CN111771657A - Cultivation method of lilium floribundum - Google Patents

Cultivation method of lilium floribundum Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111771657A
CN111771657A CN202010667493.XA CN202010667493A CN111771657A CN 111771657 A CN111771657 A CN 111771657A CN 202010667493 A CN202010667493 A CN 202010667493A CN 111771657 A CN111771657 A CN 111771657A
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lilium
floribundum
planting
soil
seeds
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Inventor
唐占辉
崔凯峰
闫兴富
马宏宇
冯秀春
金哲军
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Northeastern University China
Northeast Normal University
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Northeast Normal University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/60Flowers; Ornamental plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/10Vegetative propagation by means of cuttings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/64Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with three nitrogen atoms as the only ring hetero atoms
    • A01N43/647Triazoles; Hydrogenated triazoles
    • A01N43/6531,2,4-Triazoles; Hydrogenated 1,2,4-triazoles
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N47/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom not being member of a ring and having no bond to a carbon or hydrogen atom, e.g. derivatives of carbonic acid
    • A01N47/08Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom not being member of a ring and having no bond to a carbon or hydrogen atom, e.g. derivatives of carbonic acid the carbon atom having one or more single bonds to nitrogen atoms
    • A01N47/10Carbamic acid derivatives, i.e. containing the group —O—CO—N<; Thio analogues thereof
    • A01N47/18Carbamic acid derivatives, i.e. containing the group —O—CO—N<; Thio analogues thereof containing a —O—CO—N< group, or a thio analogue thereof, directly attached to a heterocyclic or cycloaliphatic ring
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N57/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic phosphorus compounds
    • A01N57/10Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic phosphorus compounds having phosphorus-to-oxygen bonds or phosphorus-to-sulfur bonds
    • A01N57/12Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic phosphorus compounds having phosphorus-to-oxygen bonds or phosphorus-to-sulfur bonds containing acyclic or cycloaliphatic radicals
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L2/00Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials or objects other than foodstuffs or contact lenses; Accessories therefor
    • A61L2/16Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials or objects other than foodstuffs or contact lenses; Accessories therefor using chemical substances
    • A61L2/23Solid substances, e.g. granules, powders, blocks, tablets

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for cultivating Lilium concolor var. megalanthus, which comprises the steps of sterilizing soil, sexual propagation or vegetative propagation, fertilizing, preventing diseases and insect pests, performing field management and the like in the previous year of planting, and artificially culturing to obtain fresh cut flowers and seed balls of Lilium macranthum. The invention has the beneficial effects that: the cultivation method of the lilium floribundum can be used for artificially planting the lilium floribundum, comprises two methods of sexual propagation and vegetative propagation, and the lilium floribundum is full in seeds, large in seed balls and free of diseases and insect pests, can be cultivated and survived, and the flower color of the cut flowers is red and bright, striking and happy, so that great economic benefits are generated.

Description

Cultivation method of lilium floribundum
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of plant cultivation, and particularly relates to a method for cultivating lilium floribundum.
Background
Lilium floribundum, a variant of lilium worthwhile, which originates in a moist meadow, in an early moist land or in a pasture with water throughout the year. Perennial herbs and bulbs are spherical, 2-5 cm high, and 30-100 cm high, and usually have white cotton hair, loose leaves, long shape, 5-9 cm long and 5-11 mm wide, short and rough hair is arranged on the back veins, small papillary protrusions are arranged at the edges, flowers are arrayed into umbrella-shaped or general inflorescences, flower stalks are upright, 2-6 cm long, and bud leaves are leaf-shaped and 1-3 cm long; the flower is red or orange-red, has purple spot color and luster, is long and round, does not curl, is 4-5.5 cm long, 8.0-15 mm wide and blunt at the tip, and has papilla or tassel-like bulges at two sides of the honey gland; the stamen 6 is close to the center, the filament is 1.5-2.5 cm long, hairless, the anther is long and round, the length is 7-10 mm, the ovary is cylindrical, the length is 1.5-2.5 cm, and the width is 2.5-3.0 mm; the style is shorter or nearly equal to the ovary, the stigma is slightly enlarged, the capsule is oblong, the flowering period is 6-7 months, and the fruiting period is 8-9 months. The soil is deep in soil layer, good in drainage, fertile, humus-rich sandy loam, clay is avoided, and the soil is suitable for acid to slightly acid soil. The forest cultivation also needs to consider whether natural disasters such as seasonal rainfall prone areas, concentrated water passing areas after rain, frost channels and the like exist. The survey also needs to be carried out, wherein the survey comprises the highest and lowest temperature start and stop time, the annual average temperature, the annual rainfall, the monthly rainfall, the maximum rainfall, the rainy season, the dry season time, the wind power, the wind direction and the easy-to-rise time, and the frost and snow start and stop date. Particularly, in recent years, due to environmental changes, the frequency of occurrence of extremely severe weather such as fog, hail, acid rain, sand storm, and the like is an investigation range. In addition, whether large-scale plants exist around the plant, whether sewage discharge influences the planting base, and whether soot and dust treatment reaches the standard need to be investigated. When planting in a forest area, the relevance of peripheral vegetation to the planting base such as soil, fertility, pH value and soil layer thickness to the planting ground, the wind shielding strength of the peripheral vegetation under the vertical distribution zone and the influence of the peripheral vegetation under the microclimate condition on the planting base are also considered. The lilium florum has low requirement on climate, is fond of warm climate, can be cultivated in northeast and inner Mongolia regions, has strong cold resistance, can grow under the condition of 5-30 ℃, and is suitable for the growth temperature of 20-28 ℃.
The lilium floribundum has a small quantity in the Changbai mountain area and is distributed sporadically in the wetland of the three provinces in the northeast. In the article, "the research on the preferential protection sequence of rare or endangered plants in Changbai mountain area" is classified as a gradually dangerous species, which is a plant to be protected.
In view of this, this patent is filed.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems in the prior art, the invention provides a method for cultivating lilium floribundum, which is characterized in that lilium floribundum is artificially planted, the obtained seed balls are large and full, and the flower color of the cut flowers is red and brilliant.
The invention aims to provide a method for cultivating lilium floribundum.
Another object of the present invention is to provide cut flowers, seeds and bulbs obtained by the above method for cultivating Lilium giganteum.
