight management, is an economic tree species for people in mountain areas to delight and enrich, has developed root system and strong soil fixation capability, and is an ecological tree species for keeping water and soil loss. Therefore, the pepper is an ideal afforestation tree species integrating economic benefits and ecological benefits, and has wide planting prospects.
Although pepper trees have the characteristics of strong adaptability and good management, the development of pepper industry is severely restricted by the problem of low seedling rate in pepper seedling cultivation. In addition, the growing environment and the tree shape of the pepper tree have a crucial influence on the yield, the quality and the picking difficulty of the pepper, and the pepper tree seedlings have poor adaptability and resistance and should be strictly managed and protected to ensure the growth vigor of the seedlings and timely recovery of growth after wintering. However, people usually adopt commercially purchased seedlings to transplant, and the commercially purchased seedlings are generally cultivated in a greenhouse, and the adaptability of the seedlings can be improved through seedling hardening, but the seedling cultivation land and the cultivation land are different, so that the seedlings have long adaptation period after transplantation, grow slowly and grow in the first year and are weak in growth vigor, and even cause dead seedlings. Meanwhile, a large-area planting method is adopted at present, 45-55 plants are planted in each mu according to the plant spacing of 3 x 4m, the pepper tree is dense in branches and poor in light transmission, and a single planting method is generally adopted, so that the waste of land resources is caused. In addition, due to the use of excessive inorganic fertilizer, plant diseases and insect pests in pepper planting areas are increased year by year, the yield is greatly reduced, and the economic benefit and production enthusiasm of pepper farmers are seriously influenced.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to: the method for cultivating and pruning the pepper trees is characterized in that seedling growing pits and pepper cultivation gardens are built on the barren slope bottom, and the technical means of same land, same quality and same source of seedling growing and transplanting are adopted, so that the problems of long adaptation period after transplanting, weak initial growth and low survival rate caused by different environments and soil qualities of seedling growing and cultivation are solved.
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a method for cultivating and pruning pepper trees comprises the following steps:
1) campus selection and processing
Selecting and preparing land in a garden: selecting a barren slope land which is sheltered from wind and exposed to the sun, has sufficient sunshine, has a deep soil layer and a slope of 10-15 degrees, building the barren slope land into a plurality of terraces with 2m width, digging a plurality of seedling raising pits in the same terraces with the depth of 1-1.2m, the length of each pit of 60-70cm and the width of 50-60cm, uniformly distributing 2 seedling raising pits in the same longitudinal direction, taking each 4 seedling raising pits as 1 unit, and arranging a cultivation tray at the middle position of each unit, wherein the diameter of the tray is 1-1.2 m;
seedling raising pit treatment: firstly, laying a layer of cobblestone as a waterproof layer at the bottom of a seedling growing pit, wherein the thickness of the waterproof layer is 2-3cm, then laying a layer of wheat straw section or wheat husk as a heat preservation layer on the cobblestone, wherein the thickness of the heat preservation layer is 8-7cm, then filling the soil into the pit, and filling the soil with the thickness of 60-80cm to form the seedling growing pit;
processing the cultivation disc: digging out soil with a depth of 20-30cm in the cultivation tray, mixing horse dung, Chinese medicine residue and sandy soil, filling the mixture into the cultivation tray, and covering the upper layer with field soil to obtain the cultivation tray;
2) seed collection and treatment
Firstly, selecting a fruit-period tree which is pure in variety, excellent in quality, robust in growth, excellent in quality and free of diseases and insect pests as a seed collecting parent tree;
seed treatment: the Chinese prickly ash seed shell is hard, oily and impermeable, and difficult to germinate, and is firstly degreased and stored before sowing, and the processing methods comprise the following steps: degreasing with alkaline water, storing cow dung, layering, coating, preserving heat and accelerating germination;
3) seedling raising
Sowing the treated pepper seeds in the seedling growing pits in 3-5cm in the middle ten days of the month to the beginning of 4 months, wherein the sowing depth is 12-15cm, and the seeds are watered thoroughly after being sowed;
4) seedling stage management:
when the height of the seedlings reaches 5cm, applying 1-1.2kg of decomposed farmyard manure into each seedling raising pit, intertilling and weeding in time after fertilization, and when a rainy season comes, performing waterlogging prevention and drainage work on the nursery;
5) management of overwintering in seedling stage
Before soil is frozen, filling wheat husks with the thickness of 2cm into seedling growing pits, covering 3cm of field soil, building a small arched shed by taking each seedling growing pit as a unit, sealing the arched shed by using a black film, and uncovering the arched shed to ventilate for 2-3 hours when the temperature exceeds 6 ℃ in the daytime in winter;
6) transplanting and interplanting
The method comprises the following steps of (1) transplanting pepper trees and improving seedling growing pits: transplanting the pepper tree seedlings into a cultivation disc according to a conventional method, filling modified field soil into the seedling growing pits until the distance between the seedling growing pits and the ground is 4-5cm, wherein the modified field soil is prepared by mixing wet field soil, vinegar residue, straw powder and humus according to the weight ratio of 100:5-10:40-60: 10-15;
secondly, interplanting coptis chinensis: after the pepper tree is transplanted and the seedling growing pits are improved, a seedling growing pit drainage facility is made, then the seedling growing pits are covered with mulching films, and the coptis seedlings are transplanted into the seedling growing pits at proper time.
