CN113348884A - Kalimeris indica semi-hardwood cutting seedling method - Google Patents

Kalimeris indica semi-hardwood cutting seedling method Download PDF

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CN113348884A
CN113348884A CN202110695957.2A CN202110695957A CN113348884A CN 113348884 A CN113348884 A CN 113348884A CN 202110695957 A CN202110695957 A CN 202110695957A CN 113348884 A CN113348884 A CN 113348884A
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cutting
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kalanchoe
branches
strips
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CN113348884B (en
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陈菁瑛
刘保财
张武君
黄颖桢
赵云青
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Crop Research Institute Of Fujian Academy Of Agricultural Sciences Fujian Provincial Germplasm Resources Center
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Institute of Agricultural Biological Resources of Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
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    • A01G2/10Vegetative propagation by means of cuttings

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Abstract

The application relates to a method for raising seedlings by cutting Strobilanthes cusia semi-hardwood branches, which mainly comprises the following steps in sequence: (1) building a kalanchoe spica cutting orchard (2), rejuvenating and cultivating a stock plant (3), building a kalanchoe breeding orchard (4), shearing a kalanchoe semihardwood scion (5), sterilizing the kalanchoe semihardwood scion before cuttage (6), and managing the kalanchoe semihardwood scion after cuttage (7). The method solves the problems that the existing kalimeris indica cutting seedling raising is more than the cutting in spring, the top twig cutting is adopted, the plant branches are few, the stem leaf yield is low, the seedling management time is long, the management cost is high and the like, the kalimeris indica semi-hard branch ear strips which are at least 6 sections, at least 2 branches and semi-lignified at 2-3 sections of the base part are germinated and grown by axillary buds in the middle and late ten days of 11 months are preferably selected for cutting, and the method has the advantages that a large number of high-quality kalimeris indica seedlings can be bred in a short period, the excellent characters are stable, the lodging rate is low, the rooting rate and the transplanting survival rate are high, the stem leaf yield is high, the seedling management time is short, the cost is low and the like.

Description

Kalimeris indica semi-hardwood cutting seedling method
Technical Field
The application relates to a method for raising seedlings by cutting Chinese kalanchoe semihardwood branches, which is applied to the field of cutting seedlings of Chinese kalanchoe.
Background
The Chinese kalanchoe baphicandicus cusia (Nees) Bremek is a herbaceous plant of Acanthaceae (Acanthaceae), also called isatis, bluish green and south isatis, and is mainly distributed in the south China and the southwest China. The dark blue powder or the lumps prepared by processing the leaves, stems and leaves of the kalimeris indica are the traditional Chinese medicine natural indigo, are a bulk traditional Chinese medicine and have the effects of clearing away heat and toxic materials, cooling blood and removing speckles, and purging fire and arresting convulsion. The traditional Chinese medicine south isatis root is prepared by cleaning and drying roots and rhizomes of the south China medicine, is a bulk south medicine, and has the effects of clearing heat and removing toxicity, cooling blood and removing spots (see national pharmacopoeia committee, Chinese people's republic of China pharmacopoeia [ M ]. Beijing: Chinese medicine science and technology publishing Co., 2015, one part: 260). The stem and leaf of kalanchoe are processed into leaves of southern great greenish in south China, southwest and the like, and the leaves of southern great greenish are used as medicines, and have the efficacies of clearing heat and removing toxicity, cooling blood, arresting convulsion and the like (see southern indigotine (kalanchoe) cultivation technology and comprehensive application [ M ]. Guangzhou: Guangdong science and education press, Zhang Danyan and the like editions, 2014). The kalimeris is a treasure, the utilization value is high, the market demand is large, however, the wild resources are unstable in quality, and the quantity cannot meet the market demand, so that artificial seedling raising and standardized planting are needed.
The research reports and published patents show that the seedling raising method of the kalimeris comprises 3 seed sowing, tissue culture and cutting propagation. The seeds are sown to reproduce seedling seedlings, the seeds used are sexual offspring and have genetic separation, the seedling seedlings can not completely keep the excellent quality of the female parent, the collection time of the kalant seeds must be accurately mastered, the kalant seeds are easy to crack when shells are completely blackened, the seeds cannot be picked up due to bouncing so that the loss is almost lost, the seeds are too tender when the shells are not blackened, and the germination rate is low; furthermore, Dupei Xin (biological characteristics study of kale (south isatis root) [ D ]. Guangzhou: Guangzhou university of traditional Chinese medicine, 2008, 9-11) reported that kale seed seedlings were superficially grown in root system, underdeveloped in fibrous root, and prone to lodging; the "method of raising seedlings with the use of kalanchoe seeds" (application No. 201710720762.2) also does not describe a method of collecting seeds; therefore, the seed seedling culture is rarely applied to production. The tissue culture technology of the kalium matsutake is invented with a patent of 'an isolated culture method of the kalium matsutake' (patent No. ZL 2005100109240) and a research paper report (Zhangmei et al, tissue culture of immature seeds of the kalium matsutake [ J ]. plant physiological communication, 2007, 43 (3); research on a tissue culture technology of the myrcia matsutake [ D ]; research on a vitrification prevention and control measure [ D ]; research on a tissue culture rapid propagation technology of the kalium matsutake [ J ]. modern agricultural science, 2010 (9): 102-103), but the tissue culture production condition and the technical requirement are higher, the production cost is high, and the large-area popularization is not available at present. The cutting propagation production condition requirement is low, the technology is easy to master and popularize, and the offspring seed can keep the excellent characters of the parent, so the method has wide application prospect.
At present, the existing patents and research papers in China disclose the research and practice of the kalanchoe cutting seedling raising technology, but the following problems exist: firstly, a scion cutting garden is not built, and a rejuvenation cultivation method of high-quality cutting slips is not built, the scions are taken from a cultivation field, and perennial old roots and stems of the kalanchoe plants on the cultivation field carry various pathogens, so that scions cut from the roots and stems not only have diseases with bacteria, but also have serious germplasm degeneration, few strong development branches and inconsistent growth, and are not young branches or aged branches, but also are not high-quality cutting slips, so that the seedlings for cutting propagation have weak growth vigor, poor resistance, frequent disease and pest damage and low yield; secondly, the operation of cutting seedling raising is not scientific, so that the cutting process carries a disease source and an insect source; thirdly, the seedlings cut by the top twigs are planted in the field, and the tillering slow branches are few; fourthly, cuttage in spring needs to be managed for outplanting in one year, so that the seedling management time and cost are increased (only 5-6 months need to be managed in the application); and fifthly, the occurrence situation of the root rot after the cuttage seedlings are planted is not tracked and investigated. Zhang Dan Yan and the like (south isatis root cutting seedling research [ J ]. Guangzhou university of traditional Chinese medicine, 2011, 28 (6): 636 and 642) adopt field twigs as cutting slips, and the influence of the field twigs on the yield is not tracked and investigated; the method for raising seedlings by cutting south isatis roots (application number 201710915094.9), the method for interplanting the south isatis roots and corns (application number 201710911374.2) and the method for planting the south isatis roots in the stony desertification mountainous regions (application number 201710912453.5) are to take spikes from spring fields and use top twigs for cutting, so that the survival rate of volatile water is low, the plants grow slowly in the current year and the yield is low if the transplanting in the spring is in summer and autumn, and the seedling management time is prolonged by one year if the transplanting in the spring next year, so that the management cost is increased; and under the influence of uncertainty of sprouting of a large number of single-stem seedlings, the seedlings have fast sprouting and strong top growth potential, and the phenomena of few plant branches and low yield of stems and leaves commonly appear after transplantation and field planting. A standardized planting method of Baphicacanthus cusia (patent No. 201410229935.7) adopts short-shoot main branches with 3-4 buds reserved for more than 3 years, cuttage is carried out from the bottom of 3 months to the middle ten days of 5 months, and transplanting is carried out after seedling raising is carried out for one year, so that the seedling management cost is increased. Juzhenli et al (study of high-quality germchit cultivation technology of kalanchoe blue [ J ]. strait pharmacology, 2009, 21 (4): 87-88) adopts stem cutting with 3-4 buds and half of cut leaves in 10 months, and is also a method for picking ears in fields without building ear cutting gardens.