According to the cultivation method of the lilium floribundum, the cultivation method of the lilium floribundum comprises the following steps:
(1) soil disinfection: sterilizing soil to be planted in autumn of the previous year, fertilizing in combination, then carrying out rotary tillage on the soil for more than 0.2m, and finally sealing the soil by plastic cloth;
(2) and (3) propagation: ridging in spring, wherein the propagation comprises sexual propagation and asexual propagation, and the sexual propagation comprises planting seeds in the soil sterilized in the step (1); the seeds are seeds formed after the lilium floribundum grows to bloom in the third year; the vegetative propagation comprises planting bulbs or cutting scales into the soil disinfected in the step (1);
(3) fertilizing: spraying the foliar fertilizer every 15-25 days from 15-25 days after seedling emergence in the current planting year; dressing the first compound fertilizer in the second year and later 4 months of each year after planting, then applying the second compound fertilizer in the middle of 5 months, and applying the third compound fertilizer in the last 6 months;
(4) and (3) pest and disease prevention: before planting, carrying out first whole-garden spraying by using a carbendazim wettable powder aqueous solution and a dimethoate emulsifiable concentrate aqueous solution to kill overwintering germs and worm eggs in the garden; after 10 days of the first full-garden spraying, when the lilium giganteum sprouts, carrying out second full-garden spraying by adopting a difenoconazole wettable powder aqueous solution and a dimethoate missible oil aqueous solution, and carrying out third spraying by adopting the difenoconazole wettable powder aqueous solution, the dimethoate missible oil aqueous solution and a Fuer foliar fertilizer 655 aqueous solution after the second full-garden spraying for 20-30 days, wherein the third spraying is plant spraying and penetrates to the root;
(5) field management: weeding in the field is carried out for more than 3 times each year; the buds are removed in time when the plants grow in the second year, so that the situation that the buds compete for nutrients with bulbs and the bulb quality is influenced is avoided;
(6) seed harvesting: and (4) picking mature seeds in the third year after planting, airing, removing immature seeds by air separation, drying and storing. After storage, the bottles were periodically checked for mold.
According to the cultivation method of the lilium floribundum, in the step (1), for the soil in which the liliaceae plants are not planted, 90 wt% of fenaminosulf wettable powder is adopted for disinfection; the soil with the previous crop being lily is disinfected with broad-spectrum soil disinfectant.
The method for cultivating lilium floribundum according to the embodiment of the present invention, wherein the step (b) is1) The dosage of the broad-spectrum soil disinfectant for killing the pests is as follows: the soil for growing Liliaceae plants for more than 3 years is 150g/m2Soil for planting Liliaceae plant or Solanaceae plant for 1-3 years, each 667m2The dosage of the composition is 20-30 kg.
According to the cultivation method of the lilium floribundum, in the step (1), when the broad-spectrum soil disinfectant capable of killing the soil instantly is used, the water content of the soil is kept between 50 and 60 percent, and the application amount is 667m per unit22000-3000 kg of base fertilizer is applied to the land.
According to the cultivation method of the lilium floribundum, in the step (2), the width of the ridge is 1-2 m, the width of the bottom of the ridge stem is 1.2-1.5 m, the width of the top of the ridge stem is 1.0-1.3 m, the width of the bottom of the ridge stem is 20cm larger than that of the top of the ridge stem, and the height of the ridge stem is 0.2 m.
According to the cultivation method of the lilium floribundum, in the step (2), bulbs with the diameter being more than 1.5cm for more than 3 years are adopted for scale cuttage, the scales are stripped layer by layer from the periphery of the bulbs, the scales with yellow spots or atrophied outer layers are removed, and 2-3 layers of scales are annularly stripped from each lilium floribundum bulb and are used as seed sources to be planted in a cuttage bed; and (4) cultivating the girdled lilium giganteum in holes according to the plant spacing.
According to the cultivation method of the lilium floribundum, in the step (2), before the scale is cut, a mixed aqueous solution of carbendazol wettable powder and zineb wettable powder or a potassium permanganate aqueous solution is adopted for soaking, then the soaked solution is soaked by clear water, and then the cut is cut in a cutting bed.
Further, before the scale is cut, a mixed aqueous solution of carbendazim wettable powder and zineb wettable powder or a potassium permanganate aqueous solution is adopted for soaking for 20min, then the mixed aqueous solution is soaked for 20min by using clear water, and then the scale is cut in a cutting bed.
According to the method for cultivating lilium floribundum of the embodiment of the invention, the length of the cuttage bed is 10-20 m, the width of the cuttage bed is 1-1.2 m, and the height of the cuttage bed is 0.2 m.
According to the cultivation method of the lilium floribundum, the bulbs with the diameter of less than 0.5cm are planted for 1 year in a concentrated drilling mode and then planted again in a fixed mode in the step (2).
According to the cultivation method of the lilium floribundum, seeds are soaked for 15-25 min by using a gibberellin water solution before being planted, the seeds are sown in prepared furrows, the furrows are planted, the furrow width is 4-6 cm, the furrow depth is 3-5 cm, the row spacing is 15-25 cm, and 30-40 seeds are sown in each row.
According to the cultivation method of the lilium floribundum, the width of the ditches for ditching and planting is 5cm, the depth of the ditches is 3-5 cm, the row spacing is 20cm, after seeds are planted, soil is covered by a straw mat, water is sprayed for moisturizing, and after the seeds are planted, a 50% sunshade net is covered on a support.
According to the cultivation method of the lilium floribundum, the plant row spacing of the scale cuttage in the step (2) is 5cm multiplied by 20 cm; the row spacing of the scaly heart cultivation is 15cm multiplied by 20 cm;
according to the cultivation method of the lilium floribundum, provided by the invention, when the bulbs are separately planted and fixedly planted, the lilium floribundum is dug out and classified in early autumn at the end of summer, and the bulbs with the diameter of 0.5-0.9 cm and the bulbs with the diameter of more than 0.9cm are cultivated in a classified manner; the row spacing of the plants during the separate planting and the field planting is 10cm multiplied by 20 cm.
According to the cultivation method of the lilium davidii provided by the embodiment of the invention, in the step (2), the gibberellin aqueous solution is prepared by adding 200 times of water into gibberellin and uniformly mixing.