7) Cultivation management and pruning
Performing water and fertilizer management according to a conventional management technology of pepper trees, and then performing tree pruning, wherein the specific pruning requirements are as follows:
firstly, primary shearing: selecting 3 main branches in spring of the next year after transplanting, pinching all the other new shoots, uniformly distributing the 3 main branches at intervals of 15-20cm, ensuring that the horizontal included angle is about 120 degrees, the opening angle of the main branches is preferably 40 degrees, and the shearing length of the main branches is 35-40 cm;
cutting in winter: cutting the extension branches to 45-50cm in length before winter in the second year after transplanting, selecting and reserving a first side branch on each main branch, wherein the distance between the first side branch and the main trunk is 30-40cm, the side branch is preferably selected at an inclined flat side or an inclined upper side, and the horizontal included angle between the side branch and the main branch is 50 degrees;
thirdly, shaping: in spring of the third year after transplanting, the second layer lateral branches of each main branch are cut to be 50-60cm long, the second lateral branches are required to be positioned opposite to the first lateral branches, branches with the distance of 25-30cm are preferably inclined to the upper side or inclined to the flat side, and the included angle of the second lateral branches is 45-50 degrees;
8) pest control
The main plant diseases and insect pests comprise Chinese prickly ash scale insects, Chinese prickly ash red spiders, Chinese prickly ash gall midge, Chinese prickly ash rust, Chinese prickly ash plaster diseases and Chinese prickly ash gummosis, and the diseases and insect pests are prevented and controlled by a conventional prevention and control method.
Compared with the prior art, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
1) the seedling raising of the pepper tree is the same as the cultivation land, the soil quality and the environment, and the barren slope bottom is utilized for building a garden, so that the problems of long adaptation period, weak initial growth and low survival rate after the current pepper tree is transplanted are solved, the pepper tree is an ecological tree species maintaining water and soil loss, the barren land resource is fully utilized, and the ecological environment is improved;
2) according to the method, the wild pepper and the coptis are interplanted by adopting a high-low dislocation terrain of 4 seedling raising pits-1 cultivation tray, so that the problem of poor growth potential of under-forest crops due to insufficient light transmittance of wild pepper trees is solved, and the high quality and high yield of the wild pepper and the under-forest crops are ensured; meanwhile, after the pepper seedlings are transplanted, the seedling culture pit can store water and fertilizer for the pepper trees, and can be sealed by a mulching film at low temperature in winter to form a structure, so that the coptis chinensis can be ensured to live through winter safely, and the root systems of the pepper trees can be prevented from being frostbitten;
3) the method improves the soil layer of the seedling pit, ensures the requirements of moisture and temperature required by the normal growth of the pepper tree seedlings, increases the oxygen content of the lower soil layer, enhances the respiratory strength of the root system and accelerates the growth of the seedlings;
4) the method optimizes the nutrition of the soil of the cultivation disc, meets the nutrients required by the growth of the pepper trees, reduces the application amount of the inorganic fertilizer, and reduces the morbidity of the pepper trees;
5) compared with common interplanting cultivation, the method for interplanting Chinese prickly ash trees and coptis has the advantages that the Chinese prickly ash trees and the Chinese prickly ash trees grow vigorously, the yield of a single Chinese prickly ash plant is improved by 2.7%, the yield of the Chinese goldthread in each seedling raising pit area is improved by about 8.5%, and good economic benefit is obtained.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions of the present invention are further described below with reference to specific examples so that those skilled in the art can more clearly understand the objects, technical solutions and effects of the present invention. It should be understood that the following examples are only for illustrating the present invention and are not to be construed as limiting the present invention.