Therefore, the method for raising seedlings of the Chinese kalimeris through the semi-cutting has become a urgent need, and can be used for breeding a large number of high-quality Chinese kalimeris seedlings in a short period, and has the advantages of stable excellent properties, low lodging rate, high rooting rate and transplanting survival rate, high stem and leaf yield, low morbidity, few diseases, excellent quality, low cost and easiness in popularization.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to overcome the defects that the existing kalium cochinchinensis cutting seedling raising is more than the cutting of the spike in spring and the top twig cutting is adopted, the plant branches are few, the stem leaf yield is low, the seedling management time is long, the management cost is high and the like, the kalium cochinchinensis semi-hardwood cutting seedling raising method is provided, the kalium cochinchinensis semi-hardwood cutting seedling raising method is preferably used for cutting by selecting the kalium cochinchinensis semi-hardwood cutting spike strips which are germinated and grown by axillary buds in the late ten days of 11 months and are provided with at least 6 sections, each branch has at least 2 branches, and 2-3 sections of the base are semi-lignified, and the kalium cochinchinensis semi-hardwood cutting seedling raising method has the advantages of capability of breeding a large amount of high-quality kalium cochinchinensis seedlings.
The technical scheme of the application is as follows:
a method for raising seedlings by cutting Strobilanthes cusia semi-hardwood branches mainly comprises the following steps in sequence:
(1) establishing a Chinese kale breeding nursery: selecting a field block with good ventilation and a water-planted field as a cabbage seedling breeding garden, trimming the field in the breeding garden, and digging a plurality of cutting grooves on each field surface;
(2) shearing the semi-hard branch spike strips of the kale borecole: in the middle and last ten days of the month 11, cutting the semi-hard Chinese kale branch spike strips which are provided with at least 6 sections, at least 2 branches and semi-lignified base parts 2-3 sections, wherein the strips grow by the germination of axillary buds by using a sterilized cutter; when in shearing, the top cut of the ear strip is a flat cut, the base cut is a bevel cut, and the distance between the bevel cut and the adjacent leaf node is 0.5-2.0 cm;
(3) disinfection treatment before cutting of the Chinese kale half-hardwood scion strips: respectively aligning the ear strips obtained in the step (2) according to the flat cut end and the beveled cut end for bundling, putting 30-50 ear strips into a disinfectant for disinfection treatment for 3-6min, and replacing the disinfectant once after 30-50 ear strips are treated;
(4) cutting the Chinese kale half-hardwood scion strips: discharging scion wood strips in the dug cuttage furrows at an angle of 45-60 degrees, at a plant spacing of 2-3cm and at a row spacing of 10-15cm by adopting a strip cutting method; burying 3-4 sections of the base of the spike strip into the soil during earthing, and leaving 3-4 sections of the top of the spike strip to expose the soil surface; covering soil, watering thoroughly, covering a transparent plastic film on the ear strips, and covering a sunshade net with the sunshade rate of 35-45% or 3-5 layers of crop straws to preserve heat and avoid direct sunlight;
(5) managing after cuttage: after cuttage, temperature and humidity and light intensity regulation and control management are enhanced, the temperature and the humidity are regulated by uncovering a transparent plastic film and spraying water, the relative air humidity is kept at 68-72% and the air temperature is kept at 21-28 ℃, and meanwhile, topdressing is carried out by combining with moisture management; after 25-30d of cuttage and germination of the primordium, uncovering the sunshade net or removing crop straws for 4-6h at proper time to enhance photosynthesis, promote seedling growth and strengthen and promote rooting; after the rooting is stable, replacing the sunshade net with the sunshade rate of 35-45% with the sunshade net with the sunshade rate of 25-30%, or removing the crop straws 1-2 times, and removing 1-2 layers of crop straws each time to enhance the illumination for culturing the big seedlings; the big seedlings can be used for transplanting in the next spring.
The cutting seedling raising method of the Chinese kalanchoe semihardwood branches is preferably used for cutting in the late 11 months by the Chinese kalanchoe semihardwood branches which have at least 6 branches of axillary bud germination and at least 2 branches of each branch and have semi-lignification at 2-3 branches of the basal part. The kalimeris indica plants grow vigorously in spring and summer, sufficient nutrition is accumulated, the temperature is gradually reduced in the early winter, the plant height and branch growth speed are reduced, the half-hard shoot scions growing fully are cut at the moment, the nutrition of the plant body is used for filling the branches to be thick and strong, the main chemical component indigo and the like is separated out in 11 months to be the lowest in content, at the moment, the black secretion (indigo) at the base parts of the cut scions is few, the cuttage rooting rate can be effectively improved, the time period that shearing mouths are easy to turn black due to the fact that the chemical components are actively secreted is avoided, and the survival rate is improved. And because the internode endogenous hormone content is high and the activity is vigorous, the rooting is facilitated, 1-2 leaves at the bottom of the scion are cut off and the leaves at the top are left for photosynthesis, so that a large amount of nutrition can be produced to promote rooting. The prior art and research reports consider that the spring cutting of the kalanchoe is good. Compared with the conventional spring cutting seedling method, the method can shorten the seedling management time by 6 months, effectively reduce the cost, solve the outstanding problems of less seedling branches, high single-stem seedling proportion (see figure 1-2), high crown deflection lodging rate of the plant after outplanting and planting, low stem and leaf yield and the like, the transplanting survival rate can reach more than 95 percent, no shading is needed after transplanting and planting, the plant recovers to grow quickly, has more tillers (see figure 4-5), regular growth, convenient management and easy popularization, overcomes the problems that the main root of the seedling is slender and shallow and the fibrous root is less and easy to lodging, greatly reduces the root rot rate, reduces the cost and labor input, reduces the using amount of pesticides and improves the yield and quality, has wide application prospect. Generally, the method has the advantages of stable excellent properties, low lodging rate, high rooting rate and transplanting survival rate, high stem and leaf yield, short seedling management time, low cost and the like, and can breed a large number of high-quality Chinese kale seedlings in a short period to meet the production requirement.
In addition, the above technical solution of the present application is further improved as follows:
the kalanchoe semi-hardwood cutting seedling raising method further comprises the following steps which are sequentially carried out before the kalanchoe semi-hardwood cutting step:
(1-1) constructing a kale cutting orchard: before selection of a field cultivation area far away from a field, establishing a cutting orchard as a field block of a water planting field; the method comprises the following steps of (1) widely screening healthy and strong kale plants without diseases and insect pests in a field cultivation area and listing, on a cloudy day of 10-11 months, shearing kale semi-hard branch spike strips with at least 6 sections, at least 2 branches and semi-lignified base 2-3 sections by using a sterilized cutter, dipping a base cut in yellow mud containing 0.4-0.6% by mass of indoleacetic acid and 0.4-0.6% by mass of naphthylacetic acid, and then carrying out multi-spike deep cutting at an angle of 30-45 degrees and hole planting in a ridging and full-bed cutting spike to serve as a cutting stock plant; then, watering root fixing water thoroughly in time, covering a transparent plastic film on the upper end of the cutting for more than 40cm, and covering a sunshade net with the sunshade rate of 35-45%;
(1-2) rejuvenating and cultivating the scion stock plant: after cutting 20-40 days, topdressing for 1-2 times, cutting 40 days and then outplanting, and uncovering a transparent plastic film and a sunshade net for enhancing illumination at 7-10 points and 16-18 points every day; pruning the top of the next year from the first ten days of 5 months to the middle of 6 months, cutting off the stock plant and the branch top branch section, reserving 2-4 sections at the lower end, and applying additional fertilizer and spraying a growth regulator to promote the germination, the sprouting and the tillering of axillary buds of the plants; topping and pruning again when the length of all branches exceeds 5-8cm so as to culture multi-branch scion stock plants;
and (3) the kalanchoe semidurans ear strips in the step (2) of shearing the kalanchoe semidurans ear strips are sheared from the stock plant which is rejuvenated and cultivated in the step (1-2).