According to the cultivation method of the lilium florum, in the step (2), before the scale is cut, a mixed aqueous solution of carbendazim wettable powder and zineb wettable powder or a potassium permanganate aqueous solution is adopted for soaking, then the soaked scale is soaked by clear water, then the base part of the scale is quickly dipped by 1000ppm of indolebutyric acid for 5-8 s, and then the cut is inserted into a cutting bed.
Further, before the scale is cut, a mixed aqueous solution of carbendazim wettable powder and zineb wettable powder or a potassium permanganate aqueous solution is adopted for soaking for 20min, then the soaking is carried out for 20min by using clear water, then the base part of the scale is quickly dipped by using 1000ppm indolebutyric acid for 5-8 s, and then the scale is cut in a cutting bed.
According to the cultivation method of the lilium floribundum, provided by the specific embodiment of the invention, in the step (3), the foliar fertilizer is a 0.2 wt% urea aqueous solution, and is sprayed until 20 days before the growth period is finished. As the lilium floribundum grows slimly, the use concentration of urea is forbidden to be increased.
According to the cultivation method of the lilium floribundum, in the step (3), the weight ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the first compound fertilizer is 3: 2: 1, and the application amount of the first compound fertilizer is 667m2Applying 10-15 kg; the weight ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the second compound fertilizer is 1:1, and the application amount of the second compound fertilizer is every 667m2Applying 10-15 kg; the weight ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the third compound fertilizer is 1:2:3, and the application amount of the third compound fertilizer is 667m2Applying 10-15 kg.
According to the fresh cut flower obtained by the method for cultivating the lilium floribundum, the plant height of the lilium floribundum in the third year after the lilium floribundum is planted according to the method for cultivating the lilium floribundum is 40-80 cm, and the cut flower is cut to obtain the bell-shaped fresh cut flower.
According to the method for cultivating the lilium floribundum, the seeds obtained are picked and aired in the third year after being planted according to the lilium floribundum cultivation method, immature seeds are removed by air separation, and the seeds are dried and put into kraft paper bags for natural storage.
According to the lily cultivation method, the obtained seedballs are dug in the third year after the lily is planted according to the lily cultivation method, and the obtained bulbs with the diameter of more than 1.5cm are the seedballs. Drying the surface layer of the seed ball, diluting the seed ball with 70 wt% thiophanate methyl wettable powder by 1000 times, diluting the 60 wt% mancozeb wettable powder by 1000 times and diluting 50 wt% phoxim missible oil by 1000 times in a weight ratio of 1:1:1, mixing, soaking for 30min, taking out, airing, drying, filling into a container for storage, and checking periodically to prevent mildew.
Most of naturally grown embryos of the lilium florum seeds are aborted and need to be scientifically managed in each link. In principle, when the lilium floribundum grows to the second year, buds bloom and form seeds, in order to collect high-quality seed sources, the buds of the lilium floribundum in the second year need to be picked off in time, so that the growth of seed balls (bulbs) is facilitated, and the quality of the bulbs is improved.
The lilium floribundum is not well-cultivated, and has four characteristics that firstly, the lilium floribundum has transverse long rhizome, namely, after the lilium floribundum sprouts in soil, the lilium floribundum grows transversely at a position about 2-4 cm away from the ground surface, the length of the lilium floribundum is in direct proportion to the planting year and the planting technology, namely, the management technology is fine, the growth time is long, the lilium floribundum is thick and long when the lil. But the transverse stem does not increase the thickness and the length without limit, and the increase of the thickness and the length can be stopped after the stem grows for 5 years, so that shallow hoeing is needed in the hoeing process; secondly, abortion is caused by multiple times of embryo incomplete breeding of seeds during sexual propagation, and a large number of seed sources are difficult to obtain, so scientific management needs to be enhanced as much as possible, and the plumpness and maturity rate of the seeds are improved; thirdly, in vegetative propagation, because the bulbs are smaller, the scales for cuttage propagation are fewer, and the grown seedlings are easy to be damaged by diseases and insect pests to die; and fourthly, the pesticide is easily damaged by pests and diseases, so that the pesticide is very important for preventing the pests and the diseases.
The broad-spectrum soil disinfectant has the effects of inducing and killing insects, bacteria and weeds, has strong effect, good disinfection effect and no residue in soil, has better control effect on diseases of the lilium floribundum due to the soil, and has better control effect on underground pests, parasitic nematodes, weed seed killing sources and the like. Particularly, soil disinfection and potting matrix disinfection during greenhouse planting of the lilium davidii can effectively reduce plant diseases and insect pests generated by continuous cropping.
When the 'essential quick-extinguishing broad-spectrum soil disinfectant' is used, the soil moisture is kept between 50 and 60 percent, and the use principle is as follows: when the soil is planted with the liliaceae plants for many years, the dosage is 150g/m2Planting Liliaceae plant or Solanaceae plant in soil for 1-3 years, each 667m2The using amount is 20-30 kg, fertilization is combined, rotary tillage is carried out on the soil for more than 0.2m, plastic cloth is used for sealing the soil (mulching films are forbidden), and the sealing time is shown in table 1.
TABLE 1 sealed time table of broad-spectrum soil disinfectant
Figure BDA0002581016580000061
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
(1) the cultivation method of the lilium florum can provide a new original seed source for the crossbreeding of the lilium brownum. More new varieties can be obtained by crossbreeding, lily crossbreeding in China has certain difference with international flower research represented by the Netherlands, and the research and development of new lily varieties have causal relationship due to insufficient protection and research attention on original provenance. The cultivation of the lilium floribundum is successful, and the commercial value is huge.
(2) The cultivation method of the lilium floribundum is to carry out artificial planting on the lilium floribundum, comprises two methods of sexual propagation and asexual propagation, and the seed balls obtained through artificial cultivation management are large and full, the flower color of the cut flowers is red and bright, the cut flowers are striking and happy, and great economic benefits are generated.
(3) The cultivation method of the lilium florum adopts a special soil disinfection method, different sowing methods (including bulb planting and scale cutting), different stage-by-stage fertilization methods and different pest and disease damage prevention methods to cultivate the lilium florum, and is suitable for large-area popularization.
(4) In the invention, the flower buds are removed in time in the second year after planting, thereby avoiding competing for nutrients with the bulbs, influencing the quality of the bulbs, reducing unnecessary nutrient consumption, obtaining bigger seed balls, being easier to survive, breed and cultivate, and the fresh cut flowers are bigger and more red and gorgeous.
