CN104126396A - Method for propagating vigorous clonal Malus prunifolia own-rooted stock seedlings of apple trees - Google Patents

Method for propagating vigorous clonal Malus prunifolia own-rooted stock seedlings of apple trees Download PDF

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CN104126396A
CN104126396A CN201410363710.0A CN201410363710A CN104126396A CN 104126396 A CN104126396 A CN 104126396A CN 201410363710 A CN201410363710 A CN 201410363710A CN 104126396 A CN104126396 A CN 104126396A
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malus spectabilis
sawdust
roundleaf malus
cuttage
roundleaf
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CN104126396B (en
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李高潮
韩明玉
李丙智
曹珊
王俊峰
范崇辉
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Northwest A&F University
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Northwest A&F University
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for propagating vigorous clonal Malus prunifolia own-rooted stock seedlings of apple trees. According to the method, Malus prunifolia cutting seedlings are propagated first based on the Malus prunifolia hard wood cutting technology, and the cutting seedlings are kept at the origin position to serve as stock plants; a Malus prunifolia own-rooted stock seedling layering propagation garden is built according to the vertical layering method, and the Malus prunifolia own-rooted stock seedlings are propagated in batches every year afterwards; after the Malus prunifolia own-rooted stock seedling vertical-layering propagation garden is built, the clonal Malus prunifolia own-rooted stock seedlings can be continuously harvested in 15-20 years. By means of the method, the operation of carrying out Malus prunifolia hard wood cutting propagation by crop rotation and land search every year is not needed, and more than 1/3 of nursery land is saved for propagating dwarf interstock apple seedlings.

Description

A kind of method of apple Qiaoization clone roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling of breeding
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of method of apple Qiaoization clone roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling of breeding, belong to agriculture field.
Background technology
Roundleaf Malus spectabilis is the half standard size apple stock that originates in China, also has distribution in Japan.Because its cuttage easily survives, Japan last century the nineties be widely used in apple production, the cultivation practices of more than 50 year proves, with roundleaf Malus spectabilis clonal rootstock seedling as base anvil, the dwarfing interstock apple seedling of cultivating is built garden, the feature that have that growing way is strong, better resistance, output is high, fruit is even, product are of fine quality, particularly becomes flower variety Fuji apple effect better to difficulty.Roundleaf Malus spectabilis well developed root system, fibrous root is many, there is no obvious main root; Available cuttage is bred; Can resist the low temperature of-19 DEG C, strong drought resistance, than eight rib Malus spectabilis, the anti-spot defoliation of Malus sieversii and powdery mildew; Strong with the conventional grafting affinity such as dwarfing rootstock M26, M9 and major clique T337 thereof, grafting dwarfing interstock and again on dwarfing interstock after grafting apple variety, buddering, it is fast to send out seedling, nursery stock growing way is good, growing way is strong compared with eight rib Malus spectabilis planting seed seedling grafting dwarfing interstocks and apple variety, and regularity is high.Dwarfing interstock Apple Culture is the Main Patterns of the current Apple Dwarf Stocks intensive culture of China, and breeding clone Qiaoization is from root anvil seedling, significant to improving China's dwarfing interstock apple nursery stock quality (outward appearance regularity, genetic identity).
Tradition dwarfing interstock apple seedling is cultivated, with China's Main Apple Varieties stock seeds such as eight rib Malus spectabilis, midget crabapple, Chinese catalpa, hupehensis Rehd, Malus sieversiis, cultivate rootstock seedling by direct sowing method, cultivating seedlings and transplanting method, need every year seeding and seedling raising, require, in first 3 years of nursery lot breeding nursery stock, not breed fruit nursery stock, can not grow seedlings with second crop soil, so just need a large amount of soils, and sowing cost a large amount of manpowers, financial resources and material resources, seedling cost is high.Owing to being seminal propagation base anvil seedling, interindividual variation is large, and highly, rugosity uniformity is poor, irregular, the dwarfing interstock apple seedling of cultivating is in the future irregular, and nursery stock builds that the virgin phase is long behind garden, result is late, garden looks are irregular.