The method is different from the method of directly shearing the red bayberry wood ears from the field in the traditional red bayberry seedling raising, the steps of constructing a red bayberry orchard, rejuvenating and culturing a red bayberry stock plant and the like are added before the red bayberry wood ears are sheared, the red bayberry wood is widely selected from the field, the excellent clone cultured by the red bayberry wood in a hole planting mode is used as the red bayberry stock plant (see figure 3), the red bayberry orchard is constructed, the plant row spacing is enlarged, the planting density is reduced, ventilation and light transmission are facilitated, timely topping and pruning are performed, the light intensity is regulated and controlled, water and fertilizer management is enhanced, the robust stock plant with few plant diseases and insect pests and multiple branches is cultured, the number and the quality of the red bayberries are improved, and the excellent genetic characteristic of the stock plant is kept.
Aiming at the cuttage propagation of herbaceous plants, the field cutting method is usually adopted by the personnel in the field, and the quality of the scion is not considered, whether the disease or insect is harmful or not is avoided, and the standard of seedling quality is avoided. In addition, as the herbaceous plants grow faster, the method of wide-seed thin harvest is adopted, namely, if the seedlings are poor in quality, diseases frequently occur after planting, the yield is low, more pesticide is sprayed, plants died of diseases are pulled out and reseed, and the efficiency is low and the quality is poor. In order to pursue high-quality agricultural production, particularly traditional Chinese medicine enterprises, good-quality scions need to be cultivated from the source to cultivate good seedlings. The method comprises the steps of establishing a cutting orchard, firstly screening disease-free and strongly-growing plants (superior plants) from a field, carrying out cutting planting (namely cutting rooting without transplanting), adopting a multi-spike deep cutting and thin planting method, then carrying out topping, topdressing nitrogen fertilizer and spraying hormone, promoting axillary buds of the cutting spikes to germinate and sprout, and cultivating enough high-quality scions with branches. Firstly, the cutting requirements are met in quantity; secondly, the incidence rate of plant diseases and insect pests is reduced; thirdly, the cutting seedling raising of multi-branch scion wood is adopted, and after the seedlings are planted out of the nursery, the branch tillering is fast, the yield of stem leaves is high, and the yield per mu is high. For example, in 6-section 4-branch parent plant ear strips, 3-5 sections in deep soil are inserted, one cutting ear is topped, topdressing and hormone spraying are carried out to promote tillering, 4 branches on the overground part grow into at least 8 branches, and the branches and leaf nodes grow out of the ground in the same way in the underground part. The method adopts 2-4 ear strips for multi-ear deep cutting and at least 2 times of tillering branches, and achieves the purposes of cultivating multiple ear strips with branches, more ear strips and good quality. The method solves the outstanding problems of few branches of seedlings, high single-stem seedling proportion, high crown deflection lodging rate of plants and low stem and leaf yield after outplanting and planting in the prior art, and breeds a large number of high-quality Chinese kale seedlings in a short period to meet production requirements. The ear strips are cut in the field conventionally without being deliberately cultured in a cutting orchard, and few ear strips which meet the conditions and standards are obtained. The difference between the two different sources of the ear strips is as follows:
TABLE 1 Performance test results of different spike sources
Figure BDA0003128385880000051
As can be seen from the table above, the ear supply number of the ear taken in the ear picking garden is high, the rooting is fast, the rooting rate is high, the rooting number is large, and the disease incidence rate is low.
In addition, the propagation coefficient is improved by the multi-branch cutting and dense cutting, the cutting with leaves is beneficial to photosynthesis and high in coverage rate, the growth of weeds is effectively inhibited, and the artificial weeding cost is avoided.
In the step of rejuvenating and cultivating the mother plant, topping and pruning are carried out from middle ten days of 5 months to middle ten days of 6 months, at the moment, the plant is about to enter the strongly-illuminated midsummer after vigorous growth and nutrition accumulation in spring and early summer, the plant height is slowly grown, the nutrition is mainly used for branching, topping is carried out at the moment, axillary bud germination is promoted, the branching is cultivated, the top bud is prevented from differentiating into small branches, and sufficient high-quality scion wood is provided for cuttage seedling cultivation. Preferably, the breeding garden is built near the cutting garden, so that the management convenience can be improved.
The seedlings which grow into big seedlings in the next spring can be used for transplanting and field planting, the management time of the seedlings which are subjected to cuttage seedling culture in the conventional spring is shortened, the cost is reduced, the transplanting survival rate can reach more than 95%, shading is not needed after transplanting and field planting, the plants are fast in recovery and growth, many in tillers, regular in growth, low in root rot morbidity, convenient to manage, the cost and labor input are greatly reduced, the pesticide use amount is reduced, and the yield and the quality of the kale are improved.
In the step (2), the disinfection method of the cutter for shearing the half hard branch ear strips of the kale comprises the following steps: wiping or soaking the cutter for 10-20 minutes by using a double-long-chain quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant with the mass concentration of 800-1200mg/L, and disinfecting the cutter once every 90-110 branches of spikes are cut.
In the step (1-1) of building the kale cutting orchard, the disinfection method of the cutter for cutting the panicle is as follows: wiping or soaking the cutter for 10-20 minutes by using a double-long-chain quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant with the mass concentration of 800-1200mg/L, and disinfecting the cutter once every 90-110 branches of spikes are cut.
The disinfection of cutting tools is commonly used in the grafting of woody plants, particularly fruit trees, but in the past, neither scion nor scissors were disinfected in the cutting method of herbaceous plants such as kale. The double-long-chain quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant adopted during disinfection is less used for disinfecting agricultural equipment, the disinfectant is mild in performance, does not hurt skin, is efficient and broad-spectrum, has sterilization and disinfection effects on bacteria, fungi, viruses and the like, and is stable and does not hurt skin compared with common chlorine-containing disinfectant (sodium hypochlorite, bleaching powder and the like). After the scissors are disinfected, the incidence of root rot and the like of the seedlings after cuttage is greatly reduced compared with the incidence of the seedlings in the prior art which are not disinfected, and the incidence of diseases is effectively reduced.
In the disinfection treatment before the cutting of the kalant semi-hardwood cutting in the step (3), the disinfection solution adopts 2000-3000 times of prochloraz emulsifiable solution with the mass percentage of active ingredients of 45%; or 3000 times of agricultural streptomycin sulfate solution with 72 percent of active ingredients by mass is adopted.
The optimized disinfectant has good disinfection effect and does not harm the ear strips.
The method comprises the following steps of (1) constructing a planting stock plant of a kalanchoe spicatus cutting orchard in the step (1-1), wherein the adopted multi-spike deep cutting hole planting method mainly comprises the following steps of: digging holes according to the hole distance of 25-35cm and the line distance of 30-40cm, and mixing the bacillus subtilis wettable powder (effective bacteria 10 hundred million spores/g) and the fine dry soil according to the weight ratio of 1: 2.5-3.5, and performing hole application, wherein the application amount of the bacillus subtilis wettable powder in each hole is 0.1-0.3 g; then 2-4 kalimeris semi-hard branch ear strips are planted in each hole, the soil is covered and compacted, 3-4 sections of the base part are buried in the soil, and 3-4 sections of branches and leaves are left on each ear strip to expose the soil surface.
In the step (1-2) of rejuvenating and cultivating the ear-picking stock plants, urea aqueous solution with the mass percent of 0.5-1.0% is applied for 1 time at intervals of 10-14 days for top dressing frequency.
The optimized technological parameters of the top dressing and the fertilizer can improve the quality of the mother plant.