(5) According to the cultivation method of the lilium florum, the gibberellin (GA3) with different concentrations is treated, a seed germination test is carried out, and the optimal germination rate of the seeds is obtained: the germination rate reaches 100 percent after 200 times of gibberellin (GA3) is used for soaking for 24 hours.
(6) The cultivation method of the lilium florum can obtain a large amount of excellent germplasm resources, provide high-quality provenance for introduction and regression of wild resources, relieve and finally realize that the germplasm resources play an ecological balance function in keeping biological genetic diversity; has important significance for maintaining the ecological balance and the biodiversity of wetland natural resources.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention more apparent, the technical solutions of the present invention will be described in detail below. It is to be understood that the described embodiments are merely exemplary of the invention, and not restrictive of the full scope of the invention. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the examples given herein without any inventive step, are within the scope of the present invention.
The technical solution of the present invention will be described in further detail below with reference to examples. However, the examples are chosen only for the purpose of illustrating the invention and are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention.
The planting place can be selected, and the GPS can be used for positioning the area, the boundary, the altitude, the slope and the slope direction.
Selecting more appropriate soil for the lilium floribundum: the soil is deep in soil layer, good in drainage, fertile, humus-rich sandy loam, clay is avoided, and the soil is suitable for acid to slightly acid soil. The forest cultivation also needs to consider whether natural disasters such as seasonal rainfall prone areas, areas with concentrated water after rain, frost, cold roads and the like exist.
Selecting a proper climate: the survey comprises the highest and lowest temperature start and stop time, the annual average temperature, the annual rainfall, the monthly rainfall, the maximum rainfall, the rainy season, the dry season time, the wind power, the wind direction and the easy-to-rise time, and the frost and snow start and stop date. Particularly, in recent years, due to environmental changes, the frequency of occurrence of extremely severe weather such as fog, hail, acid rain, sand storm, and the like is an investigation range. In addition, whether large-scale plants exist around the plant, whether sewage discharge influences the planting base, and whether soot and dust treatment reaches the standard need to be investigated. When planting in a forest area, the relevance of peripheral vegetation to the planting base such as soil, fertility, pH value and soil layer thickness to the planting ground, the wind shielding strength of the peripheral vegetation under the vertical distribution zone and the influence of the peripheral vegetation under the microclimate condition on the planting base are also considered. The more suitable climate is as follows: the lilium florum has low requirement on climate, is fond of warm climate, can be cultivated in northeast and inner Mongolia regions, has strong cold resistance, can grow under the condition of 5-30 ℃, and is suitable for the growth temperature of 20-28 ℃.
Selecting a proper water source: the water quality needs to meet the water quality standard of farmland irrigation. Including running water, rainwater, well water, pond water. Lilium florum is favorable for dampness and contraindicated for drought. Irrigation is needed in moderate drought.
All the diluents in the following examples are aqueous solutions.
Example 1
The embodiment provides a method for cultivating lilium davidii, which is characterized in that two plots with the same area and the same soil quality are selected in a Changbai mountain area, wherein the plots comprise a No. 1 plot and a No. 2 plot.
(1) And (3) disinfection: no. 1 plot has no plants of Liliaceae planted, and soil disinfection is carried out by using 90% dixon wettable powder in autumn in the previous year according to instructions; the first five crops of No. 2 plot are plants of Liliaceae, and the soil is sterilized by a broad-spectrum soil disinfectant with a dosage of 150g/m2. After disinfection, the same base fertilizer is applied to both plots, each 667m23000kg of organic fertilizer is applied, then a rotary cultivator is used for rotary tillage of soil with the depth of 0.3m, furrows are made, the length of each furrow is 20m, the width of each furrow is 1m, the height of each furrow is 0.2m, and plastic cloth is used for sealing the soil for 20 days.
(2) Planting: the method comprises the steps of making furrows in spring, adopting sexual propagation for No. 1 plots, selecting seeds formed after the lilium floribundum grows to bloom in the third year, soaking the seeds in 200 times of gibberellin aqueous solution for 15-25 min, sowing the seeds into the prepared furrows, ditching and planting the seeds, wherein the width of each furrow is 5cm, the depth of each furrow is 3-5 cm, the row spacing is 20cm, and 30-40 seeds are sowed in each row. Covering soil, covering grass curtains, spraying water for moisturizing, checking regularly, spraying water to the grass curtains when the soil is dry, and growing seedlings in a neat manner within 5-15 days at a rate of 100%;
no. 2 land parcel adopts vegetative propagation, and scale cuttage adopts the scale cuttage that the diameter was greater than 1.0cm and is taken to three years more than the scale cuttage in the cuttage bed, and the cuttage bed soil property is sandy loam (must be plain soil), uses the field and garden soil as the matrix and needs to add pearlite and adjust soil viscosity, holds the conglobation with the hand, and the pine hand soil scatters as the standard, makes 10 ~ 20m of length, 1 ~ 1.2m of width, 0.2m of height bed. Peeling scales layer by layer from the periphery of the bulb, removing the scales with yellow disease spots or atrophy on the outer layer, and peeling 2-3 layers of scales around each lilium macranthum as a seed source; before the scale is cut, 500 times of diluent of 50% carbendazim wettable powder and 500 times of diluent of 65% zineb wettable powder are mixed and soaked for 30min, and then the mixture is drained and dried in the shade. After soaking, 1000ppm of indolebutyric acid (IBA) is used for quickly dipping the base of the scale for 5-8 s, and the indolebutyric acid (IBA) has the effects of promoting rooting of the scale, high rate of emergence and tidy emergence. The row spacing of the cuttage plants is 5cm multiplied by 20cm, the concave surfaces of the scales face upwards and form an angle of 45 degrees, the cuttage plants are inserted into soil with the depth of 5cm, 1-2 small bulbs can be differentiated from the bulb callus in 20-30 days when the temperature is 18-25 ℃, and the bulbs germinate and grow in the spring of the next year. The diameter of the bulb in autumn is more than 0.5-1.0 cm, the bulbs are classified at the moment, the bulbs are classified into two grades, the diameters of the bulbs are respectively 0.5-0.9 cm and more than 0.9cm, the row spacing of the cultivated plants is 10cm multiplied by 20cm, and the classified cultivation aims to facilitate field management and accurate fertilization. The bulb with the diameter less than 0.5cm is planted for one year by concentrated drill planting and then field planting is carried out.