The breeding of existing roundleaf Malus spectabilis adopts cuttage method, and its technical essential is: 1. cutting is collected and selected: dormancy aspire to by the end of December or early March gather cutting, select robust growth, full, the abundant maturation of eye, the normal current-year branch of color and luster; 2. cuttage material is prepared: press the close classification of branch thick, 50 1 bundles, vertical individual layer wet-storage; While cutting fringe, every section of more than lower tangent plane 8mm 10cm, lower cut is cut into the one side shape of a hoof, bud 1cm left and right place straight snips in distance, 50 1 bundles of cuttings, seal up clip with clip sealing wax or consolidant; Root-growing agent dips in root processing, prepares cuttage; 3. wholely with fertilising: cuttage ground should be smooth, irrigation is convenient and draining is good, uses sufficient the base manure that becomes thoroughly decomposed, and realizes ridge face film coating operation.Row spacing 50cm, high 25cm, length is depending on ground, garden, and 2 row, line-spacing 30cm are inserted in every ridge; 4. cuttage: open country carries out at the beginning of late March to 4 month, every ridge jack 2 row, cuttage spacing in the rows 15cm, every mu of ground cuttage cuttings 12000-15000 root left and right.5. after cuttage, manage: on mulch film, will spread a little thin spongy soils.After cuttage is complete, carry out little water pouring, make thin spongy soils capping jack gap.In 1 month subsequently, avoid big or small flood irrigation.Attention control damping off and aphid.
Existing technical scheme, breeding roundleaf Malus spectabilis rootstock seedling, all obtain every year and again looks for ground, whole, cuttage, operate loaded down with trivial details, time-consuming, take a lot of work.The similarity of this technical scheme and the present invention is the foundation in the 1st year roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seedbed.Innovative point of the present invention be the roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seedbed set up for the 1st year for later roundleaf Malus spectabilis is from the vertical propagation by layering of root anvil seedling garden, 15-20 can be used in this garden, within the 2nd year, can gather in the crops roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling, reproductive efficiency is high, and every mu of vertical propagation by layering garden can produce roundleaf Malus spectabilis every year more than 120,000 strains of root anvil seedling.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is: by roundleaf Malus spectabilis Cuttage Technique of Hard Branch, first breed roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seeding, cuttage seeding is as you were, using this as maternal plant, adopt the vertical planting of layer to set up roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling propagation by layering garden, annual batch is bred roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling later; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis is after the vertical propagation by layering of root anvil seedling garden is built up, 15-20 results roundleaf Malus spectabilis is from root anvil seedling continuously, save annual rotation and carried out the operation of roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage breeding with looking for, saved more than 1/3 nursery land used for breeding dwarfing interstock apple seedlings.
The invention discloses a kind of method of apple Qiaoization clone roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling of breeding, comprise that roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage stock garden is built and roundleaf Malus spectabilis is built two parts from root anvil propagation by layering garden.When cuttage stock garden is built, require the long 12-14cm of cuttings, rugosity 0.6-1.0cm, cuttage 3 row in the wide furrow of 0.75m, line-spacing 25cm, spacing in the rows 10cm; Every mu of stock garden needs 12000~15000 of cuttings, with 400 times of immersions bubble cuttings of the powerful root-inducing powder of 10% soluble powder 10 hours, cuttage survival rate 92.52%, late August, and roundleaf Malus spectabilis height of seedling degree 80-120cm, the diameter at the above 5cm of cuttings place reaches 8-11mm; Then not press strip, do not cover sawdust, allow roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seeding grow up healthy and sound, form sturdy maternal plant.While construction from root anvil propagation by layering garden, require, taking cuttage stock garden as basis, to adopt the vertical planting of layer, in late Febuary to early March, by roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant, from 8-12cm cutting back on ground, every strain applies the sheepfold excrement 200g that becomes thoroughly decomposed, and impels on maternal plant indefinite bud to sprout and forms sub-strain.Be mixed with the covering wet saw powder material of " hold agglomerating, unclamp loose " according to " volume ratio of pure sawdust and loess 1: 1; the pure sawdust of every side adds chlopyrifos granule 0.2kg, ' in wooden U.S. soil ' biological organic fungi-manure 40kg of insecticide 15%; add suitable quantity of water again ", cover sawdust and 1 earthing by 4 times, regularly sprinkling irrigation, sub-strain is taken root, can build up from root anvil propagation by layering garden, mid-November-mid-December or every mu of late Febuary-mid-March in the coming year can be gathered in the crops roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling 120000-150000 plant/acre.Roundleaf Malus spectabilis is efficiently bred in batches from root anvil seedling in the propagation by layering garden that the present invention builds up continuously 15-20, obtains huge economic benefit.