Example 1
A method for cultivating and pruning pepper trees comprises the following steps:
1) campus selection and processing
Selecting and preparing land in a garden: in autumn 2016, selecting 10 mu of barren slope land with the characteristics of wind shielding, sunny exposure, sufficient sunshine, thick soil layer and 10-15 degrees of slope in Wen county of Longnan City, dividing the barren slope land into two parts, respectively marking the two parts as a test garden and a comparison garden, building the test garden into a plurality of terraces with the width of 2m, digging a plurality of seedling raising pits with the pit depth of 1-1.2m, the pit length of 60-70cm and the pit width of 50-60cm in the same longitudinal direction, uniformly distributing 2 seedling raising pits in the same longitudinal direction, taking each 4 seedling raising pits as 1 unit, and arranging a cultivation tray with the tray diameter of 1-1.2m in the middle position of each unit;
seedling raising pit treatment: firstly, laying a layer of cobblestone as a waterproof layer at the bottom of a seedling growing pit, wherein the thickness of the waterproof layer is 2-3cm, then laying a layer of wheat straw section or wheat husk as a heat preservation layer on the cobblestone, wherein the thickness of the heat preservation layer is 8-7cm, then filling the soil into the pit, and filling the soil with the thickness of 60-80cm to form the seedling growing pit;
processing the cultivation disc: digging out soil with a depth of 20-30cm in the cultivation tray, mixing horse dung, Chinese medicine residue and sandy soil, filling the mixture into the cultivation tray, and covering the upper layer with field soil to obtain the cultivation tray;
2) seed collection and treatment
Firstly, selecting a fruit-period tree which is pure in variety, excellent in quality, robust in growth, excellent in quality and free of diseases and insect pests as a seed collecting parent tree;
seed treatment: the Chinese prickly ash seed shell is hard, oily and impermeable, and difficult to germinate, and is firstly degreased and stored before sowing, and the processing methods comprise the following steps: degreasing with alkaline water, storing cow dung, layering, coating, preserving heat and accelerating germination;
3) seedling raising
Sowing the treated pepper seeds in the seedling growing pits in 3-5cm in the middle ten days of the month to the beginning of 4 months, wherein the sowing depth is 12-15cm, and the seeds are watered thoroughly after being sowed;
4) seedling stage management:
when the height of the seedlings reaches 5cm, applying 1-1.2kg of decomposed farmyard manure into each seedling raising pit, intertilling and weeding in time after fertilization, and when a rainy season comes, performing waterlogging prevention and drainage work on the nursery;
5) management of overwintering in seedling stage
Before soil is frozen, filling wheat husks with the thickness of 2cm into seedling growing pits, covering 3cm of field soil, building a small arched shed by taking each seedling growing pit as a unit, sealing the arched shed by using a black film, and uncovering the arched shed to ventilate for 2-3 hours when the temperature exceeds 6 ℃ in the daytime in winter;
6) transplanting and interplanting
The method comprises the following steps of (1) transplanting pepper trees and improving seedling growing pits: transplanting the pepper tree seedlings into a cultivation disc according to a conventional method, filling modified field soil into the seedling growing pits until the distance between the seedling growing pits and the ground is 4-5cm, wherein the modified field soil is prepared by mixing wet field soil, vinegar residue, straw powder and humus according to the weight ratio of 100:5-10:40-60: 10-15;
secondly, interplanting coptis chinensis: after the pepper tree is transplanted and the seedling growing pits are improved, a seedling growing pit drainage facility is made, then the seedling growing pits are covered with mulching films, and the coptis seedlings are transplanted into the seedling growing pits at proper time.