And (4) performing girdling on the large-flower lily bulb cores, cultivating in a ridge according to the plant-row spacing of 15cm multiplied by 20cm, and harvesting after 2 years of growth. The scale heart breeding method can not be used in a disordered way, and the scale heart breeding method needs to be abandoned after continuous planting for 3-5 years.
(3) Fertilizing: the two plots are fertilized identically, and the lilium davidii likes light fertilizer. The lilium brownii sprouts in 4-month late-day of Changbai mountain area, the first compound fertilizer is applied in 4-month late-day of each year, mainly nitrogen fertilizer, and m (N), (m) (P) and m (K) are 3: 2: 1 and 667m2The dosage is 10-15 kg, and the purpose is to promote the growth of the seedlings; in 5-month middle ten days, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium balance fertilizers are used as main materials, wherein m (N) m (P) m (K) is 1:1, 667m2The dosage is 10-15 kg, so that the growth is promoted and buds are formed; in the third ten days of 6 months, potassium fertilizer is used as the main raw material, the ratio of m (N) to m (P) to m (K) is 1:2:3, 667m2The using amount is 10-15 kg, and the purpose is to promote flowering and form full seeds. Chlorine-containing fertilizers are forbidden for applying the compound fertilizers.
(4) And (3) pest and disease prevention: the pest prevention of the two plots is carried out by the same measures, the pest prevention is carried out in spring, the first time of whole garden spraying is carried out in early spring, the planting land is cleared, the 500-time diluent of 50% carbendazim wettable powder and the 2000-time diluent of 40% dimethoate missible oil are mixed and sprayed in whole garden, and the purpose is to kill the overwintering germs and insect eggs in the garden; after 10 days (late ten days of 4 months) of the second time of the whole-garden spraying, the lilium floribundum sprouts, and the lilium floribundum is sprayed in a fog way in the whole garden after being mixed by 1500 times of diluent of 10 percent difenoconazole (shigao) wettable powder and 2000 times of diluent of 40 percent dimethoate missible oil, so as to prevent plant diseases and insect pests of the lilium floribundum; the interval between the third spraying and the second full-garden spraying is 20 days, the full-garden spraying is carried out after mixing the 1500-time diluent of 10 percent difenoconazole (Shigao) wettable powder, 2000-time diluent of 40 percent dimethoate missible oil and 1500-time diluent of Fuer 655 leaf fertilizer, and the third spraying method comprises the following steps: the liquid medicine is put into a sprayer, the spray head is removed, the liquid medicine is used for drenching plants by pressure and permeating the plants to the root of the bulb, and about 50ml of the liquid medicine is applied to each seed ball. Aims at preventing plant diseases and insect pests and absorbing nutrients comprehensively by plants. And starting pest and disease prevention in the middle of 4 months in the Changbai mountain area, and ending the whole-garden prevention in the middle of 5 months. As the growing period of the lilium macrocephalum is from 7 to late ten days, in the period, if the weather is rainy, the pesticide is sprayed in time after the weather to prevent the plant diseases and insect pests.
(5) Field management: the field management of the two plots is the same, artificial weeding is carried out in the last ten days of 5 months, and because the lilium floribundum has the characteristic of transverse long (walking) roots, weeding needs to be carried out shallowly, weeds are cleared away as early as possible, and the roots of the lilium floribundum are prevented from being damaged by clearing away when the root systems of the weeds are large. Weeding is concentrated for 3 times, namely, the last ten days of the month 5, the last ten days and the middle ten days of the month 6. In rainy days, weeds need to be removed in time. The aim is to prevent the roots and stems of the lilium giganteum from being damaged when the weeds are too much; secondly, the nutrition competition with the lilium floribundum is prevented; thirdly, preventing the lilium floribundum from overgrowing; and fourthly, preventing induction of pests and diseases. After sowing, a 50% sunshade net is covered on the bracket in time, 0.2% urea is sprayed on the leaf surface 20 days after seedling emergence, then 0.2% urea is sprayed on the leaf surface every 20 days, and the planting is carried out in separate planting in early autumn at the end of the summer of the current year till 20 days before the end of the growth period. The row spacing of the cultivated plants is 10cm multiplied by 20cm, and the purpose of classified cultivation is to facilitate field management and accurate fertilization. Buds appear in the last 5 th ten days of the next year after the cultivation of the lilium floribundum, and the lilium floribundum needs to be removed in time after the discovery, so that the bulbs are prevented from competing for nutrients, the quality of the bulbs is prevented from being influenced, the weight of the bulbs is increased, and the growth and the flowering quality of the lilium floribundum in the 3 rd year are reduced.
(6) Fresh cut flower: and (3) cutting the cultivated lily in the third year to obtain bell-shaped fresh cut flowers, wherein the height of the cultivated lily is 40-80 cm, and the flowers are bell-shaped, have red and bright colors and are striking and happy. The leaves are sword-shaped and have ornamental value. Is suitable for the market development of the fresh cut flowers; as most of the lilium giganteum flowers have only one branch, the buds are harvested with the color of 80 percent in principle, and the lilium giganteum can be sent to a seller on the same day or the next day. The cutting method comprises the following steps: the distance between the collected part and the ground is about 15cm, 4-6 leaves are reserved on the plants on the ground surface, and the bulbs are guaranteed to grow continuously. Cutting with sharp edge at 45 deg.C, immediately placing into water bucket, and keeping the cut flower water-leaving time not more than 15 min. 50 branches in each barrel are in a group, and the harvesting time, specification and quantity are recorded. Grading, packaging and warehousing, wherein the grading standard of the cut flowers of the lilium giganteum is shown in table 2:
TABLE 2 fresh cut flower of Lilium giganteum Gray Standard
Figure BDA0002581016580000101
According to GB/T18247, 1-2000 cut flower grading standard is packaged, after the base is cut (sheared), the upper parts of the flowers are aligned, 20cm leaves of the base are removed, 10 branches are bundled, and the flowers are bundled by a rubber band or a plastic rope. Covering a plastic bag, sticking the date, and inserting into a clear water bucket of 10-15 cm. 0.2mmol/L Silver Thiosulfate (STS) and 500mg/L gibberellin (GA3) were added to water for pretreatment. Immediately putting the lily and a bucket into a storage room at the temperature of 2-4 ℃ after filling, wherein the storage time is 4-48 h, and the sensitivity of the lily to ethylene can be reduced by low-temperature storage.