The present invention is by roundleaf Malus spectabilis Cuttage Technique of Hard Branch, first breed roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seeding, cuttage seeding is as you were, using this as maternal plant, adopt the vertical planting of layer to set up roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling propagation by layering garden, annual batch is bred roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling later, these roundleaf Malus spectabilis are the gained of nourishing and generating from root anvil seedling, high conformity, use as the base anvil of breeding dwarfing interstock apple seedling, breed into after dwarfing interstock apple seedling, nursery stock regularity is high, solve traditional dwarfing interstock apple nursery stock raising technology and obtained the problem that seedling quality difference is large, realize Jian Yuanhou garden looks neat, result early, the effect of high yield, roundleaf Malus spectabilis is after root anvil seedling propagation by layering garden is built up, 15-20 results roundleaf Malus spectabilis is from root anvil seedling continuously, save annual rotation and looked for and sow the grow directly from seeds operation of base anvil seedling of apple rootstock cultivating seeds, saved 1/3 nursery land used for breeding dwarfing interstock apple seedlings.
Embodiment
Hereinafter, will describe more fully now the present invention, show various embodiment.But the present invention can implement in many different forms, and should not be interpreted as being confined to embodiment set forth herein.On the contrary, it will be thorough with completely providing these embodiment to make the disclosure, and scope of the present invention is conveyed to those skilled in the art fully.
Technical solution of the present invention:
The 1st year: roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage stock garden is built
(1), stock garden construction land prepares: traffic convenience, leeward on the sunny side have irrigation conditions, soil layer is deep, fertile soil, sandy loam, loam, pH5.0~7.8; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis breeds in first 5 years from root anvil seedling, does not breed fruit nursery stock or builds apple orchard, best with kind of a corn, wheat grainfield; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage is bred the October of the previous year, grade, and nursery lot uses sufficient base fertilizer, diammonium phosphate 100kg/ mu, 2 tons/mu, the sheepfold excrement of becoming thoroughly decomposed, spreads the chlopyrifos granule 1kg/ mu of insecticide 15%, plough deeply 40~50cm, leisure is also irrigated before frozen soil; Nursery lot subregion, every district area is no more than 15 mu, and micro spray irrigation system is installed, and 1, the reserved wide road of 4m, is convenient to transport the field means of production;
(2), the cutting of roundleaf Malus spectabilis is prepared:
The cutting that resting stage gathers is cut into long 12-14cm cuttings in late March to early April, and tiltedly cut lower end, upper end straight snips, and rugosity 0.6-1.0cm, 50 1 bundles, with the upper clip of seal and shear oil sealing.
12000~15000 of roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttings are prepared in every mu of cuttage garden, and wet-storage is for subsequent use;
(3) cuttings processing before cuttage: the 400 times of liquid of the powerful root-inducing powder of 10% soluble powder that use Chongqing Si Bikang Science and Technology Ltd. to produce, soak cuttings 10 hours.
(4), ground, stock nursery planning:
By the end of February-early March, the nursery lot of raking, by line-spacing 0.75m unwrapping wire planning roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage furrow, every 0.75m is furrow, and the whole ground of flat furrow, every furrow, select wide black film mulching one furrow of 1.0m, for cuttage roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttings, furrow that do not cover black mulch film are ventilating road; Nursery lot around 15m is planted without willow, Chinese scholartree, pine and cypress tree with interior;
(5), the hard stem cutting fringe of roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage:
Cutting time: late March~early April;
Cuttage 3 row in the wide furrow of cutting density: 0.75m, line-spacing 25cm, spacing in the rows 10cm.
Cuttage mode: use than the slightly slightly hole of the hard bamboo pole slotting dark 10-12cm on mulch film of any of cuttings, put into cuttings.Require the cuttings 2cm that bassets, ensure 1-2 bud and expose.12000~15000 of every mu of cuttage cuttings.After cuttage is complete, spread fine earth sealing jack gap.The complete rear micro spray irrigation 10-20 minute of cuttage.