7) Cultivation management and pruning
Performing water and fertilizer management according to a conventional management technology of pepper trees, and then performing tree pruning, wherein the specific pruning requirements are as follows:
firstly, primary shearing: selecting 3 main branches in spring of the next year after transplanting, pinching all the other new shoots, uniformly distributing the 3 main branches at intervals of 15-20cm, ensuring that the horizontal included angle is about 120 degrees, the opening angle of the main branches is preferably 40 degrees, and the shearing length of the main branches is 35-40 cm;
cutting in winter: cutting the extension branches to 45-50cm in length before winter in the second year after transplanting, selecting and reserving a first side branch on each main branch, wherein the distance between the first side branch and the main trunk is 30-40cm, the side branch is preferably selected at an inclined flat side or an inclined upper side, and the horizontal included angle between the side branch and the main branch is 50 degrees;
thirdly, shaping: in spring of the third year after transplanting, the second layer lateral branches of each main branch are cut to be 50-60cm long, the second lateral branches are required to be positioned opposite to the first lateral branches, branches with the distance of 25-30cm are preferably inclined to the upper side or inclined to the flat side, and the included angle of the second lateral branches is 45-50 degrees;
8) pest control
The main plant diseases and insect pests comprise Chinese prickly ash scale insects, Chinese prickly ash red spiders, Chinese prickly ash gall midge, Chinese prickly ash rust, Chinese prickly ash plaster diseases and Chinese prickly ash gummosis, and the diseases and insect pests are prevented and controlled by a conventional prevention and control method during disease attack, and the method specifically comprises the following steps:
the Sichuan pepper scale insect is a general name for the scales of Sichuan pepper which are the general families of Homoptera scales, including drosicha corpulenta, mullerian, populus alba pelagia, and Pimpinella indica. They are characterized by that they can suck the juice of plant bud, leaf and twig by means of their special piercing-sucking mouthparts. Causing withered tips, yellow leaves and weak tree and death in severe cases.
The control method comprises the following steps: as the surfaces of the scale insects are covered with wax or mesochite, the medicament is difficult to permeate, and the prevention and treatment effect is poor. Therefore, the emphasis of coccid control is on the nymph stage.
Physical prevention and control: in winter and spring, the female insects and male pupas in cocoons overwintering on trunks or branches are killed by grass stalks or brushes;
chemical prevention and control: systemic insecticides, such as omethoate 1000 times, can be selected; particularly, the effect is good by 1000 times of 40% quick-killing 800-;
③ biological control: the scale insects have a plurality of natural enemies in the natural world, such as parasitic bees, ladybirds, lacewing flies and the like.
History of life and habits of red spiders of zanthoxylum bungeanum (tetranychus viennensis and red spiders of hawthorn): the female adults are fertilized to overwinter 6-9 generations in one year. Damage begins when pepper sprouts. The first generation of larvae began to appear in the elongation phase of inflorescence, with most harm in the full-bloom phase. After mating, the eggs lay on both sides of the main vein of the leaf back. Zanthoxylum bungeanum red spider also can parthenogenesis, and its offspring is male. The annual weight of the drought plants has a great relationship with the temperature and humidity of the area, and high-temperature drought is beneficial to the occurrence.
The control method comprises the following steps:
chemical control: a critical period is required to be grasped, and in 4-5 months, a 500-time liquid of 25% acaricide and a 3000-time liquid of 73% propargite are used for preventing and treating the mites in a strong incubation period and a high-speed period; or oxidizing dimethoate 1000 times with systemic pesticide; 800-fold rapid 40% killing;
② biological prevention and control: the pest mites have a plurality of natural enemies, such as some predatory mites and ladybug, and the like, and the field uses less broad-spectrum insecticide to protect the natural enemies.
Zanthoxylum bungeanum gall midge is also known as dry gall midge. The damaged twig can be stimulated to cause tissue hyperplasia to form a columnar insect gall, so that the damaged twig is hindered in growth and withered and dry in later period, and the tree is usually aged and killed.
The control method comprises the following steps:
cutting insect pest branches, timely coating a wound healing and corrosion prevention film at a pruning opening to protect a wound, preventing and controlling invasion of pathogenic bacteria, timely collecting the insect pest branches to burn off or deeply burying the insect pest branches and matching with coating and protecting trees on the trees to prevent pathogenic bacteria from landing on the trees to propagate so as to reduce the survival rate of the pathogenic bacteria;
preventing and treating by using a medicament: after the Chinese prickly ash is harvested, a specific medicament and a new high-fat film are sprayed in time to enhance the medicament effect, prevent and control the invasion of airborne pathogens, cotton is dipped in the medicament and smeared on the grain tumors, and the whole garden is sprayed with tree protection agent for disinfection.
Pepper root rot: pepper root rot often occurs in nurseries and adult pepper gardens. Is a soil-borne disease caused by Fusarium solani. The roots of the damaged plants are discolored and rotten and have peculiar smell, the root bark is separated from the xylem, and the xylem is black. The leaves on the ground are small and yellow, the branches are not completely developed, and the whole plant dies when the branches are serious.