(7) Harvesting and treating seeds and seed balls: the two plots are the same, the seeds mature in the middle 8 th month of the third year after planting, the capsules are picked and aired in time, the immature seeds are removed by air separation (breeze), and the thousand seed weight of the seeds is about 5.48 g; the seeds are dried and then put into kraft paper bags for natural storage, and the seeds are periodically checked for mildew resistance.
The seed ball is required to have robust root system, full seed ball, uniform size, no plant diseases and insect pests and no defective scale. The bulbs with the diameter of more than 1.5cm are bulbs, the surface layer is dried and diluted 1000 times by 70 wt% thiophanate methyl wettable powder and 1000 times by 60 wt% mancozeb wettable powder and 1000 times by 50 wt% phoxim missible oil, the mixture is mixed according to the weight ratio of 1:1:1, soaked for 30min and fished out and dried.
The quality grades of the lilium floribundum seed balls are classified in the following table 3:
TABLE 3 quality grade Classification of bulbs of Lilium giganteum
Figure BDA0002581016580000111
The large-flowered lily commodity seedball is a bulb which is artificially cultivated for 3 years, primary and secondary seed sources are used as main cultivation seed sources, and the third-grade seedball is also suitable for being sold by fresh cut flowers, but has small flowers and is suitable for matching small flowers with flower arrangement.
The cold storage is stored in a cold storage, and the storage principle is 'constant temperature, ventilation, shading and drying'. The sterilized seed balls are packed in a box in layers, a storage container can use a wooden box or a paper case, the substrate uses peat soil as a filler, and the water content of the peat soil needs to be about 50 percent due to the fact that the seed balls of the lilium macranthum L.are small. Before use, every 500kg of peat soil is mixed with 400g of '50% carbendazim wettable powder'. And (3) filling 2cm of peat soil at the bottom of the container, placing a layer of seed balls, placing a layer of peat soil, placing a layer of seed balls, and so on, preferably not more than 4 layers of seed balls, and placing a layer of 2cm of peat soil on the seed balls. And (5) loading the label into a box and sealing the box. The matrix is checked after being stored for 2 months, and water is sprayed to supplement moisture in time when the matrix is dried. The labels need to be double-labeled, one label is placed in the box, and in addition, the name, the Latin name, the specification, the number, the boxing date, the production place, the production unit and the like are written out on the outer box body. The balls are packed into boxes and then transferred into a refrigeration house for storage, the refrigeration house is firstly sprayed and disinfected by 0.5 wt% of potassium permanganate and then put into a bulb box, and a channel is reserved every 4 placed balls, so that the inspection and ventilation are facilitated. Pre-treating for 7 days by cooling to 0 ℃ at 3-5 ℃, and then cooling to minus 3-minus 1 ℃ for long-term storage.
Example 2
The embodiment provides a method for cultivating lilium davidii, which is characterized in that two plots with the same area and the same soil quality are selected in an inner Mongolia region, wherein the plots comprise a No. 1 plot and a No. 2 plot.
(1) And (3) disinfection: no. 1 plot has no plants of Liliaceae planted, and soil disinfection is carried out by using 90% dikesong wettable powder in autumn in the previous year according to instructions; the previous crop of No. 2 land parcel isSolanaceae plant, using 'Bisumie broad-spectrum soil disinfectant' to disinfect soil, its dosage is every 667m2The dosage is 30 kg. After disinfection, the same base fertilizer is applied to both plots, each 667m22000kg of organic fertilizer is applied, then a rotary cultivator is used for rotary tillage of soil with the depth of 0.25m, a furrow is made, the length of the furrow is 10m, the width is 1.2m, the height is 0.2m, and plastic cloth is used for sealing the soil for 15 days.
(2) Planting: the method comprises the following steps of 1, adopting sexual propagation and bulb planting, firstly soaking seeds in 200 times of gibberellin aqueous solution for 15-25 min, ditching and planting, wherein the width is 5cm, the depth is 3-5 cm, the row spacing is 20cm, 30 seeds are sown in each row of bulbs with the diameter larger than 0.9cm, covering soil with a straw curtain for spraying water for moisturizing, checking regularly, spraying water to the straw curtain when the soil is partially dry, enabling seedlings to emerge in a uniform manner within 5-15 days, and achieving the rate of emergence of 100%;
the method comprises the following steps of (1) asexual propagation is adopted in a No. 2 land parcel, scale cuttage is carried out in a mode of scale cuttage for more than three years, the soil quality of a cuttage bed is forest humus soil, the field soil is used as a matrix, perlite is added to adjust the soil viscosity, the soil is held into a cluster by hands, the loose soil is scattered to be a standard, the bed with the length of 10-20 m, the width of 1-1.2 m and the height of 0.2m is made, the scale is stripped layer by layer from the periphery of the scale, the scale with outer-layer yellow spots or atrophia is removed, and 2-3 layers of each lilium giganteum scale is annularly stripped to be used; before cutting, the scales are peeled off, soaked in 0.02 wt% potassium permanganate (KMnO4) aqueous solution for 20min, then soaked in clear water for 20min, drained and dried in the shade. After soaking, the base of the immersed scale is quickly dipped for 5-8 s by using 1000ppm of indolebutyric acid (IBA), and the indolebutyric acid (IBA) has the effects of promoting rooting of the scale, high emergence rate and regular emergence. The row spacing of the cuttage plants is 5cm multiplied by 20cm, the concave surfaces of the scales face upwards and form an angle of 45 degrees, the cuttage plants are inserted into soil with the depth of 5cm, 1 to 2 small bulbs can be differentiated from the bulb callus in 20 to 30 days when the temperature is 18 to 25 ℃, and the bulbs grow in the same year. Germinating in spring next year to form seedlings, wherein the diameter of bulbs in autumn is more than 0.5-1.0 cm, classifying the seedlings according to two grades, wherein the diameters of the bulbs are 0.5-0.9 cm and more than 0.9cm, the row spacing of cultivated plants is 10cm multiplied by 20cm, and the classification cultivation aims at facilitating field management and accurate fertilization.
And (4) performing girdling on the large-flower lily bulb cores, cultivating in a ridge according to the plant-row spacing of 15cm multiplied by 20cm, and harvesting after 2 years of growth. The scale heart breeding method can not be used in a disordered way, and the scale heart breeding method needs to be abandoned after continuous planting for 3-5 years.