(6), daily management and roundleaf Malus spectabilis skewer seedling growing state: weed a garden, strengthen moisture supply, pour water in time, prevent that cuttage from burning then nursery stock base portion day in May, enrich foliage fertilizer; Forbidding weed killer herbicide.Early June investigation, roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage survival rate reaches 92.52%, and late June, cuttage seeding height has reached 40-60cm, and pinching in the time of height of seedling 40cm promotes cuttage seeding to increase thick; Late August, roundleaf Malus spectabilis height of seedling can reach 80-120cm, and the diameter at the above 5cm of cuttings place reaches 8-11mm.In September, remove mulch film; In December, before soil is freeze-up, water freeze-up water.So far, built seeding row spacing 10 × 25cm, the roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage stock garden that in furrow, 3 row are planted.
(7), sawdust prepare: the 1st year not press strip, do not cover sawdust, allow roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seeding grow up healthy and sound, form sturdy maternal plant, must prepare spring 2 year winter to the sawdust, after vertical press strip, cover sawdust breeding roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling for carrying out the 2nd year spring, every mu of press strip garden needs sawdust 100-150m 3; Sawdust, taking paulownia, pine as main, must not use apple tree sawdust.
The 2nd year: roundleaf Malus spectabilis is built from root anvil propagation by layering garden
(8), propagation by layering garden is set up: before rudiment in spring, in late Febuary to early March, adopt the vertical planting of layer, by the roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant in roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage stock garden from 8-12cm cutting back on ground, the all indefinite buds that allow roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant retain in stem section are sprouted, each maternal plant can rudiment 20-30, the highest nearly 50.These rudiment young sprouts can be cultivated into the sub-strain of roundleaf Malus spectabilis later---and roundleaf Malus spectabilis is from root anvil seedling.
(9), after press strip, apply fertilizer: after roundleaf Malus spectabilis cutting back, apply along its both sides the sheepfold excrement that becomes thoroughly decomposed, the way that adopts ground to spread fertilizer over the fields, fertilizing amount 200g/ strain, covering one deck pure sawdust in ground after fertilising, thickness 5cm left and right.Micro spray irrigation subsequently, makes sawdust and ground moistening, meets the required moisture requirement of rudiment after roundleaf Malus spectabilis cutting back.
(10), preparation covering sawdust: covering with covering sawdust materials formula is: the volume ratio of pure sawdust and loess 1: 1, the pure sawdust of every side adds chlopyrifos granule 0.2kg, " in wooden U.S. soil " biological organic fungi-manure 40kg of insecticide 15%, pure sawdust, loess, insecticide, organic fungi-manure are mixed, add water while mixing and mix wet saw end, sawdust water content is agglomerating to hold, unclamp i.e. loose being advisable, and the sawdust materials mixing is for subsequent use.
(11) cover sawdust and water management: along with the rudiment after roundleaf Malus spectabilis cutting back is the growth of sub-strain, annual cover the sawdust materials that mixes 4 times, earthing 1 time, cultivates into roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout from root anvil seedling again.
The first tenday period of a month in late April to May, roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout grows to 15-20cm when above, cover sawdust 5-10cm at base portion the 1st time, tamp the space on young sprout base portion and ground, cover sprinkling irrigation in latter every 3 days 1 time, keep moistening being advisable with sawdust, now each roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant can produce rudiment young sprout 20-30, the most nearly 50;
Late May, roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout height covered sawdust the 2nd time more than having reached 35-60cm to early June, and thickness 10-15cm covers sprinkling irrigation in latter every 3 days 1 time, keeps moistening being advisable with sawdust;
Late June, roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout height covered sawdust the 3rd time more than having reached 55-70cm to early July, thickness 15-20cm, and gross thickness reaches 30-45cm and is advisable; Sprinkling irrigation is carried out 1 time every day, keeps moistening being advisable with sawdust;
Late July, the 4th was covered sawdust to early August, thickness 10-15cm, and gross thickness reaches 40-50cm and is advisable; Sprinkling irrigation is carried out 1 time every day, keeps moistening being advisable with sawdust; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout is that more than sub-young plant height has reached 70cm, sub-strain base portion has been taken root more than 8;
Late August, earthing 1 time, covers thin layer on sawdust the loess in ventilating road, plays moisture-keeping function;
September-October, strengthen moisture supply, keep sawdust moistening.