In the step (1-2) of rejuvenating and cultivating the scion stock plant, the method for spraying the foliar fertilizer and the growth regulator comprises the following steps: mixing 0.1-0.15% potassium dihydrogen phosphate water solution and 0.005-0.015% brassin water solution at the same volume, and spraying on branches and leaves until the surfaces of the branches and leaves are wet.
The optimized technological parameters of topdressing and spraying growth regulator and the fertilizer can raise the quality of mother plant.
In the step (1-2), in the rejuvenation cultivation of the ear-picking stock plant, agricultural streptomycin is sprayed for 1 time after topping and pruning each time, wherein the agricultural streptomycin is 3500-6000-fold liquid of agricultural streptomycin soluble powder with 72 mass percent of active ingredients.
The preferable working procedure of spraying agricultural streptomycin after topping and pruning and the concentration of the agricultural streptomycin can reduce the risk of disease infection of the mother plant.
In the management after cuttage in the step (5), the concrete steps of topdressing by combining with water management are as follows: after 15-20 days of cuttage, water solution with 0.10-0.12 percent of mass percent is applied for 1-2 times to cultivate a plurality of roots or ammonium humate solution is diluted by 300 times and used for strengthening seedlings.
The preferable additional fertilizer technology in the management after cuttage can improve the quality of the big seedlings. The humic acid ammonium urea solution adopts a grade Laobao brand of Xinjiang Bainuo agricultural science and technology Limited.
In the step (1), a kalanchoe breeding garden is established, and the depth of the cutting groove is 6-8cm, and the width of the cutting groove is 6-10 cm.
The optimal cutting groove specification cutting spike strip is high in efficiency and convenient to manage.
And (1) constructing the kalanchoe blossfeldiana cutting orchard, and re-locating and rebuilding the kalanchoe cutting orchard every 2-3 years.
The reconstruction of the kale ear-picking garden every 2 to 3 years can better control the germplasm of the ear-picking stock plant and prevent the degeneration of the stress resistance.
And (4) in the cutting of the Chinese kale half-hardwood scion, at least 10cm of non-discharge scion is reserved on two sides of the ridge surface respectively.
The preferred position of the ear strips is that the ear strips along the ridge are not damaged by frost in frost weather.
Compared with the prior art, the method has the following advantages:
1) according to the method for raising the seedlings of the kalium semihardwood by cutting, in the middle and last ten days of 11 months, the kalium semihardwood scion with at least 6 branches, at least 2 branches for each branch and semi-lignified base parts for 2-3 branches are preferably selected for cutting, and after 5-6 months, big seedlings can be grown in the next spring to be transplanted out of a nursery, so that the time is shortened by 50% compared with the prior similar technology, the seedling management cost is greatly reduced, the transplanting survival rate can reach more than 95%, and the method has the advantages of stable excellent properties, low lodging rate, high rooting rate and transplanting survival rate, high stem and leaf yield, short seedling management time, low cost and the like;
2) the method is characterized in that a pure, robust and variation-free malformed plant is selected in a field, a good clone cultured by the scion of a superior plant is used as a scion stock plant, a scion garden is built, the purity and the robustness of the bred seedling variety are ensured, the purposes of cultivating multiple scions with branches, more scions and good quality are achieved, the outstanding problems of few branches of seedlings, high single-stalk seedling proportion, high crown deflection lodging rate of the plants after the plants are planted out of the garden and low yield of stems and leaves in the prior art are solved, and a large amount of high-quality Chinese kale seedlings are bred in a short period to meet production requirements;
3) the scissors and the scions are disinfected scientifically, so that the spread of diseases and pests is reduced, and the quality of cutting seedlings is improved;
4) topping and pruning, light regulation and control, water and fertilizer management enhancement, flower and twig differentiation of terminal buds, axillary bud germination promotion, strong multi-branch stock plant cultivation, strong and full-bodied and moderately thick branches as cuttings, improvement of the quantity and quality of cuttings, improvement of rooting rate, and rapid growth and high yield of tillering branches after outplanting and planting.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a photograph of a stock plant of a ear picked in a big kalanchoe field by a conventional seedling raising method;
FIG. 2 is a photograph of a cervus marmalayana seedling leaf specimen cultivated by a conventional seedling method;
FIG. 3 is a photograph of the ear mother plant in the ear cutting nursery of the method for raising seedlings by cutting Strobilanthes cusia according to the present application;
FIG. 4 is a photograph of a seedling of Kalanchoe japonica cultivated by the Kalanchoe semi-hardwood cutting seedling method described in the present application;
fig. 5 is a photograph of a cervus elaphus seedling leaf specimen cultivated by the cervus elaphus semi-hardwood cutting seedling method described in the present application.
Detailed Description
The technical solution of the present application will be described in detail with reference to the embodiments of the specification.
Example 1
The method for raising the seedlings by cutting the Strobilanthes cusia semi-hardwood branches mainly comprises the following steps of:
(1) constructing a kale cutting orchard: before selecting a field far away from a field cultivation area, establishing a cutting nursery as a field block of a water crop field, flatly digging holes, wherein the row spacing of the holes is 25cm multiplied by 30cm, and mixing bacillus subtilis wettable powder (effective bacteria 10 hundred million spores/g) and fine dry soil according to the weight ratio of 1: 3, hole application is carried out after mixing, and the application amount of each hole is 0.1/hole of the application amount of the bacillus subtilis wettable powder. Screening healthy and disease and insect-free Kalanchoe superior plants in a field in 20 days after 10 months, shearing Kalanchoe semihard branches with 6 sections, 4 branches in each section and 2 sections at the base, dipping the cut at the base in yellow mud containing 0.5% by mass of indoleacetic acid and 0.5% by mass of naphthylacetic acid, taking out and implanting into a dug hole at an angle of 35 degrees to serve as a scion stock plant; planting 3 spike strips in each hole, burying 3 branches in the soil, leaving 3 branches and leaves to expose the soil surface, thoroughly watering for fixing roots, covering a transparent plastic film above the spike collecting garden, and then covering a sunshade net with the sunshade rate of 40%; and (3) wiping or soaking the scissors for shearing the scions for 18 minutes by using double-long-chain quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant with the mass concentration of 1000mg/L for disinfection, and disinfecting every 100 scions sheared.
(2) Rejuvenating and cultivating the scion stock plant: after cutting in the cutting orchard for 20 days, watering and applying a urea aqueous solution with the mass percent of 0.5% for 1 time every 10 days, and uncovering a transparent plastic film at the periphery to ventilate and cool when the temperature is high at noon; after 40 days of cuttage, the transparent plastic film and the sunshade net are uncovered for enhancing the illumination at 7 to 10 points and 16 to 18 points daily. Cutting off the parent plant and branch top branch sections on 5-month and 12-day next year, reserving 3 sections of thick and strong branches at the lower end, spraying a leaf fertilizer and a growth regulator to promote the germination, growth and tillering of axillary buds of the plant, mixing a potassium dihydrogen phosphate aqueous solution with the mass percentage of 0.13% and a brassin aqueous solution with the mass percentage of 0.01% in the same volume, spraying the mixture on branches and leaves until the surfaces of the branches and leaves are wet, and culturing the parent plant; after topping and pruning, spraying agricultural streptomycin for 3 times, wherein the agricultural streptomycin is 6000 times of agricultural streptomycin soluble powder with 72 mass percent of active ingredients; after topping and pruning, topping and pruning again when the length of all branches of the kale plant exceeds 6 cm;
(3) establishing a Chinese kale breeding nursery: selecting a water planting field which is 300 meters away from a cutting garden and is used for preceding cropping to establish a seedling breeding garden, and digging a plurality of cutting ditches with the depth of 6cm and the width of 8 cm.