(3) Fertilizing: the two plots are fertilized identically, and the lilium davidii likes light fertilizer. The lilium brownii sprouts in 4-month late-day of Changbai mountain area, the first compound fertilizer is applied in 4-month late-day of each year, mainly nitrogen fertilizer, and m (N), (m) (P) and m (K) are 3: 2: 1 and 667m2The dosage is 10-15 kg, and the purpose is to promote the growth of the seedlings; in 5-month middle ten days, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium balance fertilizers are used as main materials, wherein m (N) m (P) m (K) is 1:1, 667m2The dosage is 10-15 kg, so that the growth is promoted and buds are formed; in the third ten days of 6 months, potassium fertilizer is used as the main raw material, the ratio of m (N) to m (P) to m (K) is 1:2:3, 667m2The using amount is 10-15 kg, and the purpose is to promote flowering and form full seeds. Chlorine-containing fertilizers are forbidden for applying the compound fertilizers.
(4) And (3) pest and disease prevention: the pest and disease prevention of the two plots is carried out by the same measures, the pest and disease prevention is carried out in spring, the planting land is cleared after early spring for the first time, and the mixture of 500 times of diluent of 50% carbendazim wettable powder and 2000 times of diluent of 40% dimethoate missible oil is sprayed in a fog mode all over the garden, so that the overwintering germs and insect eggs in the garden are killed; after 10 days (late ten months) for the second time, the lilium floribundum sprouts, and the lilium floribundum is sprayed with 1500 times of diluent and 2000 times of diluent of 10% difenoconazole (shigao) wettable powder, so as to prevent plant diseases and insect pests of the lilium floribundum; after mixing 1500 times of diluent of 10 percent difenoconazole (shigao) wettable powder, 40 percent dimethoate missible oil aqueous solution and 1500 times of foliar fertilizer diluent of Fuer 655 at an interval of 20 days for the third time, the third spray method is as follows: the liquid medicine is put into a sprayer, the spray head is removed, the liquid medicine is used for drenching plants by pressure and permeating the plants to the root of the bulb, and about 50ml of the liquid medicine is applied to each seed ball. Aims at preventing plant diseases and insect pests and absorbing nutrients comprehensively by plants. And starting pest and disease prevention in the middle of 4 months in the Changbai mountain area, and ending the whole-garden prevention in the middle of 5 months. As the growing period of the lilium macrocephalum is from 7 to late ten days, in the period, if the weather is rainy, the pesticide is sprayed in time after the weather to prevent the plant diseases and insect pests.
(5) Field management: the field management of the two plots is the same, artificial weeding is carried out in the last ten days of 5 months, and because the lilium floribundum has the characteristic of transverse long (walking) roots, weeding needs to be carried out shallowly, weeds are cleared away as early as possible, and the roots of the lilium floribundum are prevented from being damaged by clearing away when the root systems of the weeds are large. Weeding is concentrated for 3 times, namely, the last ten days of the month 5, the last ten days and the middle ten days of the month 6. In rainy days, weeds need to be removed in time. The aim is to prevent the roots and stems of the lilium giganteum from being damaged when the weeds are too much; secondly, the nutrition competition with the lilium floribundum is prevented; thirdly, preventing the lilium floribundum from overgrowing; and fourthly, preventing induction of pests and diseases. After sowing, a 50% sunshade net is covered on the bracket in time, weeds are removed in time in the growing period, 0.2 wt% urea is sprayed on the leaf surface after 20 days of seedling emergence, then 0.2 wt% urea is sprayed on the leaf surface every 20 days, and the planting is carried out in the early autumn at the end of the growing period by 20 days. The row spacing of the cultivated plants is 10cm multiplied by 20cm, and the purpose of classified cultivation is to facilitate field management and accurate fertilization. Buds of the large-flowered lily appear in the next 5 th ten days, and the large-flowered lily is removed in time after the buds are found, so that the situation that the large-flowered lily compete for nutrients with the bulbs, the quality of the bulbs is affected, the weight of the bulbs is increased, and the growth and the flowering quality of the large-flowered lily in the 3 rd year are reduced.
(6) Seed harvesting: and (4) picking mature seeds in the third year after planting, airing, removing immature seeds by air separation, drying, storing, and periodically checking for mildew resistance.
Comparative example 1
The Changbai mountain land is selected, the soil property and the climate are completely the same as those of the land in the example 2, the cultivation method is completely the same, and the only difference of the sexual propagation in the example 2 is that the seeds are not soaked by gibberellin, so that the emergence rate of the seeds is 44%.
Test examples
As most of seed embryos of the lilium floribundum have aborted, a lilium floribundum sexual reproduction test is carried out in order to support the lilium floribundum sexual reproduction.
Experiments show that the lilium davidii is treated by using gibberellin (GA3) with different concentrations, the gibberellin (GA3) is the first medicine for the seed germination treatment experiments at present, the used dosage is also a universal multiple of the experiments, and the germination rate of the seeds can be accurately reflected. Wherein, the test group soaks the seeds with gibberellin, and the control group does not soak the seeds with gibberellin, and the test results are shown in the following table 4:
TABLE 4 influence of gibberellins on seed germination
Figure BDA0002581016580000141
As can be seen from the above table, the germination rate of the lilium davidii can be obviously improved by soaking the seeds with gibberellin, and the germination rate of the seeds can be improved to 100 percent by using 200 times of aqueous solution of gibberellin.
The above description is only for the specific embodiments of the present invention, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, and any person skilled in the art can easily conceive of the changes or substitutions within the technical scope of the present invention, and all the changes or substitutions should be covered within the scope of the present invention. Therefore, the protection scope of the present invention shall be subject to the protection scope of the appended claims.