So far, roundleaf Malus spectabilis is built from root anvil propagation by layering garden, can gather in the crops mid-November-mid-December or late Febuary-mid-March in the coming year the sub-strain of roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling 120000-150000 plant/acre.
(12) the roundleaf Malus spectabilis extermination of disease and insect pest:
Rudiment in spring is to by the end of July, keypoint control aphid, apple tip leaf roller and powdery mildew, rust; Keypoint control oriental moth and early defoliation disease after August.
(13) roundleaf Malus spectabilis is gathered in the crops from root anvil seedling:
Start to gather in the crops the sub-strain of roundleaf Malus spectabilis November from root anvil seedling, sub-strain is taken root nearly more than 15; When sub-young plant is not fallen leaves, urge fallen leaves sheet by 6% urea water; While gathering in the crops sub-strain, first scalp sawdust, expose sub-strain root system, then cut off the rhizome that sub-strain is connected with maternal plant, the sub-strain of cutting is from root anvil seedling, or pushs sawdust aside, directly gets rid of sub-strain.Roundleaf Malus spectabilis is pressed rugosity 6-8mm, 8-10mm, 10-12mm classification from root anvil seedling, root alignment, every 50 strain a bundles, stay 20cm, terrestrial stem to stay the principle of 30cm according to rhizome, keep from root anvil seedling total length 50cm, cut out and go from the unnecessary stem of root anvil seedling, vanning, hide with wet saw end is husky, be kept in the freezer of 0-3 DEG C.
Also can gather in the crops roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling late Febuary-mid-March in the coming year.Utilize in vitro grafting method spring, budder or branch section at grafting apple dwarfing interstock, after healing, press line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 20cm and transplant to nursery; Or roundleaf Malus spectabilis is pressed to line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 20cm from root anvil seedling and transplant to nursery, before rudiment, budder with nested bud grafting method grafting apple dwarfing interstock, then cultivate the dwarfing interstock apple seedling that goes out garden for 2 years.
(14) the press strip garden management of roundleaf Malus spectabilis after root anvil seedling results:
Autumn and winter or spring, smooth press strip garden covered sawdust 5cm left and right on roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant, squirts sawdust, continues breeding from root anvil seedling after the rudiment of roundleaf Malus spectabilis after root anvil seedling results.
This roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil propagation by layering garden continuously 15-20 results roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling.
The foregoing is only embodiments of the invention, be not limited to the present invention.The present invention can have various suitable changes and variation.All any amendments of doing within the spirit and principles in the present invention, be equal to replacement, improvement etc., within protection scope of the present invention all should be included in.

Claims (2)

1. breed the method for apple Qiaoization clone roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling, it is characterized in that:
Described method comprises that roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage stock garden is built and roundleaf Malus spectabilis is built two parts from root anvil propagation by layering garden; When cuttage stock garden is built, the long 12-14cm of cuttings, rugosity 0.6-1.0cm, cuttage 3 row in the wide furrow of 0.75m, line-spacing 25cm, spacing in the rows 10cm; Every mu of stock garden needed 12000~15000 of cuttings, by 400 times of immersions bubble cuttings of the powerful root-inducing powder of 10% soluble powder 10 hours; Late August, roundleaf Malus spectabilis height of seedling degree 80-120cm, the diameter at the above 5cm of cuttings place reaches 8-11mm; Then not press strip, do not cover sawdust, allow roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seeding grow up healthy and sound, form sturdy maternal plant; While construction from root anvil propagation by layering garden, as basis, adopt the vertical planting of layer taking cuttage stock garden, in late Febuary to early March, by roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant, from 8-12cm cutting back on ground, every strain applies the sheepfold excrement 200g that becomes thoroughly decomposed, and impels on maternal plant indefinite bud to sprout and forms sub-strain; Be mixed with to cover according to " volume ratio of pure sawdust and loess 1: 1; the pure sawdust of every side adds chlopyrifos granule 0.2kg, ' in wooden U.S. soil ' biological organic fungi-manure 40kg of insecticide 15%; add suitable quantity of water again " and use wet saw powder material, cover sawdust and 1 earthing by 4 times, regularly sprinkling irrigation, sub-strain is taken root, and can build up from root anvil propagation by layering garden, and mid-November-mid-December or every mu of late Febuary-mid-March in the coming year can be gathered in the crops roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling 120000-150000 plant/acre.