The control method comprises the following steps: when seedlings are transplanted, the roots are soaked in 500 times of 50% thiophanate methyl solution for 24 hours. And (4) disinfecting the soil by using quicklime. And the root is irrigated with 800 times of solution of 500-; or 15% of Fengning 300-; and timely excavating and removing dead roots and dead trees, and burning the dead roots and the dead trees to eliminate disease infection sources.
Rust disease of pepper: the rust disease of zanthoxylum is one of important diseases of zanthoxylum leaves. In severe cases, the pricklyash peel falls off in advance, which directly affects the fruiting in the next year. At the beginning of the disease, 2-3mm water-stained chlorosis spots appeared on the front of the leaf, and yellow orange-colored blisters, named as summer sporophyte, appeared on the back of the leaf opposite to the diseased spots. The disease is caused by yellow rust of zanthoxylum bungeanum. The summer and winter spore stages occur on zanthoxylum bungeanum trees. The occurrence of pepper rust is mainly related to climate. The damage is easy to occur under the conditions of large rainfall, particularly large rainfall in the third quarter and large rainfall days.
The control method comprises the following steps:
firstly, preventing the medicament: when the disease is not developed, the Baume lime sulphur mixture can be sprayed with the bubaldo liquid or 0.1-0.2 percent, or the pepper tree is sprayed and protected by the 200-fold liquid carboxin 400-fold in the early to late 6 months;
preventing and treating by using a medicament: the method can control the generation of the summer sporophyte for the developed 1000 times liquid of the wettable triadimefon powder which can be sprayed by 15 percent, and the developed stage can be sprayed by 1:2:200 times Bordeaux liquid, or 0.1-0.2 Baume lime sulfur mixture, or 1000-1500 times liquid of the 15 percent wettable triadimefon powder.
The plaster disease of the pepper is a common disease of the pepper, and the pathogen of the plaster disease is basidiomycotina. The basidiocarps are in the shape of plaster and are tightly stuck on the branches and the trunks of the pepper tree. The mild case causes poor growth of branches and trunks and less fruit bearing; the serious causes the branches to die.
The control method comprises the following steps: smearing affected spots with lime mixture of Baume 4-5 degree.
Pepper gummosis: the gummosis of the pepper is caused by fungi, has strong infectivity, and can rapidly cause the phloem of the base of the trunk to be necrotic, rotten and gummosis, so that the leaves are yellowed and branches are withered.
The control method comprises the following steps: spraying the pesticide in due time, preventing, applying organic fertilizer in time, and spraying the pesticide in time to sterilize at the early stage of disease attack. The tree-protecting general is smeared at the gumming mouth in time to prevent and treat the gumming disease of the pepper, so that the catheter can be dredged smoothly, and the adverse resistance of plants is improved.
When the test planting of the above embodiment is carried out, the control test planting is also carried out, and the specific steps are as follows: after leveling and finely raking the control garden, transversely making a furrow at the middle position of the control garden, wherein the furrow width is 1-1.2m, and dividing the control garden into 2 parts which are marked as a control garden 1 and a control garden 2.
Transplanting the pepper seedlings cultured in the test garden to the ridge surfaces of the control garden 1, interplanting the coptis chinensis at the ridge intervals, and the rest steps and the management and protection means are the same.
Transplanting the same variety of pepper seedlings purchased in the market on the ridge surfaces of the control garden 2, interplanting the coptis chinensis at the ridge intervals, and the rest steps and the management and protection means are the same.
At 25 days after transplanting, the survival rate of pepper seedlings is counted, and the result shows that the survival rate of pepper seedlings in the test garden is 3% higher than that in the control garden 1, and the pepper seedlings in the test garden grow better; observing the growth conditions of the pepper seedlings in the two gardens at the 120 th day after transplanting, wherein the results show that the pepper seedlings in the experimental garden are about 1.5cm higher than the pepper seedlings in the control garden;
meanwhile, the survival rate of the pepper seedlings in the test garden is 10% higher than that in the control garden 1, and the pepper seedlings in the test garden grow better; and at the 120 th day after transplanting, observing the growth conditions of the pepper seedlings in the two gardens, wherein the results show that the pepper seedlings in the experimental garden are about 4cm higher than the pepper seedlings in the control garden.