(4) Shearing the semi-hard branch spike strips of the kale borecole: and (3) 6 branches grow from the basic tillers of the mother plants obtained in the step (2) at 11/13 days in the year, the grown branches reach 18 branches, and the longest branches have 11 nodes. Wiping or soaking a cutter for 18 minutes by using a double-long-chain quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant with the mass concentration of 1000mg/L, disinfecting once every 100 branches of spike strips are cut, and cutting about 4000 semi-hard kalium marianum spike strips which are provided with 8 sections, have 4 branches in each section and are semi-lignified in the 2 sections of the base; when the cutting is carried out, the top cut of the ear strips is a flat cut, the base cut is a bevel cut, and the distance between the bevel cut and the adjacent leaf nodes is 1.0 cm;
(5) disinfection treatment before cutting of the Chinese kale half-hardwood scion strips: respectively aligning the ear strips obtained in the step (1) according to a flat cut end and a beveled cut end for bundling, dividing the bundle into about 1000 bundles, adding disinfectant (the disinfectant adopts 2500 times of prochloraz emulsifiable oil with the mass percentage of 45% of effective components) for disinfection treatment for 3min, and replacing the disinfectant once after 50 bundles of ear strips are treated;
(6) cutting the Chinese kale half-hardwood scion strips: arranging the sterilized scion wood in the dug cutting ditch at an angle of 3cm multiplied by 12cm plant row spacing of 45 degrees, and reserving 10cm of scion wood on two sides of the ridge surface respectively; when covering soil, burying the spike strips in the soil with 4 sections and 4 sections of branches and leaves at the upper end exposed out of the soil surface; covering soil, watering thoroughly, covering a transparent plastic film above the ear strips, and covering a sunshade net for shading 40% of sunlight to preserve heat and avoid direct sunlight;
(7) managing after cuttage: after cutting, keeping the relative air humidity of 72% and the air temperature of 24 ℃; after 15 days, watering and applying 0.1 mass percent of multi-root aqueous solution for 2 times, wherein the interval is 15 days each time; after 25d, more than 80% of branches begin to root, the sunshade net is uncovered for illumination for 4h every day to enhance photosynthesis, after 35d, the rooting rate of cuttage is 97.4%, the big seedlings can be used for transplanting in the spring of the next year, the height of the seedlings reaches 30cm during transplanting, and the average branch number of each seedling is 5.4; the transplanting survival rate is 94.5% after 1 month of transplanting investigation, and no root rot is found after 3 months of investigation.
Example 2
The method for raising the seedlings by cutting the Strobilanthes cusia semi-hardwood branches mainly comprises the following steps of:
(1) constructing a kale cutting orchard: before selection of a field cultivation area far away from the field, the paddy field is used as a field block of a paddy field to establish a cutting orchard. And (3) widely screening healthy and disease-free and pest-free Chinese kale plants in the field in 11 months and 7 days, shearing Chinese kale semihard branch spike strips with 8 sections and 2 branches in each section and semi-lignified base sections 3 in rainy days, dipping a cut at the base section in yellow mud containing 0.4% by mass of indoleacetic acid and 0.6% by mass of naphthylacetic acid, and transplanting the Chinese kale in a ridging and full-ridged cutting garden at an angle of 45 degrees to serve as a cutting stock plant. Planting holes with row spacing of 25cm multiplied by 30cm, mixing bacillus subtilis wettable powder (containing 10 hundred million spores/g of effective bacteria) and fine dry soil according to the weight ratio of 1: 2.5, performing hole application after mixing, wherein the application amount of each hole is 0.2 g/hole of the bacillus subtilis wettable powder; then 4 spike strips are planted, the base part is buried in the soil for 4 knots, 4 branches and leaves are left to expose the soil surface, the soil is covered and compacted, root fixing water is poured thoroughly, a transparent plastic film is covered above the spike picking garden, and then a sunshade net with the sunshade rate of 35% is covered. Wiping or soaking the scissors for shearing scions for 20 minutes by using a double-long-chain quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant with the mass concentration of 800mg/L for disinfection, putting 100 scions into a 0.05% potassium permanganate solution for soaking for 20 minutes, and disinfecting a cutter once every 90 scions are sheared; in order to better control germplasm and stress resistance degradation, the cutting orchard needs to be established by selecting sites again every 2 years.
(2) Rejuvenating and cultivating a stock plant: watering urea aqueous solution with the mass percent of 0.8% for 1 time every 12 days after cutting of cutting slips in a cutting garden for 30 days, and simultaneously uncovering transparent plastic films and sunshade nets around to enhance illumination; and (3) growing 10 segments of plants at the beginning of 6 months in the next year, topping and shearing off the parent plants and branch top branch sections, leaving 4 thick and strong branches at the ends, and spraying a leaf fertilizer and a growth regulator to promote the germination, growth and tillering of axillary buds of the plants: mixing 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate aqueous solution and 0.015% brassin aqueous solution at the same volume, and spraying on branches and leaves until the surfaces of the branches and leaves are wet; after topping and pruning, spraying agricultural streptomycin for 2 times, wherein the agricultural streptomycin is 3500 times of liquid of agricultural streptomycin soluble powder with 72 mass percent of active ingredients; after topping and pruning, topping and pruning again when the length of all branches of the kale plant exceeds 5 cm;
(3) establishing a Chinese kale breeding nursery: selecting a field block with good ventilation and a water-planted field as a seedling breeding garden near the cutting garden, and digging a plurality of cutting ditches on a pre-prepared seedling raising ground, wherein the depth of each ditch is 8cm, and the width of each ditch is 6 cm.
(4) Shearing the semi-hard branch spike strips of the kale borecole: cutting 6 sections of a cutting strip with 2 branches at each section and 3 sections of a base part of a semi-lignified kalanchoe semihard branch in a cutting orchard at 24 days 11/month in the year, wherein a top cut of the cutting strip is a flat cut, a base cut is a diagonal cut, and the distance between the diagonal cut and an adjacent leaf section is 0.5 cm; wiping or soaking the cutter for 10 minutes by using a double-long-chain quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant with the mass concentration of 1200mg/L, and disinfecting the cutter once every 90 spikes are cut.
(5) Disinfection treatment before cutting of the Chinese kale half-hardwood scion strips: the method comprises the steps of respectively aligning a flat cut end and a beveled cut end for bundling, putting 30 bundles of ear strips into a disinfectant (the disinfectant adopts 3000 times of prochloraz emulsifiable concentrate with 45 mass percent of active ingredients for disinfection treatment for 5min, and replacing the disinfectant once after 40 bundles of ear strips are treated).
(6) Cutting the Chinese kale half-hardwood scion strips: arranging ear strips in the dug cuttage furrows according to an angle of 60 degrees and a plant row spacing of 2cm multiplied by 10cm, reserving 12cm ear strips on two sides of the ridge surface respectively, burying the ear strips in the soil, and exposing 3 branches and leaves at the upper end of the ear strips out of the soil surface; and (3) covering soil, then watering thoroughly, covering the transparent plastic film on the ear strips, and then covering 4 layers of coix seed straws.
(7) Managing after cuttage: after cuttage, the regulation and control management of the temperature, humidity and light intensity in the greenhouse is enhanced, and the relative air humidity is kept at about 70% and the air temperature is kept at 28 ℃; after 20d of cuttage, watering and applying 0.12 mass percent of water solution for cultivating a plurality of seedlings for strengthening the seedlings for 1 time; after 20d of cuttage, watering and applying 0.12 percent of water solution for cultivating a plurality of strong seedlings for 1 time; after 30 days, the root primordium begins to germinate, 2 layers of coix seeds are extracted in the day for 1 time, the illumination is strengthened for 5 hours, the rooting rate can reach 98.1% after 40 days, the seedlings are 36cm high when transplanted in the spring of the next year, and the average branch number of each seedling is 4.3. After 1 month of transplanting, the transplanting survival rate is 91.7 percent, and after 3 months, the root rot is not found.