2. a kind of method of apple Qiaoization clone roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling of breeding as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that described method further comprises following concrete steps:
The 1st year: roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage stock garden is built
(1), stock garden construction land prepares: traffic convenience, leeward on the sunny side have irrigation conditions, soil layer is deep, fertile soil, sandy loam, loam, pH5.0~7.8; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis breeds in first 5 years from root anvil seedling, does not breed fruit nursery stock or builds apple orchard, best with kind of a corn, wheat grainfield; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage is bred the October of the previous year, grade, and nursery lot uses sufficient base fertilizer, diammonium phosphate 100kg/ mu, 2 tons/mu, the sheepfold excrement of becoming thoroughly decomposed, spreads the chlopyrifos granule 1kg/ mu of insecticide 15%, plough deeply 40~50cm, leisure is also irrigated before frozen soil; Nursery lot subregion, every district area is no more than 15 mu, and micro spray irrigation system is installed, and 1, the reserved wide road of 4m, is convenient to transport the field means of production;
(2), the cutting of roundleaf Malus spectabilis is prepared:
The cutting that resting stage gathers is cut into long 12-14cm cuttings in late March to early April, and tiltedly cut lower end, upper end straight snips, and rugosity 0.6-1.0cm, 50 1 bundles, with the upper clip of seal and shear oil sealing;
12000~15000 of roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttings are prepared in every mu of cuttage garden, and wet-storage is for subsequent use;
(3) cuttings processing before cuttage: use 400 times of liquid of the powerful root-inducing powder of 10% soluble powder, soak cuttings 10 hours;
(4), ground, stock nursery planning:
By the end of February-early March, the nursery lot of raking, by line-spacing 0.75m unwrapping wire planning roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage furrow, every 0.75m is furrow, and the whole ground of flat furrow, every furrow, select wide black film mulching one furrow of 1.0m, for cuttage roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttings, furrow that do not cover black mulch film are ventilating road; Nursery lot around 15m is planted without willow, Chinese scholartree, pine and cypress tree with interior;
(5), the hard stem cutting fringe of roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage:
Cutting time: late March~early April;
Cuttage 3 row in the wide furrow of cutting density: 0.75m, line-spacing 25cm, spacing in the rows 10cm;
Cuttage mode: use than the slightly slightly hole of the hard bamboo pole slotting dark 10-12cm on mulch film of any of cuttings, put into cuttings; Require the cuttings 2cm that bassets, ensure 1-2 bud and expose; 12000~15000 of every mu of cuttage cuttings; After cuttage is complete, spread fine earth sealing jack gap; The complete rear micro spray irrigation 10-20 minute of cuttage;
(6), daily management and roundleaf Malus spectabilis skewer seedling growing state: weed a garden, strengthen moisture supply, pour water in time, prevent that cuttage from burning then nursery stock base portion day in May, enrich foliage fertilizer; Forbidding weed killer herbicide; Early June investigation, roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage survival rate reaches 92.52%, and late June, cuttage seeding height has reached 40-60cm, and pinching in the time of height of seedling 40cm promotes cuttage seeding to increase thick; Late August, roundleaf Malus spectabilis height of seedling can reach 80-120cm, and the diameter at the above 5cm of cuttings place reaches 8-11mm; In September, remove mulch film; In December, before soil is freeze-up, water freeze-up water; So far, built seeding row spacing 10 × 25cm, the roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage stock garden that in furrow, 3 row are planted;
(7), sawdust prepare: the 1st year not press strip, do not cover sawdust, allow roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage seeding grow up healthy and sound, form sturdy maternal plant, must prepare spring 2 year winter to the sawdust, after vertical press strip, cover sawdust breeding roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling for carrying out the 2nd year spring, every mu of press strip garden needs sawdust 100-150m 3; Sawdust, taking paulownia, pine as main, must not use apple tree sawdust;