The yield of the pepper and the coptis chinensis is counted in the third year after transplanting, and the result shows that the yield of the pepper in the test garden is 2.7 percent higher than that in the control garden 1 and 3.1 percent higher than that in the control garden 2; the yield of coptis chinensis in the area of the seedling growing pit is 8.5 percent higher than that of the control garden 1 and the control garden 2, and the yields of coptis chinensis in the control garden 1 and the control garden 2 are basically the same.

Claims (3)

1. A method for cultivating and pruning pepper trees comprises the following steps: 1) garden selection and treatment, 2) seed collection and treatment, 3) seedling raising, 4) seedling stage management, 5) seedling stage overwintering management, 6) transplanting and interplanting, 7) cultivation management and trimming, and 8) pest control, and is characterized in that:
the concrete process for garden selection and treatment in the step 1) is as follows:
selecting and preparing land in a garden: selecting a barren slope land which is sheltered from wind and exposed to the sun, has sufficient sunshine, has a deep soil layer and a slope of 10-15 degrees, building the barren slope land into a plurality of terraces with 2m width, digging a plurality of seedling raising pits in the same terraces with the depth of 1-1.2m, the length of each pit of 60-70cm and the width of 50-60cm, uniformly distributing 2 seedling raising pits in the same longitudinal direction, taking each 4 seedling raising pits as 1 unit, and arranging a cultivation tray at the middle position of each unit, wherein the diameter of the tray is 1-1.2 m;
seedling raising pit treatment: laying a layer of cobblestone as a waterproof layer at the bottom of a seedling growing pit, wherein the thickness of the waterproof layer is 2-3cm, laying a layer of wheat straw section or wheat husk as a heat preservation layer on the cobblestone, wherein the thickness of the heat preservation layer is 7-8cm, filling the soil into the pit, and filling the soil with the thickness of 60-80cm to form the seedling growing pit;
processing the cultivation disc: digging out soil with a depth of 20-30cm in the cultivation tray, mixing horse dung, Chinese medicine residue and sandy soil, filling the mixture into the cultivation tray, and covering the upper layer with field soil to obtain the cultivation tray;
the specific transplanting and interplanting process in the step 6) comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps of (1) transplanting pepper trees and improving seedling growing pits: transplanting the pepper tree seedlings into a cultivation disc according to a conventional method, filling modified field soil into the seedling growing pits until the distance between the seedling growing pits and the ground is 4-5cm, wherein the modified field soil is prepared by mixing wet field soil, vinegar residue, straw powder and humus according to the weight ratio of 100:5-10:40-60: 10-15;
secondly, interplanting coptis chinensis: after the pepper tree is transplanted and the seedling growing pits are improved, a seedling growing pit drainage facility is made, then the seedling growing pits are covered with mulching films, and the coptis seedlings are transplanted into the seedling growing pits at proper time.
2. The method for cultivating and trimming pepper trees as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the specific process for overwintering management in the seedling stage in the step 5) comprises the following steps: before the soil is frozen, filling wheat husks with the thickness of 2cm into the seedling growing pits, covering the soil with the thickness of 3cm, building a small arched shed by taking each seedling growing pit as a unit, sealing the arched shed by using a black film, and uncovering the arched shed to ventilate for 2-3 hours when the temperature exceeds 6 ℃ in the daytime in winter.
3. The method for cultivating and trimming pepper trees as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the specific process of cultivation management and pruning in the step 7) is as follows: performing water and fertilizer management according to a conventional management technology of pepper trees, and then performing tree pruning, wherein the specific pruning requirements are as follows:
firstly, primary shearing: selecting 3 main branches in spring of the next year after transplanting, pinching all the other new shoots, uniformly distributing the 3 main branches at intervals of 15-20cm, forming a horizontal included angle of about 120 degrees, opening the main branches at 40 degrees, and cutting the main branches to be 35-40cm in length;
cutting in winter: cutting the extension branches to 45-50cm in length before winter in the second year after transplanting, selecting and reserving first side branches on each main branch, wherein the distance between the first side branches and the trunk is 30-40cm, the side branches are selected on the inclined flat side or the inclined upper side, and the horizontal included angle between the side branches and the main branches is 50 degrees;
thirdly, shaping: in spring of the third year after transplanting, the second layer lateral branches of each main branch are cut to be 50-60cm long, the second lateral branches are required to be positioned opposite to the first lateral branches, branches 25-30cm away are obliquely arranged at the upper side or the oblique flat side, and the included angle of the second lateral branches is 45-50 degrees.
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