Example 3
The method for raising the seedlings by cutting the Strobilanthes cusia semi-hardwood branches mainly comprises the following steps of:
(1) constructing a kale cutting orchard: before selection of a field cultivation area far away from a field, establishing a cutting orchard as a field block of a water planting field; the method comprises the following steps of (1) widely screening healthy and strong kale plants without diseases and insect pests in a field cultivation area and hanging, and shearing kale semi-hard branch spike strips which are provided with 7 sections, each section is provided with 3 branches and the base part is provided with 3 sections of semi-lignification in rainy days of 10-11 months; the shearing tool is wiped or soaked for 10 minutes by using a double-long-chain quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant with the mass concentration of 1200mg/L, and the tool is disinfected once every 110 scions are sheared; dipping a base cut in yellow slurry containing 0.6 mass percent of indoleacetic acid and 0.4 mass percent of naphthylacetic acid, and then planting the immersed base cut in a multi-spike deep-cutting hole at an angle of 30 degrees in a ridging and ridging cutting orchard to serve as a cutting stock plant, which specifically comprises the following steps: performing hole planting according to the hole spacing of 25cm multiplied by 30cm, and mixing the bacillus subtilis wettable powder (containing 10 hundred million spores/g of effective bacteria) and fine dry soil according to the weight ratio of 1: 3.5, performing hole application after mixing, wherein the application amount of each hole is 0.3 g/hole of the bacillus subtilis wettable powder; then 2 kalant semi-hard branch ear strips are planted in each hole, the soil is covered and compacted, 3 sections of the base part are buried in the soil, and 4 sections of branches and leaves are reserved on each ear strip to expose the soil surface; then, watering root fixing water thoroughly in time, covering a transparent plastic film above the cutting nursery, and then covering a sunshade net with the sunshade rate of 45%; and re-locating and rebuilding the kale borecole cutting orchard every 3 years.
(2) Rejuvenating and cultivating a stock plant: applying 1.0 mass percent urea aqueous solution for 1 time for topdressing 14 days after cutting of cutting shoots in a cutting orchard; pruning the top of the plant from 5 middle ten days to 6 middle ten days of the next year, cutting off the Chinese cabbage stock plant and branch top branch sections, reserving 3 sections of thick and strong branches at the lower end, dressing a leaf fertilizer and spraying a growth regulator to promote plant cutting, axillary bud germination, sprouting and tillering, and specifically comprises the following steps: mixing potassium dihydrogen phosphate water solution with a mass percentage of-0.15% and brassin water solution with a mass percentage of 0.005% in the same volume, and spraying the mixture on branches and leaves until the surfaces of the branches and leaves are wet; cultivating a mother plant; after topping and pruning, spraying agricultural streptomycin for 1 time, wherein the agricultural streptomycin is 4000 times of solution of agricultural streptomycin soluble powder with 72 mass percent of active ingredients; after topping and pruning, topping and pruning again when the length of all branches of the kale plant exceeds 8 cm;
(3) establishing a Chinese kale breeding nursery: selecting a field block with good ventilation and a water-planted field as a cabbage seedling breeding garden, trimming ridges in the breeding garden, and digging a plurality of cutting ditches on each ridge surface, wherein the depth of each ditch is 7cm, and the width of each ditch is 10 cm;
(4) shearing the semi-hard branch spike strips of the kale borecole: in the middle and last ten days of the month 11, cutting the Chinese kale semi-hard branch spike strips which are provided with 8 sections, 3 branches in each section and semi-lignification in the 2 sections at the base and are germinated and grown by axillary buds; the shearing tool is wiped or soaked for 20 minutes by using a double-long-chain quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant with the mass concentration of 800mg/L, and the shearing tool is disinfected once every 110 scions; when the cutting is carried out, the top cut of the ear strips is a flat cut, the base cut is a bevel cut, and the distance between the bevel cut and the adjacent leaf nodes is 2.0 cm;
(5) disinfection treatment before cutting of the Chinese kale half-hardwood scion strips: respectively aligning the ear strips obtained in the step (1) according to a flat cut end and a beveled cut end for bundling, putting 50 ear strips into a bundle, and performing disinfection treatment for 6min in a disinfectant (the disinfectant adopts 2000 times of prochloraz emulsifiable concentrate with 45 mass percent of active ingredients), wherein the disinfectant is replaced once after 30 bundles of ear strips are treated;
(6) cutting the Chinese kale half-hardwood scion strips: discharging the scion wood strips in the dug cuttage furrows at an angle of 50 degrees, a plant spacing of 2.5cm and a row spacing of 15cm by adopting a strip cutting method; burying 3 sections of the base part of the ear strips into soil during earthing, and leaving 4 sections of the top of the ear strips to expose the soil surface; covering soil, watering thoroughly, covering a transparent plastic film on the ear strips, and covering a sunshade net with 45% of sunshade rate to preserve heat and avoid direct sunlight;
(7) managing after cuttage: after cuttage, the temperature and humidity and light intensity regulation and control management is enhanced, the temperature and humidity are regulated by uncovering the transparent plastic film and spraying water, and the relative air humidity is kept at 68% and the air temperature is kept at 21 ℃; after 18d of cuttage, watering and applying 0.11 mass percent of water solution for 2 times to strengthen the seedlings; after 28d of cuttage and germination of the primordium, uncovering a sunshade net or removing crop straws for 6h in time to enhance photosynthesis, promote seedling growth and strengthen and promote rooting; after rooting is stable, replacing the sunshade net with 45% of sunshade rate with a sunshade net with 25% of sunshade rate to enhance illumination and culture the big seedlings; after 40 days, the rooting rate can reach 95.3%, the height of seedlings is 29.7cm when the seedlings are transplanted in spring of the next year, and the average number of branches of each seedling is 4.0. The transplanting survival rate is 93.3 percent after 1 month of investigation, and the root rot does not occur after 3 months of investigation.
Experimental data for the above 3 examples:
and (3) comparison: the existing commonly used method for cutting and seedling raising by picking ears in a kale field in spring specifically comprises the following steps: and (3) cutting and cultivating the Chinese kalimeris indica in the field at 24 days in 3 months, wherein the Chinese kalimeris indica is provided with 6 sections of tender branches, obliquely inserting the Chinese kalimeris indica into a seedling bed, wherein the cutting depth is 3-5 cm, the plant spacing is 2.5cm, and the row spacing is 15cm, covering soil, treading, watering thoroughly after cutting, covering a transparent heat-preservation plastic film on the Chinese kalimeris indica, and then covering a sunshade net with the sunshade rate of 45%. After cutting, seedling management was performed according to the method in "a south isatis root cutting seedling method" (application No. 201710915094.9). And after 40d of cuttage, counting the average cuttage rooting rate, transplanting for 1 month to investigate the average transplanting survival rate, and transplanting for 3 months to investigate the occurrence rate of root rot. And the rooting rate managed after the cuttage in the step (7) of each example, the transplanting survival rate after 1 month of transplanting and the incidence rate of root rot for 3 months are respectively compared as shown in the following table:
TABLE 2 seedling raising result data of each example
Figure BDA0003128385880000111
As can be seen from the above table, the kalium coloratum cutting rooting rate, the number of branches, the transplanting survival rate and no root rot occur in the kalium coloratum semi-hardwood cutting seedling raising method in each embodiment of the application.
Results of the experiment
Influence of cutting shoot type on cutting seedling
Scions are cut from the robust kalium marianum plant, the scions are respectively 6 knots and 7 knots of 3 different types, the scions are respectively a top twig without branch, a middle upper semi-hard branch stem with 2 branches and a base stem with 2 branches, the length of the cutting slips is 15-18cm, the cutting is carried out at 20 days in 11 months, the cutting is carried out at present, random block arrangement cutting comparison is adopted, the operation is repeated for 3 times, and 100 cutting slips are respectively carried out in each group. The field management is carried out on the cutting seedlings according to the conventional method, the rooting rate and the seedling height of each cutting seedling are recorded in 5-month cuttage investigation, the survival rate is investigated in 1-month transplanting, and the results are shown in table 2.