The 2nd year: roundleaf Malus spectabilis is built from root anvil propagation by layering garden
(8), propagation by layering garden is set up: before rudiment in spring, in late Febuary to early March, adopt the vertical planting of layer, by the roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant in roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage stock garden from 8-12cm cutting back on ground, the all indefinite buds that allow roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant retain in stem section are sprouted, each maternal plant can rudiment 20-30, the highest nearly 50; These rudiment young sprouts can be cultivated into the sub-strain of roundleaf Malus spectabilis later---and roundleaf Malus spectabilis is from root anvil seedling;
(9), after press strip, apply fertilizer: after roundleaf Malus spectabilis cutting back, apply along its both sides the sheepfold excrement that becomes thoroughly decomposed, the way that adopts ground to spread fertilizer over the fields, fertilizing amount 200g/ strain, covering one deck pure sawdust in ground after fertilising, thickness 5cm left and right; Micro spray irrigation subsequently, makes sawdust and ground moistening, meets the required moisture requirement of rudiment after roundleaf Malus spectabilis cutting back;
(10), preparation covering sawdust: covering with covering sawdust materials formula is: the volume ratio of pure sawdust and loess 1: 1, the pure sawdust of every side adds chlopyrifos granule 0.2kg, " in wooden U.S. soil " biological organic fungi-manure 40kg of insecticide 15%, pure sawdust, loess, insecticide, organic fungi-manure are mixed, add water while mixing and mix wet saw end, sawdust water content is agglomerating to hold, unclamp i.e. loose being advisable, and the sawdust materials mixing is for subsequent use;
(11) cover sawdust and water management: along with the rudiment after roundleaf Malus spectabilis cutting back is the growth of sub-strain, annual cover the sawdust materials that mixes 4 times, earthing 1 time, cultivates into roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout from root anvil seedling again;
The first tenday period of a month in late April to May, roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout grows to 15-20cm when above, cover sawdust 5-10cm at base portion the 1st time, tamp the space on young sprout base portion and ground, cover sprinkling irrigation in latter every 3 days 1 time, keep moistening being advisable with sawdust, now each roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant can produce rudiment young sprout 20-30, the most nearly 50;
Late May, roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout height covered sawdust the 2nd time more than having reached 35-60cm to early June, and thickness 10-15cm covers sprinkling irrigation in latter every 3 days 1 time, keeps moistening being advisable with sawdust;
Late June, roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout height covered sawdust the 3rd time more than having reached 55-70cm to early July, thickness 15-20cm, and gross thickness reaches 30-45cm and is advisable; Sprinkling irrigation is carried out 1 time every day, keeps moistening being advisable with sawdust;
Late July, the 4th was covered sawdust to early August, thickness 10-15cm, and gross thickness reaches 40-50cm and is advisable; Sprinkling irrigation is carried out 1 time every day, keeps moistening being advisable with sawdust; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis rudiment young sprout is that more than sub-young plant height has reached 70cm, sub-strain base portion has been taken root more than 8;
Late August, earthing 1 time, covers thin layer on sawdust the loess in ventilating road, plays moisture-keeping function;
September-October, strengthen moisture supply, keep sawdust moistening;
So far, roundleaf Malus spectabilis is built from root anvil propagation by layering garden, can gather in the crops mid-November-mid-December or late Febuary-mid-March in the coming year the sub-strain of roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling 120000-150000 plant/acre;
(12) the roundleaf Malus spectabilis extermination of disease and insect pest:
Rudiment in spring is to by the end of July, keypoint control aphid, apple tip leaf roller and powdery mildew, rust; Keypoint control oriental moth and early defoliation disease after August;