Claims (10)

1. The cultivation method of the lilium florum is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) soil disinfection: sterilizing soil to be planted in autumn one year before planting, fertilizing in combination, then carrying out rotary tillage on the soil for more than 0.2m, and finally sealing the soil by using plastic cloth;
(2) and (3) propagation: ridging in spring, wherein the propagation comprises sexual propagation and asexual propagation, and the sexual propagation comprises planting seeds in the soil sterilized in the step (1); the seeds are seeds formed after the lilium floribundum grows to bloom in the third year; the vegetative propagation comprises planting bulbs or cutting scales into the soil disinfected in the step (1);
(3) fertilizing: spraying the foliar fertilizer every 15-25 days from 15-25 days after seedling emergence in the current planting year; dressing the first compound fertilizer in the second year and later 4 months of each year after planting, then applying the second compound fertilizer in the middle of 5 months, and applying the third compound fertilizer in the last 6 months;
(4) and (3) pest and disease prevention: before planting, adopting carbendazim wettable powder aqueous solution and dimethoate missible oil aqueous solution to carry out first time of whole-garden spraying to kill overwintering germs and worm eggs in the garden; after 10 days of the first full-garden spraying, when the lilium giganteum sprouts, carrying out second full-garden spraying by adopting a difenoconazole wettable powder aqueous solution and a dimethoate missible oil aqueous solution, and carrying out third spraying by adopting the difenoconazole wettable powder aqueous solution, the dimethoate missible oil aqueous solution and a Fuer foliar fertilizer 655 aqueous solution after the second full-garden spraying for 20-30 days, wherein the third spraying is plant spraying and penetrates to the root;
(5) field management: weeding in the field is carried out for more than 3 times each year; the buds are removed in time when the plants grow in the second year, so that the situation that the buds compete for nutrients with bulbs and the bulb quality is influenced is avoided;
(6) seed harvesting: and (4) picking mature seeds in the third year after planting, airing, removing immature seeds by air separation, drying and storing.
2. The method for cultivating lilium floribundum as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step (1), the soil in which the liliaceae plant is not planted is sterilized by using 90 wt% dixon wettable powder; the soil with the previous crop being lily is disinfected with broad-spectrum soil disinfectant.
3. The cultivation method of lilium floribundum as claimed in claim 2, wherein in the step (1), the consumption of the broad spectrum soil disinfectant which can kill the lilium floribundum is as follows: the soil for growing Liliaceae plants for more than 3 years is 150g/m2Soil for planting Liliaceae plant or Solanaceae plant for 1-3 years, each 667m2The dosage of the composition is 20-30 kg.
4. The method for cultivating lilium floribundum as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step (1), when a broad-spectrum soil disinfectant that will kill quickly is used, the moisture content of the soil is maintained at 50-60%, and the amount of the fertilizer is used per 667m22000-3000 kg of base fertilizer is applied to the land.
5. The cultivation method of lilium floribundum as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step (2), the width of the ridge is 1-2 m, the width of the bottom of the ridge stem is 1.2-1.5 m, the width of the top of the ridge stem is 1.0-1.3 m, the width of the bottom of the ridge stem is 20cm larger than that of the top of the ridge stem, and the height of the ridge stem is 0.2 m;
the scale cuttage adopts the bulbs with the diameter more than 1.0cm for more than 3 years, the scales are stripped layer by layer from the periphery of the bulbs, the outer layer of yellow spots or atrophic scales are removed, and 2-3 layers of scales are annularly stripped from each lilium giganteum bulb and are used as seed sources to be planted in a cuttage bed; the girdled lilium giganteum is cultivated in holes according to the plant spacing;
soaking the scale in a mixed aqueous solution of carbendazim wettable powder and zineb wettable powder or a potassium permanganate aqueous solution before cuttage, then soaking the scale in clear water, and then cuttage the scale in a cuttage bed;
the length of the cuttage bed is 10-20 m, the width of the cuttage bed is 1-1.2 m, and the height of the cuttage bed is 0.2 m;
the bulb with the diameter less than 1.0cm is planted for 1 year by concentrated drill planting and then field planting is carried out;
soaking the seeds in gibberellin water solution for 15-25 min before planting, sowing the seeds in prepared furrows, ditching and planting the seeds, wherein the furrow width is 4-6 cm, the furrow depth is 3-5 cm, the row spacing is 15-25 cm, and 30-40 seeds are sowed in each row;
the width of the furrows for planting is 5cm, the depth of the furrows is 3-5 cm, the row spacing is 20cm, after seeds are planted, the seeds are covered with soil and covered with a straw curtain for water spraying and moisture preservation, and after the seeds are planted, a 50% sunshade net is covered on the support.
6. The cultivation method of lilium floribundum as claimed in claim 5, wherein in the step (2), the plant row spacing of the scale cuttings is 5cm x 20 cm; the row spacing of the scaly heart cultivation is 15 multiplied by 20 cm;
when the bulbs are subjected to separate planting and field planting, digging out the lilies from early autumn at the end of summer and classifying, and performing classified cultivation on the bulbs with the diameter of 0.5-0.9 cm and the bulbs with the diameter of more than 0.9 cm; the row spacing of the plants during the separate planting and the field planting is 10 multiplied by 20 cm.
7. The method for cultivating lily majoram as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step (2), the gibberellin aqueous solution is prepared by adding 200 times of water into gibberellin and mixing uniformly.
8. The cultivation method of lilium floribundum as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step (2), the scales are soaked in a mixed aqueous solution of carbendazol wettable powder and zineb wettable powder or a potassium permanganate aqueous solution before cuttage, then soaked in clear water, and then the bases of the scales are dipped in 1000ppm indolebutyric acid for 5-8 s quickly, and then the scales are planted in a cuttage bed.
9. The cultivation method of lilium floribundum as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step (3), the foliar fertilizer is 0.2 wt% of urea aqueous solution, and is sprayed until 20 days before the growth period is finished; the weight ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the first compound fertilizer is 3: 2: 1, and the application amount of the first compound fertilizer is every 667m2Applying 10-15 kg; the weight ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the second compound fertilizer is 1:1, and the application amount of the second compound fertilizer is every 667m2Applying 10-15 kg; the weight ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the third compound fertilizer is 1:2:3, and the application amount of the third compound fertilizer is 667m2Applying 10-15 kg.
10. The cut flowers, seeds and seedballs obtained by the method for cultivating the lilium floribundum as claimed in claims 1-9, wherein the lilium floribundum plant height in the third year after the lilium floribundum is planted according to the method for cultivating the lilium floribundum is 40-80 cm, and the lilium floribundum is cut to obtain bell-shaped cut flowers; picking mature seeds in the third year after planting, airing, removing immature seeds by air separation, drying, and putting into a kraft paper bag for natural storage; digging in the third year after planting to obtain bulbs with the diameter of more than 1.5cm, namely the seed balls.
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