TABLE 3 influence of the type of cutting shoot on the rooting rate and seedling quality of the cuttage
Figure BDA0003128385880000121
As can be seen from tables 3-4, different cutting types have great influence on the rooting rate and the seedling height of the cutting seedlings, the difference between treatments is obvious, the growth node number and the branching of the seedlings are influenced, and the planting survival rate of the seedlings out of the nursery is influenced. The rooting rate of the cutting seedlings with semi-hard branches and semi-lignified 2 sections and 3 sections at the base is the highest and reaches more than 94 percent, which is obviously higher than that of other treatments, the seedlings grow well when coming out of the nursery, and the transplanting survival rate is more than 93 percent; the rooting rate of the top twig cutting seedling and the growth and development of the seedling can not reach the ideal level; the cuttage rooting rate of the base stem node scion is low, the growth and development of the seedling and the transplanting survival rate are both at the lowest level, and the method is not suitable for production and application. For this reason, the cutting propagation in production is preferably that the base with branches has 2-3 segments of semi-hard branch cutting. Second, the influence of different cutting time (different time of cutting) on root rate and seedling quality
Adopting semi-hard branch cuttings with 6 sections, 2 branches each and 2-3 sections at the base part to carry out seedling culture comparison in different seasons, adopting random block arrangement cutting comparison for similar cuttings, repeating for 3 times, and 100 cuttings in each group. And (3) performing field management on the cutting seedlings according to a conventional method, investigating the rooting rate and the seedling height after 5-month cutting, and investigating the survival rate after transplanting for one year.
(I) influence of spring cutting time on rooting and seedling quality
TABLE 5 influence of spring cutting time on the rooting rate and seedling quality of cuttage
Cutting time 3 month and 20 days 3 month and 30 days 4 month and 10 days 4 month and 20 days 4 month and 30 days
Rooting percentage (%) 62.0 79.4 83.1 60.2 50.8
Height of seedling (cm) 22.2 26.0 27.2 27.8 14.3
Survival rate of transplantation after 5 months (%) 53.0 44.1 43.3 60.6 57.1
Survival rate of one year later transplantation (%) 78.1 80.2 77.1 84.4 67.3
Table 5 shows the influence of different cutting times in spring on the quality of the cutting seedlings, the rooting rate of the cutting in late ten days of 4 months is highest, and the seedling growth and transplanting survival rate are higher than those in other periods; the rooting rate of cuttage is lowest in 4 months and 30 days. Transplanting after cuttage for one year, wherein the survival rate of the cuttage is better from 3 months bottom to 4 months middle.
(II) influence of autumn and winter cuttage time on rooting and seedling quality
TABLE 6 influence of Malan autumn and winter cuttage time on rooting and seedling quality
Cutting time 10 months and 20 days 11 month and 10 days 11 month and 20 days 11 month and 30 days 12 month and 10 days
Rooting percentage (%) 82.5 95.3 94.1 93.6 72.1
Height of seedling (cm) 30.6 29.7 28.9 26.2 18.1
Survival Rate of transplantation (%) 83.2 95.4 95.0 93.1 66.7
The results in table 6 show that the rooting rate of the cutting seedlings is only 72.1% in 12 months and 10 days, the heights of the seedlings are also poor, and the growth and the yield are lower than those of other treatments; the rooting rate and the seedling height of the cuttage are good in the 10 days in 11 months, the 20 days in 11 months and the 30 days in 11 months, the difference between the treatments is small, the rooting rate difference with the other two treatments reaches a remarkable level, and the transplanting survival rate is over 93.1%.
From tables 5-6, spring cuttage generally requires outplanting and transplanting in the next spring, winter cuttage can be outplanting and transplanting in the spring, the seedling management time is shortened by half compared with the conventional spring cuttage time, the management cost is reduced by half, and the transplanting survival rate of winter cuttage is high.
Thirdly, the influence of the type of the cutting on the seedling and yield
The semi-hardwood cutting slips with different numbers of cutting sections are cut, the number of branches is respectively 2 branches, 4 branches and no branches, the number of sections is respectively 2, 4, 6 and 8 sections, and 11 types of cutting slips are provided. Cutting the spikes at 20 days after 11 months, and taking out the current cutting; the cutting is repeated 3 times in random block arrangement, and each group has 100 cuttings. And (3) performing field management on the cutting seedlings according to a conventional method, surveying and recording the rooting rate and the seedling growth condition of the cutting seedlings in each cell in 5-month cuttage investigation, and tracking and surveying the transplanting survival rate and the acre yield.
TABLE 7 influence of the type of cutting shoot on the quality and yield of the cutting seedlings
Figure BDA0003128385880000141
As can be seen from table 7, the number of cutting branches and the number of branches have a great influence on the cutting rooting rate and yield, the cutting rooting rate of the cutting with a small number of branches is significantly lower than that of the cutting with a large number of branches, the cutting is short, the number of branches is small, and the storage of nutrients is less, so that the cutting is not favorable for the rooting and growth of the cutting seedling; the yield of the branched cutting is obviously higher than that of the non-branched cutting, the seedling tillering and the branching base number of the branched cutting are higher than that of the non-branched cutting, and the stem and leaf yield of the branched cutting is also high.
It can be seen that it is preferable that the seedling of Kalanchoe is optimally planted by cutting in the late 11 months with at least 6 branches of the germination and growth zone of the axillary bud, each semi-hard branch of Kalanchoe having at least 2 branches and the 2-3 branches of the basal part being semi-lignified.
Influence of different sun shading rates on kalanchoe cutting
Adopting 6 sections, 2 branches each and 2-3 sections at the base of the kale semi-hardwood cutting to carry out comparison experiments with different sun-shading rates, adopting random block arrangement cutting comparison, repeating for 3 times and 100 cutting slips per group. The shading net is produced by plastic net industry limited company of Shengzhou city green garden in Zhejiang province, and the experiment is designed with 4 treatments: shading 10%, shading 35%, shading 40% and shading 45%. Selecting nursery land sections with similar emergence rate and uniform growth potential as observation and investigation sample plots, wherein each treatment and investigation sample plot comprises 3 sample plots, and each observation sample plot area is 5.4m2. And after 40d of cuttage, counting the average cuttage rooting rate and average seedling height.
TABLE 8 influence of different shading treatments on the survival rate and seedling height of kalanchoe cutting seedlings
Shading treatment Shading by 10% Shading is 35% Shading by 40 percent Shading by 45%
Average cutting rooting percentage (%) 78.5 95.1 96.3 92.7
Average height of seedling (cm) 16.7 27.7 31.3 33.4
Therefore, different shading degrees have obvious influence on the rooting rate and the seedling height of the kalimeris indica cutting seedling. The light shading rate of 10 percent can cause higher seedling death rate, the rooting rate of 35 to 45 percent is similar, and the rooting rate is the highest when the light shading rate is 40 percent. The investigation and analysis results of the seedling height show that different shading degrees have certain influence on the seedling height growth. Under the condition of the shading rate of 10%, the height of the kalanchoe odorata seedlings is the lowest, the growth of the kalanchoe odorata seedlings is influenced to a certain extent when the shading rate is 35%, the difference between the height of the kalanchoe odorata seedlings and the height of the kalanchoe odorata seedlings is certain, and the difference between the height of the kalanchoe odorata seedlings and the height of the seedlings is not obvious when the shading rate is 40-45%. The proper sun shading is a suitable living environment for the Chinese kale seeds, and the light shading rate of 35-45 percent is suitable for cutting and seedling raising of the Chinese kale.
The method for raising seedlings by cutting Chinese kalanchoe semi-hardwood branches described in the present application is not limited to the above embodiments, and any modification or replacement according to the principle of the present application should be within the protection scope of the present application.