(13) roundleaf Malus spectabilis is gathered in the crops from root anvil seedling:
Start to gather in the crops the sub-strain of roundleaf Malus spectabilis November from root anvil seedling, sub-strain is taken root nearly more than 15; When sub-young plant is not fallen leaves, urge fallen leaves sheet by 6% urea water; While gathering in the crops sub-strain, first scalp sawdust, expose sub-strain root system, then cut off the rhizome that sub-strain is connected with maternal plant, the sub-strain of cutting is from root anvil seedling, or pushs sawdust aside, directly gets rid of sub-strain; Roundleaf Malus spectabilis is pressed rugosity 6-8mm, 8-10mm, 10-12mm classification from root anvil seedling, root alignment, every 50 strain a bundles, stay 20cm, terrestrial stem to stay the principle of 30cm according to rhizome, keep from root anvil seedling total length 50cm, cut out and go from the unnecessary stem of root anvil seedling, vanning, hide with wet saw end is husky, be kept in the freezer of 0-3 DEG C;
Also can gather in the crops roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling late Febuary-mid-March in the coming year; Utilize in vitro grafting method spring, budder or branch section at grafting apple dwarfing interstock, after healing, press line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 20cm and transplant to nursery; Or roundleaf Malus spectabilis is pressed to line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 20cm from root anvil seedling and transplant to nursery, before rudiment, budder with nested bud grafting method grafting apple dwarfing interstock, then cultivate the dwarfing interstock apple seedling that goes out garden for 2 years;
(14) the press strip garden management of roundleaf Malus spectabilis after root anvil seedling results:
Autumn and winter or spring, smooth press strip garden covered sawdust 5cm left and right on roundleaf Malus spectabilis maternal plant, squirts sawdust, continues breeding from root anvil seedling after the rudiment of roundleaf Malus spectabilis after root anvil seedling results;
This roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil propagation by layering garden continuously 15-20 results roundleaf Malus spectabilis from root anvil seedling.
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CN104429644A (en) * 2014-12-26 2015-03-25 四川中天地木业有限公司 In-vitro grafting method
CN104770225A (en) * 2015-04-27 2015-07-15 陕西超越农业有限公司 In-vitro grafting method for self-rooted rootstock apple bud seedling
CN105165317A (en) * 2015-08-03 2015-12-23 安庆市枞阳县阳和苗圃 Papaya begonia air-layering propagation method
CN105230354B (en) * 2015-10-28 2017-11-14 北京市农林科学院 A kind of fast breeding method of apple from root dwarfing interstock nursery stock
CN105230354A (en) * 2015-10-28 2016-01-13 北京市农林科学院 Rapid cultivation method of self-rooted dwarfing intermediate stock seedlings for apples
CN106034647A (en) * 2016-06-02 2016-10-26 中国农业科学院郑州果树研究所 Method for producing clonal nursery stocks of peach trees and root stock thereof
CN106034647B (en) * 2016-06-02 2020-10-30 中国农业科学院郑州果树研究所 Method for producing clonal seedlings of peaches and rootstocks thereof
CN106171547A (en) * 2016-07-18 2016-12-07 莱州大自然园艺科技有限公司 A kind of apple dwarf is from the mating system of root anvil stock
CN106550846A (en) * 2016-11-18 2017-04-05 江苏徐淮地区徐州农业科学研究所(江苏徐州甘薯研究中心) A kind of method that apple dwarf is integrally bred from root anvil seedlings fringe anvil
CN106550846B (en) * 2016-11-18 2019-05-21 江苏徐淮地区徐州农业科学研究所(江苏徐州甘薯研究中心) A kind of method that apple dwarf is integrally bred from root anvil seedlings fringe anvil
CN106818181A (en) * 2017-02-11 2017-06-13 廊坊市林业局工程项目管理中心 A kind of apple rootstock cuttage root-taking seedling method
CN107771602B (en) * 2017-09-29 2020-08-14 青岛农业大学 Three-section type 'winching method' apple dwarfing self-rooted seedling rapid breeding method
CN107771602A (en) * 2017-09-29 2018-03-09 青岛农业大学 A kind of three-stage ' strand hang method ' apple dwarf own-rooted tree fast breeding method
CN109845755A (en) * 2018-10-28 2019-06-07 陕西海棠生态农林股份有限公司 A kind of roundleaf Malus spectabilis cuttage medicament and cottage method
CN110710388A (en) * 2019-11-22 2020-01-21 新疆林业科学院 Efficient and rapid breeding method of viburnum opulus
CN111418367A (en) * 2020-05-13 2020-07-17 石家庄涵煦农业科技有限公司 Large-scale propagation method for dwarfing apples from rootstock SH38 or SH40
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