Claims (10)

1. A method for raising seedlings by cutting of Kalanchoe semi-hardwood branches is characterized by comprising the following steps: mainly comprises the following steps which are carried out in sequence:
(1) establishing a Chinese kale breeding nursery: selecting a field block with good ventilation and a water-planted field as a cabbage seedling breeding garden, trimming the field in the breeding garden, and digging a plurality of cutting grooves on each field surface;
(2) shearing the semi-hard branch spike strips of the kale borecole: in the middle and last ten days of the month 11, cutting the semi-hard Chinese kale branch spike strips which are provided with at least 6 sections, at least 2 branches and semi-lignified base parts 2-3 sections, wherein the strips grow by the germination of axillary buds by using a sterilized cutter; when in shearing, the top cut of the ear strip is a flat cut, the base cut is a bevel cut, and the distance between the bevel cut and the adjacent leaf node is 0.5-2.0 cm;
(3) disinfection treatment before cutting of the Chinese kale half-hardwood scion strips: respectively aligning the ear strips obtained in the step (2) according to the flat cut end and the beveled cut end for bundling, putting 30-50 ear strips into a disinfectant for disinfection treatment for 3-6min, and replacing the disinfectant once after 30-50 ear strips are treated;
(4) cutting the Chinese kale half-hardwood scion strips: discharging scion wood strips in the dug cuttage furrows at an angle of 45-60 degrees, at a plant spacing of 2-3cm and at a row spacing of 10-15cm by adopting a strip cutting method; burying 3-4 sections of the base of the spike strip into the soil during earthing, and leaving 3-4 sections of the top of the spike strip to expose the soil surface; covering soil, watering thoroughly, covering a transparent plastic film on the ear strips, and covering a sunshade net with the sunshade rate of 35-45% or 3-5 layers of crop straws to preserve heat and avoid direct sunlight;
(5) managing after cuttage: after cuttage, temperature and humidity and light intensity regulation and control management are enhanced, the temperature and the humidity are regulated by uncovering a transparent plastic film and spraying water, the relative air humidity is kept at 68-72% and the air temperature is kept at 21-28 ℃, and meanwhile, topdressing is carried out by combining with moisture management; after 25-30d of cuttage and germination of the primordium, uncovering the sunshade net or removing crop straws for 4-6h at proper time to enhance photosynthesis, promote seedling growth and strengthen and promote rooting; after the rooting is stable, replacing the sunshade net with the sunshade rate of 35-45% with the sunshade net with the sunshade rate of 25-30%, or removing the crop straws 1-2 times, and removing 1-2 layers of crop straws each time to enhance the illumination for culturing the big seedlings; the big seedlings can be used for transplanting in the next spring.
2. The method for raising kalanchoe odorata semi-hardwood cutting seedlings according to claim 1, characterized in that: the kalanchoe semi-hardwood cutting seedling raising method further comprises the following steps which are sequentially carried out before the kalanchoe semi-hardwood cutting step:
(1-1) constructing a kale cutting orchard: before selection of a field cultivation area far away from a field, establishing a cutting orchard as a field block of a water planting field; the method comprises the following steps of (1) widely screening healthy and strong kale plants without diseases and insect pests in a field cultivation area and listing, on a cloudy day of 10-11 months, shearing kale semi-hard branch spike strips with at least 6 sections, at least 2 branches and semi-lignified base 2-3 sections by using a sterilized cutter, dipping a base cut in yellow mud containing 0.4-0.6% by mass of indoleacetic acid and 0.4-0.6% by mass of naphthylacetic acid, and then carrying out multi-spike deep cutting at an angle of 30-45 degrees and hole planting in a ridging and full-bed cutting spike to serve as a cutting stock plant; then, watering root fixing water thoroughly in time, covering a transparent plastic film on the upper end of the cutting for more than 40cm, and covering a sunshade net with the sunshade rate of 35-45%;
(1-2) rejuvenating and cultivating the scion stock plant: after cutting 20-40 days, topdressing for 1-2 times, cutting 40 days and then outplanting, and uncovering a transparent plastic film and a sunshade net for enhancing illumination at 7-10 points and 16-18 points every day; pruning the top of the next year from the first ten days of 5 months to the middle of 6 months, cutting off the stock plant and the branch top branch section, reserving 2-4 sections at the lower end, and applying additional fertilizer and spraying a growth regulator to promote the germination, the sprouting and the tillering of axillary buds of the plants; topping and pruning again when the length of all branches exceeds 5-8cm so as to culture multi-branch scion stock plants;
and (3) the kalanchoe semidurans ear strips in the step (2) of shearing the kalanchoe semidurans ear strips are sheared from the stock plant which is rejuvenated and cultivated in the step (1-2).
3. The method for raising kalanchoe odorata semi-hardwood cutting seedlings according to claim 1, characterized in that: in the step (2), the disinfection method of the cutter for shearing the half hard branch ear strips of the kale comprises the following steps: wiping or soaking the cutter for 10-20 minutes by using a double-long-chain quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant with the mass concentration of 800-1200mg/L, and disinfecting the cutter once every 90-110 branches of spikes are cut.
4. The method for raising kalanchoe odorata semi-hardwood cutting seedlings according to claim 2, characterized in that: in the step (1-1) of building the kale cutting orchard, the disinfection method of the cutter for cutting the panicle is as follows: wiping or soaking the cutter for 10-20 minutes by using a double-long-chain quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant with the mass concentration of 800-1200mg/L, and disinfecting the cutter once every 90-110 branches of spikes are cut.
5. The method for raising kalanchoe odorata semi-hardwood cutting seedlings according to claim 1, characterized in that: in the step (3), in the disinfection treatment before the cutting of the kalanchoe semihardwood branches, the disinfection solution is 3000 times of 2000-fold solution of prochloraz emulsifiable solution with the mass percentage of 45% of the effective component, or 3000 times of agricultural streptomycin sulfate with the mass percentage of 72% of the effective component.
6. The method for raising kalanchoe odorata semi-hardwood cutting seedlings according to claim 2, characterized in that: the method comprises the following steps of (1) constructing a planting stock plant of a kalanchoe spicatus cutting orchard in the step (1-1), wherein the adopted multi-spike deep cutting hole planting method mainly comprises the following steps of: digging holes according to the hole distance of 25-35cm and the line distance of 30-40cm, and mixing the bacillus subtilis wettable powder and the fine dry soil according to the weight ratio of 1: 2.5-3.5, and performing hole application, wherein the application amount of the bacillus subtilis wettable powder in each hole is 0.1-0.3 g; then 2-4 kalimeris semi-hard branch ear strips are planted in each hole, the soil is covered and compacted, 3-4 sections of the base part are buried in the soil, and 3-4 sections of branches and leaves are left on each ear strip to expose the soil surface.
7. The method for raising kalanchoe odorata semi-hardwood cutting seedlings according to claim 2, characterized in that: in the step (1-2) of rejuvenating and cultivating the ear-picking stock plants, urea aqueous solution with the mass percent of 0.5-1.0% is applied for 1 time at intervals of 10-14 days for top dressing frequency.
8. The method for raising kalanchoe odorata semi-hardwood cutting seedlings according to claim 2, characterized in that: in the step (1-2) of rejuvenating and cultivating the scion stock plant, the method for spraying the foliar fertilizer and the growth regulator comprises the following steps: mixing 0.1-0.15% potassium dihydrogen phosphate water solution and 0.005-0.015% brassin water solution at the same volume, and spraying on branches and leaves until the surfaces of the branches and leaves are wet.
9. The method for raising kalanchoe odorata semi-hardwood cutting seedlings according to claim 2, characterized in that: in the step (1-2), in the rejuvenation cultivation of the ear-picking stock plant, agricultural streptomycin is sprayed for 1 time after topping and pruning each time, wherein the agricultural streptomycin is 3500-6000-fold liquid of agricultural streptomycin soluble powder with 72 mass percent of active ingredients.
10. The method for raising kalanchoe odorata semi-hardwood cutting seedlings according to claim 1, characterized in that: in the management after cuttage in the step (5), the concrete steps of topdressing by combining with water management are as follows: after 15-20 days of cuttage, water solution with 0.10-0.12 percent of mass percent is applied for 1-2 times to cultivate a plurality of roots or ammonium humate solution is diluted by 300 times and used for strengthening seedlings.
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